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17 Hd 




Kamc Population in 1755, in 

Coupar of Angus 

6 Prdlonpans 
'7 Cavers 

8 Polwarth 

9 Colvend and Southwick 

10 Buittle 

1 1 Cupar of Fife 
3 2 Lilli^leaf 

33 Edleftown 

14 Blair Gowric 

15 Cardrofs 

J 6 Shapinfhay 

17 Lufs 

18 Small Iflcs ^ - 
39 Botlikennar 

20 Whitburn 

21 Mcams 

22 Walb and Flota 

23 KUlcaman 

24 Boharm 

25 Killin . 

26 Arbuthnot 

27 Ttarreff 

28 Mortlach 

29 Forres 

30 Kenmore - 1 

31 Kinloch 

32 Infch 

33 Quecnsfcrry 

34 Ncfting 

35 Largs 

Carried over. 
























1 794- J 

1 100 








63 c 












tncrwfe. Dec. Pagff. 

















54 ^ 










J .-.. 

5086^ 9^i0\iy^6 

I • 















No. Name* Population 

Brought iTTcr^ 

36 Letliendy 

37 Balfron • 

38 Ely . .• 

39 ILilmanivaig 

40 Auchtergaven 

41 Mochruix) 
Tynningham and 

** Whitckirk 

43 Glaflerton 

44 Tibbermuir 


fopulir&Hiin 1755, 

Increafein 1794-6^ 

in tfsS 


























t»«c. Ptgt. 








The View of the Harbour of Cana to face page 272. 


O F 




(CounTiss OF Perth and Forfar. — Presbytery of 
Meigle* — Synod of Angos and Mearns.) 

Bj Mr John Ritchie Student in Divtnity at Markinch. 

Stuathn and EKtent. 

TH E parilh of Coupar lies towards the center of the 
fpacious valley of Strathmore. Though defigned of 
Amgus^ the greateft part of it is fituated in the county of Perth. 
The diftance from the latter is 12 miles, and from Dundee 
nearly the fame. The river Ifla is its northern boundary. 
The length of the pariOi is about 5 miles, in the direAion of 
S. W. and N. E. The breadth is from 1 to ^ miles. Kin^ 
licb and Batmyle^ formerly belonged to this parifh, but are 
now annexed to that of Meigle. 
. Vol. XVII. A Surface 

2 Statijlical Account 

Surface and Soil, — ^Thc parifli is divided, length-Ways, by 2 
rid"gc or bank of confidcrabic height. The afcent of this 
bank from the fouth is cafy ; from the north it is deeper. 
Contiguous, on the north fide, lie the Haughs of Ifla, con- 
taining upwards of 600 acres of a ftrong clayey foil. Thefc 
haughs produce excellent crops of corn and grafs. It fre- 
quently happens, that, after northerly rains, the Ifla is fwell- 
ed to fuch a degree, as to lay the adjacent banks and haughs 
under water to a great extent ^ and, in time of harveft, thefe 
inundations have been known to carry off large quantities of 
com. Wherever the ground is elevated in any degree, the 
foil is light and gravelly j in the low grounds the foil is either 
of a clayey or loamy nature. The Watton Mire is a common 
of conCderable magnitude, containing nearly 200 acres. The 
people of the pariih were wont to repair thither for turf and 
fods, which they ufed in part as feuel. It is now totally ufe- 
lefs in this refpeA. Several overtures have been made to 
have this common partitioned among the heritors, but none 
have yet fucceeded. Were it drained, and fiieltered with 
planting, it might turn to advantage. It now prefents a 
bleak and barren appearance in the heart of a rich corn 
country. The only plantation ground is in the weft end 
of the^parifh, containing from 50 to 100 acres of common 
fir, the property of Lord Privy.Seal. In many places of the 
parifh and country adjacent, we meet with a red earth of a 
clayey unftuous nature, commonly called mortar^ and fome- 
trmes ufed in building. It is found a few inches below the 
furface, and reaches to a confidcrabic depth. Below this ftra- 
tum of red earth is found a foft ftonc of the fame colour, 
which is, evidently, the fame earth in a confolidated form. 

jigHcullure, — ^The lands are now generally inclofed with 
thorn hedges. Formerly, the diftin£tion between Outfield and 


(f Coupar of Angus, 3 

Jnfidi was conftantly obfcrvcd. The former was cropped al- 
ternately with oats and bear ; the latrer, after a few fucccffivc 
crops of oats, was fufFcred to lie out a number of years in lea. 
The run^rigg prevailed, too, in many places. The(c abfurd 
praAices are now worn out, and the modern improvements 
generally introdiKed. Ploughs drawn by cattle were former- 
ly ia ofe. Thefe are now fucceeded by ploughs with two 
horfes abreaft, where one man both holds and drives. 

Produce and Cattle, — Lir.t-feed is fown in cor.fiJerable (,juan-. 
titles \ and, when the ieafbns prove favourable it i'uccc^cus 
very well; the lippic of feed frequently givint» a ftone of drtf- 
fed flax. Half a century ago no wheat was railed in Coupar. 
The quantity is ftiil inconfiJerable, owing to the difliculry of 
procuring manure. No field beans are raifed. Oats, barley, 
and peafe, arc the grain in moft requeft. I he barley Is cither 
fold to the brewers in the town of Coupar, or carried to the 
neighbouring ports, where it is either malted or put on (hip- 
board. ' The other grain, made Into meal, generally finds a 
ready market in the populous villai»e of Coupar. The prices 
of the corn are the fame as in the neighbouring pariflies. The 
grafles fown are ryc-grafs and red clover. No h3y is made but 
for home confumption. A few acres are generally fallowed ia 
fuxnmer, and fields of turnips reared for the cattle agaiuil win* 
tcr. Each tenant brings up young cattle in proportion to the 
extent of his farm. Thefe he diri»ores of to drovers, or fjcK 
as keep grafs parks, who it^d them, and take them to Fal- 
kirk to meet the Englifh merchants. There are no (iieep 
kept in this didriA. Potatoes are raifed in lar[;c quanrities, 
and arc of great fcrvicc to the poor. It is not much above 20 
years, fince this ufcful root came into general ufe in this parifh. 

Leajes. — The farms are commonly let for a Urm of 19 years, 


4 Statijiical Account 

t period by tzv too fhort toroufe the exertion of the tenant, 
aad induce bioi to employ that labour and expence, in nielio- 
jrating the foiI| which he might have in his power. Proprie- 
tors of land, it is prefumedi would find it ultimately to the 
advantage of their eftates, did they give mdre fcope to the 
farmer, by granting him a leafe of triple the ordinary time. 
In fuch a cafe it might be ftipulated, toO| that the proprietor 
fliould receive a certain fum of money upon the expiration of 
an ordinary Icafc. At the commencement of the lateft Icafes 
the rents have been nearly doubled. The land, at an average, 
brings about i6s» per acre, though fome farms are let at above 
20 s. per acre. The number of acres in the whole pariib, by 
a gro& calculation, is about 2400, without including the com* 
mons} and the prefent rent is 22141. 

Ciimate^ Difeafes^ isfc. — Rjemarkable inftances of longevity 
have feldom occurred. A poor woman died a few years ago, 
who muft have been 116 years, from what (he remembered 
to have feen. The fituation of the pariih is healthy, there 
being no marfhy ground or ftagnant water, nor any thing to 
obftruft a free circulation of air. There are no difeafcs pe- 
culiar to the place. Nervous and hyftcrical diforders are faid 
to be much more common now than formerly, owing, with- 
out doubt, to the way of living, particularly to the more fre- 
quent ufe of fpiritous liquors and tea. The prejudices againft 
inoculation are far from being removed, efpecially among 
the poorer fort. 

Town, Roads, £5"^:.— Cou par is divided by a rivulet, which, 
turning the mills of Kethock^ with two others in its courfe, 
falls into the Ida *, about 5 miles to the weftward. The 


♦ The bridge over the Ifla, near Coupar, was built in i7^5* 


of Coupar of Angus. 5 

AUey^ %rkk that part of the totrn which lies on tht fouth of 
this rhrutet) falls within the county of Forfar. The reft of 
the town and parifh are in the county of Perth. The ftreett 
are paved, and have lately been provided with lamps. The 
town has received conOderable ornament, as well as advan- 
tage, from the excellent turnpike roads that have juft been 
£niflKd. The Perth road, from the weft, falls upon the crofir 
in a dircA line of about a mile ; with this the Dundee road, 
from theiouth, forms a right angle; and, when the latter is 
carried dirciitly through the town, tO the eaft, as is in con- 
tempiation, and the ground on each fide feued for building, 
the beauty wiU be nearly completed. Several good houfes 
have lately been butlt here. The fteeple #as built in 1762^ 
on the (pot where the prifon of the court of regality ftood. 
The view from the Beach Hi/If northward of the town, is fin* 
goUrly ikli^htful. Ihr eye contemplates the.meanders of the 
river lila, in its courfe through a fertile and extenfive plain ; 
and, on the other fide, a champaign open country, variegated 
with thriving villages and fruitful fields. There is a weekljr 
market on Thurfday, and fairs in April, May, July, and De- 
cember. Coupar is fuppofcd to have tripled the number of 
its inhabitants within the laft half century. This increafe is 
chiefly owing to the encoui^gement given to the mannfac*. 
tnring of linen in this part of the country, and partly to the 
monopolifing of forms, by whicji fmall tenants and trades 
people have been obliged to temove to manufaAuring towns. 

Fi///igeif Millst bV.— Next to Coupar, the greateft villagies 
are Balbrogie^ WeUton^ and Cadam j and the number of fami« 
lies in the largeft of thefe does not exceed 3^. There is fcarce- 

There is ik> bridge between jthat and Perth on the one fidCf nor 
between it and the bf idge ^tOfam ea the other. 

6 Siati^ical Account 

ly a garden in the pari(h that deferves the name ; culinary 
productions being more regarded than ornament or ele- 
gance. There are 2 rivulets and 5 mills ; i in Coupar« 3 in 
Eethock, and 1 in Balgirfho. 

ManufaHures* — There is a tannery in Coupar, which was 
built in 1781, wherein about 2600 hides of different kinds 
are drefled annually, and 90QO ftone of bark ufed. There is 
alfo a Terjr^confiderable linen manufacture *. In 1 792, there 
were flamped at the fiamp^office in this town, all manu&c- 
tured in the courfe of that year, and within the bounds of 
the parijfhi 97}8io yards of brown linen (in about 600 reed), 
and 116,793 yards of ^tfr/y« Both thefe kinds are fent to 
the Englifh market. The linen is whitened at the bleach- 
fields in the neighbourhood, is ufed for buckram and hat 
linings, and is worth about 9d. per yard. The harn is ufed 
for pack-fheet, and is worth about 5 d. per yard. There is 
but one bleachfield in the parifli, viz. that at Balgirfho, at 
which there are annually whitened about 200,000 yards. The 
number laft year (1793) was only 90,000 yards. There are 
4 whiiky ftills in the parifli, 3 of 40 gallons, and 1 of 30, 

Population.^^Tht population of this parifh has increafed 
confiderably within thefe 40 years, as will appear from the 
follbwing Table : 


* The introduction of the linen manufaAore, into this parifh 
and neighbourhood^ was principally owing to George Young, 
late a merchant in this town, a man of an uncommoa capacity 
for budnefs and improvements. This man found means, by 
petitioning the Board of Truftees for the Forfeited EAates of 
Scotland, to procure a furvey, and eftimate of expence, for a 
Canal between PsarH and Forfar by thib place. The plan 
was formed on a fcale too expenfive/or the (late of the country 
at that time, and was confeqnently dropt« 

rf Cotipar (fAngut. 


Population in 1793 ..... 2076 

Ditto in 1755 - • . - i^pf 


Annual average of births 
Ditto of marriages 
Ditto of burials 

- - 60 

Females* Total* 
214 396 


Number of fouls under 10 years old 182 

between 10 and 20 . 192 179 371 

■ 20 and 30 - 212 216 428 

30 and 40 - 162 201 363 

. 40 and 50 • 118 113 231 

i 50 and 60 - 66 87 153 

. ' 60 and 70 - 54 55 109 

■ 70 and 80 - 7 14 21 

■ 80 and 90 • ^39 

in the town of C!oupar 

in the country 

> unmarried perfons 
widowers and widows 

fervants • - - 

journeymen and apprentices 

999 1082 2081 
753 851 1604 

246 231 477 

57 70 127 

40 67 107 

213 268 481 

94 126 220 

. . s8 


• A man fcrrant's yearly wages are from 9 1. to 1 1 1. ; a wo- 
man fervant's from 3L to 4I. ; i pound (aa oz.) butter^ 9d« 
Beef fells at from 5 d. to 4d. per pound ; a good hen from i s. 
to I s. 6 d. A mafon's wages are i s. 6 d. per day { a taylor's 
lod. ; a man's hire for the harveft 1 1.' los. ; a woman's ditto 
1 1. ; a labourer's wages per day, with viduals, i s. In general, 
the price of erery thing is raifed one third within thefe laft 40 


Stati/Hcal Amunt 

Number of fiimiiies 

in Conpar 

• • • 


: country 

^ • • 







Miaifier . 










Carriers to Dundee and 







Ditto to Edinburgh 












Milliners and Sempftreflcs 7 























Farmers » » 




Mafons \ - 


Mafter ihoemakers 




Journeymen & apprentices 





Excife officers 






Rinty Heritors^ Churchy Poor^ (sfc. — ^Thc valued rent of the 
parifh is 666g 1. 14 s. 4 d- Scotch. The number of heritors 
is 35. The chief proprietor is the Earl of Murrat. The 
Crown is patron. ' The ftipend is 500 merks Scotch, and 6 
chalders of vi£lual| with 9U allowance for the communion de* 
ments. The glebe is incon£derab!e« The manfe was built 
anew in 1781. The church was repaired in i78o.-**Ther6 
9ce at prdent 24 perfoas 00 tEe poors lift, who are fupport* 


ed by the colleAions at the church doors. The colIeAions^ 
at a oiedium, including mort- cloth fees^ and dues for maf-i 
riagcs, amount to about 56 1. per annum. The poor^s money 
is diftributed to them monthly, and they arc allowed from 
2 s. to 5 s. at a time. There is an Antiburgher and a Relief 
meeting- hourc in Coupar. The latter was built in 1792. They 
are both well fiUedi but chiefly from the neighbouring pa- 

ScbooL — The fchool was rebuilt in 1792, and is large and 
well lighted. The average number of fcholars is about 60. 
The mafter is in a valetudinary ftate, and the fchool is taught 
by an affiftant. Englifh is taught for is. 6 d« writing and 
arithmetic at 2 s. 6 d. and Latin at 3 s. per quarter. The 
falary is 1 1 1. 2 s. i /, d* Sterling. Sir John Sinclair, or any 
other public fpirited gentlemen conncAed with Parliament, 
who have the intercft of their country at heart, muft be con- 
vinced c^ the neceility of adopting fome plan, to put the pa- 
rochial teachers in Scotland on a more rcfpedlable footing. 
Their Ctuation, at prcfent, is not equal, in point of emo- 
lument, on an average, to that of the meanefl mechanic or 
day labourer. 

Difadvantages. — The fcarcity offuel^ and the great diftancc 
from any fca-port, are inconvcnicncies fcvcrcly felt by the in- 
- habitants of this diftri^. The mofics, the nearefl of which 
is 6 miles diflant, are either totally exhaufted, or reflrifled 
to the tenants of the ground. To have coals from Perth or 
Dundee is found, therefore, to be the cheapeft expedient. 
Thefe, confideriqg the diAance they have to be driven, and 
the high expenccs of carriage, prove very expenfive to the 
poor tradefman. Much, too, of the farmer's time, that would 
have been laid out in improving his farm^ is indifpeniibly loft 
Vol. XVII. B in 

lo Statijlical Account 

in procoriDg this ncccflary article of life. However, the ad- 
vantages refuhing from the excellent roads, that are nearly 
finiflied, will foon be felt by \\\c country at large. Some at- 
tempts have been made in this country to difcover coal, but 
they have all been abandoi^d without hope of fucceeding. 
Indeed, from the conflant appearances In the mofl favourable 
fltuationsy there is reafon to conclude, that, if coals are to be 
found, they muft lie at a very great depth. Without adding 
to what has been (aid of the praAicabiliry of a canal, in the 
StatiAical Account of Mcigle *» it may juft beobfervcd, that, 
by leadinjy a canal round the Linn of Campfey, and narrow- 
ing the Tay in fome places, that river might be made navi- 
gable a great way up. by means of horfes, and boats conftruc- 
ted on purpofe, at a fmall expence. 

jifitiquities^ l^fc — There are ftill vifible at Coupar the vef- 
tiges of a Roman camp f, laid to have been formed by the ar- 

• Sec Vol. T. No. LIH. 

t On the center of this camp, Malcolm IV. founded an 
Abbey for Ci{lert«an Monk', A. D. 1104, and endowed it with 
large revenues. This houfe was bounded by advice of the Ab- 
bot of Melrofs, who was of the fame order ; and it is faid the 
Monks were long remarkable for their piety and exemplary 
lives. From the pavement, and bafes of pillars, and fubterrane. 
ous paiTages that have been difcovered, this Abbey appears to 
have been a houfe of coniiderable magnitude. Next to the 
ScottiQi Kings, the HAvsof Erkol were tl)e principal bene- 
favors lo the Abbey of Coupar. The latter granted it the lands 
of Lidderpole, (everal acres of arable land on the banks of the 
Tay, and liberty of iifhing on that river. The Monks were al- 
lowed free paffage with their cattle over all the lands belonging 
to the houfe of Errol. Gilbbrt Hay, Cooftable of Scotland, 
granted them the patronage af the Church of Errol, and Chapel 
of Inchmartin, with all their pertinents and rightb. In return 
for thefe immunities, the houfe of Errol claimed the privilege 
•f burial ia the Abbey. The laft Ab\K>t of Coupar was Do* 


gf Catipar of Anguu 1 1 

tny of Ac&icoLA in his 7th expedition. It is nearly a regu- 
lar fqaare of 24 acres. Here the half of the Roman army 
are fbppofed to have encamped, while the other remained at 
Campmuir, a village near two miles S. W. from this place. 
There arc no vcftigcs of a Roman way, nor any Druid ical 
circle or cairn in the parifh *. The Beach Hill oppofite to 
Coopar, Stob'Crofs oppofite to Balbrogie^ and the TVitcb Know 
oppofite to Cronan, are evidently raifcd by art, though tradition 
is filent refpe£ling the caufe. On the fir(l of thefe a Roman 
nrn was found *, and it is faid, that juflice ufed to be adminif^ 
tered here, in ancient times, in the open air. The following 
names of places, in the vicinity of Coupar, are faid to be de* 


NALD Campbsli. of the family of Arotll. At the Reforma- 
tion, thi&man is faid to have divided, among 5 natur^il fons, ail 
of the pariih that belonged to the Abbey, viz. BalgeirOio, Ke- 
thock, Deiihead, Cfonan, and Arthurftone. Some time before 
the Reformation, this houfe began to fall into decay ; and, at 
laft, a number of furious retormers from Perth completed its 

* Lately, in digging at the weil end of the church, there 
were found upwards of a dozen of Aone cofHns. Some were 
formed of one entire ftone; others were made up of two pieces 
brought together in the middle. The infide imitated the fhapi*. 
of the human body, being wideft at the fhoulders, narroweii at 
the neck, and having the place for the head rounded, in fume 
there were found feveral Ikcletons in the mitnral pofitions, with 
layers of earth placed between them. The covers of moll of 
tJiefe coffins confided of feveral flatftones; but no date, or cha- 
ra^er of any kind, was obferved, whereby a conje<f)ure might 
have been formed of their age, or the peribus therein depofited. 
The cover of one was of an entire ftone, at the foot of which 
there was faintiv vilible fbme rude kind of ornament, and on the 
right fide a capital £ngli(h D was obfervable. One, being mea,. 
fured, was found to be 6 feet long within, 18 inches broad at 
the fhoulders, 1 1> inches wide at the icet, and 1 5 inches deep. 
One appeared to have been, originally, too narrow, as the fides 
thereof were widened, fecmingly to let down the arms of the 
corpfe. Several fmall figures, cut out of Itone, and rcprelenting 
ivaniors, have been alfo dug out from amon^ the rubb>ih. 

ifl SlatifiUal Account 

fcriptive of fome relation they bore to the Abbey of this 
place; Cowbyre^ Balgnrjbo^ Cottward, Cadam, Soutar^hw/es, 
Drink'JUlj Market-bill^ and Balbrogie. 

CharaBer^ is^c. — The iohibitants of this diftrift arc fober, 
frugali and induftrious. They are hofpitable and obliging to 
Arangers^ and charitable to the poor. In their dealings they 
are open, unfufpcfling, and finccre. Their ftature is of the 
middle fize, few exceeding 6 feet high ; and their general ap- 
pearance indicates ftrength and vigour. Their hair is gene« 
rally of a darkilh hue, though fome are to be fcen with yellow 
or flaxen locks. In the article of drefs, ezpence and finery 
are much more ftudicd than formerly. Not above 40 years 
agO) the broad blue bonneti with a coat of home manufac- 
ture, was univerfally worn by the men. The tartan plaid, 
applied dofely over a head drefs of lineni was in ufc among 
the women. At prefent, few fervant lads are to be feen at 
church without their coats of Englifh cloth, hats on their 
heads, and watches in their pockets. At the period juft re^ 
ferrcd to, a watch, an eight day clock, or a tea kettle, were 
fcarcely to be met with. At prefent, there are few houles 
without one or other of thefe articles ; perhaps one half of 
the families in the parilh are poflfcfled oi all of them« 


9f Kelim^ i^ 



(County of Forfir — Synod of Angus and M£arns. 
— Presbytery of Meigle.) 

By Mr John Ritchie, Student in Divinity at Martinet* 

Extent f Situation, an J Roads* 

THE length of the parifh of KettIMs^ from E. to W. 
is 4 miles ; the breadth, from S. to N. is 3. The 
Tillage of Kettins is didaot from Perth about I2 miles £• by 
N. and about 14 N. W. from Dundee. The church is i 
mile S. E, of Coupar. The turnpike road, from the latter 
to Dundee, pafles through the parilh. It is not yet finiflied. 
A road extends to Perth along the foot of the Sidla hills, 
but is not frequented* 

Gentlemem Seats, Surface, ^c.^^Lintrofe, the feat of MuK- 
GO Murray, Efq; was formerly called Todderame, and be*' 

longed to Haliburton, Efq; whofe grand-father, 

Ix>rd Todderancs, was a Senator of the College of Ju(^ 
tice, and a nephew of the houfe of Pitcur. Lintrofe is a mile 
weft ward of the church, and is environed by fertile fields 
and thriving plantations. Haliburton Houfe, a modem man- 
fion, upwards of half a mile S. E. of Kettins, formerly the 
ordinary refidence of the family of that name, is now the 


14 Stati/iical Account 

property of Lord Aboyne *• It fiands in a plain, and is 
furrounded by ftately plantations* A detached part of the 
parifh, called Bandirratty lies about 6 miles S. W. and con- 
tains a gentleman's feat. The greateft part of the pariQi is 
leveli and incloicd With #edges of thorn, or fenced with 
ftone dykes. The fouth part gradually rifcs to the fummit 
of the S^dla hilk, and is partly covered with heath and paf^ 

VillageSy Rivulets^ and Mii/s.^^Ktitins has 7 villages be- 
longing to it^ and is itfelf the largeft. The vilbge of that 
name, where the church ftands, is pleafantly iltuated on a 
rivuleti which defcends from the Sidla hills, and palling 
through Coupar, lofes itfelf in the Ifla, near 5 miles W. of 
jThe latter town, after having turned 5 mills in its courfe. 
The number of rivulets within theiparifli is 2, and they 
ferve 10 mills. 

SoiL — The foil is various. A great part of the low parifli, 
the higher grounds chiefly, and the hill ground, have a light 
thin foil, and are partly covered with heath and pafture. In 
many places a Arong red clay or mortar prevails, and in 
fome it is wet and fpungy. The greater part of the parifh, 
however, is tolerably fertile. Much of this didrift is let to 
fmall tenants, who, befides farming, follow fome trades, 
chiefly that of weaving coarfe linen. 

Agriculture^ Produce^ Cattle^ Isfc. — ^The fame manner of 
• cropping 

• The family of HALiBvaron were very adlive in bringing 
about the Reformation of the Church of Scotland, and in the 
laft century had an extenfive property in this country. The 
Caftle of PiTCUR, a mile fouth of the church, and now in rutos^ 
gave title to the ancient and honourable family of Halibur. 
TON| the chief of that name. 

ef Kettins. 15 

croppmg and improvements^ that is followed in Coupar and 
the neighbouring pari(he8» is pra^fed here» and the produce 
is much in the fame proportion! Here, too, the fame di£- 
advaatagesy (carcity of firings and the diftance from lime and 
coaly operate as a check on the induftry and improvement of 
the farmer.*— There are a few (lealers in cattle in the pari(h» 
who keep grafs parks, and drive their fed cattle to Falkirk, 
or to England — There are now no (heep in the parifh. A 
few were kept to pafture on the hill of Peatie till lately. 

Rifit and Proprietor s.-^T\m valued rent of the parifli is 
51291. 16 s. 8 d. Scotch. The prefent rent is unknown. 
The land, at a medium, lets at 17 s. Sterling per acre. — The 
number of heritors is 8, whereof 7 are refident. Lord 
Aboyme is chief heritor. 

Ecclefiaftieal State — ^Thc Crown is patron. The ftipend 
was formerly 8 chalders 9 bolls 7 pecks of victual, but has 
been lately augmented. The church was built in 1768 *^ 
and repaired in 1791. The manfe was built from the foun- 
dation in 1792. The name of the prefent incumbent is 


Pcor and School. — The poors money, coUeAed at the church 
doors, together with a rent arifing from a mortification on 
land, amounts to 50 1. yeariy. The number of poor at pre- 
fent on the roll is 14. The fchool houfe was repaired in 
1782. The falary was augmented in 1790, by a decreet of 


• The church of Kettihs anciently had fix chapels depen- 
dini? on it, viz. one at a village called Peatie^ another ac SotUb 
Coflony a third at PiUur, a fourth at Muiryfaulds^ a fifth at Den-^ 
heod^ and a fixth on the fouth fide of the village of Kcttins. 
Moft of thcfc were within fmall inclofurcs ufcd as burying 


1 5 Stati fiscal Account 

the Commii&oiiers of Supplj. It was formerlj loo 1. Scotch. 
The prerent fchoolmafter has taught with reputation a good 
number of years^ and has, with his fmall emolumentg, 
brought up a numerous family. 

Population. — ^The population of Kcttins has varied at dif- 
ferent periods, as will appear from the following table : 

Statistical Table of the Parish of Kettins. 

In 1726, the number of examinable perfons above 12 

years of age, was • • - - - i loo 

To which may be added, for thofc under that age, at 

leaft - - - - '- 300 

In i7SJi the return to Dr Webfter was - - 1475 


Increafe in 30 years 75 

In I793> the total number of inhabitants was only 1 100 

Decreafe in 38 years 375 

Total number of baptifms, from 172a to 1726, indu- 

fivc - - - - - 450 

Annual average of ditto during that period - 90 

Ditto of ditto, from 1751 to 1755, inclufive - 4^ 

Ditto of burials, during that period - - 40 

Ditto of ditto, from 1787 to 1791, inclufivef, 33 


* The regifter of births and marriages has not been regular. 
)y kept for fome years pad. There are no feflion recoid^ prior 
CO the 9th of Augud 1650.— A record of that date mentions 
two Urk-feflion regifters before that period. 

f There is nothing remarkable in the proportion of males 
and femadesy nor in the prices of labour, or of the necc^ries 
•f life; in this diftn<^y different from thofe of Coupar. 

iff Kttiins. 17 

Families in the parifli 




Families in Kettins 




Roman Catholic ditto 







- >3 



Sieve- makers • 


JBachelors - • - 




Unmarried women 















- 2 




- 3 



Public houfes 


BUachfiilds^ Longevity^ isfc, — ^Thcre are 3 bleach fields in 
the pariih, Borland^ Ba/dwnU, and Kiri--/feps, The two firft 
whiten aonaally ioo»ooo yards, the laft about 3o>coo yards. 
—Few very remarkable inftanccs of longevity have occurred 
within the recolleAion of the inhabitants, though to hear of 
people dying at the advanced age of 90 and upwards is not 
uncommon. There was a man alive lafl autumn (1793) at 
the age of io6» There are no epidemic difeafcs peculiar to 
this {firiOi. Inoculation for the fmall-pox is by no means 
general, efpecially among the lower clafles. 

jfntiquifiej.-^Thcrc are no Roman ways, nor Druidical 

circles in the pariih *. At Camf-muir, a village belonging to 

Vol. XVII. C Kettins, 

. * Some tumuli have lately been found in this parifhi when 
digging materials for the turnpike road : One at Pitcur con- 
tained at lead 1000 load of ftones. In the center of this cairn, 
a few flat unwrought ilones, and without date or charadters, 
contained fome human bones. A cairn of a very fmail fize was 
fonnd a mile farther fouth on the new line of road» and fcarce 
diilinguiihable from the pafture around. In the center, an ura 
was fonnd full of bones« 

1 8 Statijiical Accmmt 

Kettins, and upwards of a mile N. W. o^ the church, there 
are dill vifible the outlines of a camp, fuppofed to be Ro- 
man, as noticed in the account of Coupar. At BaldowFie 
there is an ere6t DaniQi monument, 6 feet high. It contains 
fome figures, but they are almoft entirely defaced,— .The 
Oaftle of Dores ftood on the fummit of the hill % fouth 
from Pitcur. Tradition reports it to have been fome time 
the refidcnce of Macbeth. The following names are 
doubtlefs of Celtic derivation : BaliUwrifj BaUinnie^ BalunUy 
BaigovCf and Airdlair* 

* On this hill, great quantities of aflies are faid to have been 
difcovered. From this circumftance, it is concluded to have 
been one of thofe hills, where fires ufed to be kindled in antient 
times, to alarm the country on the approach of an enemy. On 
the eail quaner of this hill, and dpfely by the fide of the new 
road, the workmen quarrying ftones came upon an excavation 
in the folid rock, in which they found (bme half confumed 
bones of a foft confifttnce. The hole was about 5 feet wide. 
either way, and feemed to dire^ its courfe towards the foutlu - 
There was no entrance from above obferved, for at leaft half 
a mile in any dire^ion from this place. 


rft^aii^m^ 19 



(County and Presbytery of Caithness. — Synod ok 
Caithness and Sutheri^and). 

By the Rev. Mr Rosrrt Gun, Minjfiir. 

Name, EreSion^ and ExtenU 

•TpHE antient name isLoinn, derived from Luidhoin^ which 
^ fignifies, in the Eric, or Gaelic, lodged or bedded tear, 
liecaofe the lands contiguous to the church are of a good 
quality, and yield excellent bear. The modern or Englifli 
name is Latberm. — ^The parith was formerly divided into two 
pariifaes at leaft, if not more. In the title-deeds of Borg, a 
part of the efiate of Dunbeath, it is defigned the town and 
lands of Nether Borg, lying in the pari(h of Dunbeath, and 
{hire of Invemefs *• — ^The parifli is 27 miles in length along 
the fea coft, and from 10 to 15 miles in breadth in difTerent 

Roads. — The principal, or only proper road from the 
fouth to Caithnefs and Orkney, along the Ord of Caithnefs, 


• In the hiftory of the wars in Scotland, there, is mention 
.made, that, in coniequence of fome diflenfions between the 
Eails of Sutherland and Caithness, the ibrmer fent 200 
men into Caithnefs in February 1588, who over-ran ihe pari- 
ikes of Dunbesuh and Latheron in a hoilile manner. 

ao Siaiijlical Account 

which divides Caithoefs from Sutherland) pailes through this 
parifli. This road, wh^n it comes within a mile of .the mi- 
nifter's houfe, divides itfelf into two roads, the one paffing 
along the fea-fide to Wick, and the other croiling the coun- 
try by the Caufaymire towards Thurfo. 

Surfaciy Hills, Sea Codfi^ Soil, fe'r.— The appearance of 
the parifli is diverfified, partly flat and partly hiliy^ or moun- 
tabous. — ^The coaft is bold and rocky, riling perpendicular, 
in nuny parts loo yards and upwards, above the level of the 
fea. — There are immenfe tca£ls of mofs and muir ground.^^ 
There are three large hills or mountains (befides many fmal- 
ler ones), Morvine, Scarabine, and Maiden^Paf, The top of 
Morvine is fuppofed to be more than a mile above the level 
of the fea. With a clear Iky, one will fee from it a part of 
lo.or 1 a different (hires. There is a fine fpring near the 
top of it.— The coaft is interfcfted by feveral ftraths, on wa- 
ters running from the hilly part of the parifli towards the 
fea. The ftraths are furrounded with hills or high lands, 
which are covered with heath or pafture, interfperfed with a 
little brufliwood. The foil in general is fliarp, in fome parts 
a flrong rich clay, in others inclining to grit, or gravel, but 
in moft parts interfperfed with maifes of detached rocks, and 
loofe ftones, the naked rock appearing often in the arable 
lands. The cultivated lands are generally ftiallow, yet pro- 
ductive of pretty heavy crops. What is not cultivated has 
in general a poor appearance, excepting the pafture and 
woodlands in the different ftraths. 

Climate f Difeafes, and Longevity, — The climate in general 
is dry and healthy.— The moft prevalent difcafcs are fevers^ 
fluxes, and rheumatifms. Fluxes were very prevalent among 
the common people in 1782 and 1783, owing, it is fuppofed, 


^ of Laiherwu at 

to the un&votiraUe fcafons, and the corns being daofiaged. 
Why rhettmatifiiM are much more frequent among the coun- 
try people now than formerly^ no other caufes can be affign- 
ed, than the immoderate ufe of fpirituous liquors, and that 
they now wear linen next their ikin, inftead of a coarfe kind 
of woollen ftuff of their own makings which they formerly 
nfed to' wear. Severals have died lately about 90 years of 
age; one man in particular, Hbnrt Christian in Lyb. 
fier, died in 17S6, who coald not be lefs than from 110 to 
120 years of age, by his own account. He was confidered 
as an old man in the infancy of the oldeft people alive in his 

Mifural Springs^ Rivers^ Laiesj CsV.— There are many 
Iprings in the parifh flightly impregnated with' iron, though 
none of any great importance.— There are three fmall rivers^ 
Dsaiieatb, Langwail^ and BerrindaU. The two laft join with- 
in 100 yards of the fea. In thefe rivers are caught falmon 
and troutSa — There are two fmall hkts^Rangaznd Stetnpjler^ 
where trouts and eels are found. In the fide of the former^ 
there are the ruins of a fmall fortification, and contiguous 
to the latter, the remains of a Druidical temple, and the 
arch-druid's houfe. 

Fifberies. — ^There are no fewer than 20 different fpecies of 
fiih cac^t on this coaft. fiefides the various kinds of fifh 
coafumed by the inhabitants, fuch as turbot, fkate, haddocks, 
whitings, cuddings, fellags, dog-fi(h, mackerels, flotinders, 
&c* there are three filhings carried on for exportation, the 
cod and ling, the herring, and the lobfter. The cod fifhing 
has been carried on for many years. The fiations are Dun- 
beath, Toifc, and Clyth. The herring fifhing was only at- 
tempted within thefe four years, and promifes to be fuccefs'* 


as Staiiftkal Mcmnt 

ftiL The fiations are Donbeatfa and Clytli. It is commonly 
about the beginning or middle of July, before they appear 
ift fudi flioab as to induce the fiflrcrmen to (hoot their nets. 
This fiihing continues to the beginniogi or even the middle of 
September. The lobfter fifhing only commenced laft fpring, 
(1793)1 and fuch numbers do they catch, that many of them 
die before the fmacks take them awayi the chefts being fe 
folL The Rations are Dunbeath and Lybfter. Two Eng- 
liih companies have font boats and crews to fi(h this Icaibn. 
The inhabitants propofe to carry on the lobfter fifhing a- 
gainft next feafon. Theie companies have a concern in the 
cod and herring fiiheries. There are from 40 to 50 boats 
of different fizes in the parifii. 

Prepo/id Harbours, tbr«— 4n order to improve the fiiheries 
on this coaft^ nothing would Ix of greater importance than 
having two or three good harbours. Dunbeath and Lybfter 
leem to be the places beft calculated for (his purpofe. Some- 
thing might alio be done at Clyth and Berrindale, at a mo- 
derate ezpence. It would likewife be of advantage to get fbme 
fiOiermen to fettle from other parts, and to have the preient 
filhers confined to a houfe and garden, infiead of labouring 
fmall tacks, as they do at prefent, which makes the fi(hing 
but a fecondary confideration with them. 

Population^' — As the records have not been regularly kept, 
the antient ftate of the population cannot be precifely afcer- 
tained. This much, however, is pretty certain, that there 
are nearly double the namber of inhabitants now, that there 
were about 70 years p.go, when Mr Andrew Sutherland, the 
then incumbent, obtained an augmentation to his living. 


4 Uuberotu %% 

PoPBLATiON Table of the Parish of Latheuon. 

Nunber of malts in 1 7^1 - .1 74a 

■ Females - - 2264 

Total number of Souls . • 4006 

Ditto in 17551 as returned to Dr Wcbftcr 3675 

Increafe 331 

Number of famtlka ^ - « 796 

Average of bapiifoM ^ ^ • loi 

Ditto of marriagei * - - - a 3 

Perfons below 10 years of age - - 104a 

■ between 10 and ao - - 645 

„ — ■ ao and 50 - • 1 744 

_ ■■ 50 and 60 • - 424 

— —— aged 60 and upwards - - 151 


Number of refident heritors . . 4 

........ noB-refident ditto - - 4 

Families of Sccedcrs (Antiburghers) - 20 

Dkto of Roman Catholics • - i 

Dumber of weavers f - - • 20 

«■ Shoemakers - - - 15 

-,^. .. Taylors - - - 16 

,., Wrig^l* - - - 4 

.^. Mafons - - - - 7 

Smiths - - - - 6 

, - ■ Shop-keepers - - - . 4 


• The nmnber of deaths cannot be afeertsmiedrr a* thc»e ars 
8 differfBt bwW ctacea m the psM^. 

t Moft of the tradefmen have final! tacks of land, a the cnl' 
liTatipn of which a good deal of their time is taken up. 

14 Statytical Account 

Number of Inn^keepcrs and whiiky fellers^ - 30 
■■■■ Men fervants - - - 114 

■ Women ditto - - - 223 

Church. — ^The preient incumbent was fettled in September 
1775. The fiipend has been lately augmented, and now a- 
mounts to 1000 merks Scotch, befides 60 1. Scotch for com- 
munion elements, and 6 chalders of victual, half meal half 
bear. There is alfo a glebe confifting of 6 acres arable 
ground, and fome gcafs. Both church and manfe were 
built about 60 years ago. They were repaired foon after the 
prefent incumbent's admiffion. They are at prefent under- 
going a trifling reparation.*— Miis Scot of Scotfiarvet is pa- 
tron. — ^There is a mifBonary at prefent employed, between 
the extremities of this pariflb and the pariOi of Halkirk, 
who is principally fupported by the people who have the be- 
nefit of hearing him. — Excepting the few families above 
mentioned; all the inhabitants belong to the eftabliflied 

Schools. — ^There is a parochial fchool. The mafter^s falary is 
100 merks Scotch, with 20 1. Scotch for officiating as feffion 
clerk and precentor. He has alfo 6 d. for every baptifm^ 
6 d.. for each certificate, and is. 7 d. each for marriages. 
—There are 2 fchools eftablifhed here by the Society* for 
Propagating Chriftian Knowledge. There stre 3 or 4 other 
fchools in diftant parts of the parlih, fupported by the inha«* 

Poor. — The number of perfons commonly on the poor's 
roll is from. 70 to 8o. — The only funds are the Sunday col- 
leftions, and the fines paid by delinquents ; the former is ve* 
ly triflingi being fcarcely 3 L Sterling. The confequence is. 

ilnl fixhof themas are Me to walk aboiit, go from door to 
dott, not oaly within the bounds of the parifh where they re^ 
fid^ bot alfo in the neighbouring parifbet. Two caafes may 
be affigaed for the collcaions being fo faiall, namely, too great 
a difregard to public worihip among thofc of a fuperkr Jh^ 

4«% and the poverty of the common claflb^ together wirb 

their boing too fond of drinking wluiky* 

Awl. — The teal k^ent li about 1900 1. Sterling. The^ 
bed rentj in Scotch money, is 3940 1. 14 s. 5 d« 

Jgrioikuri and Product.-^There is a good deal of grain 
raifed in, and exported from this parifli. --There are three 
kmdsof oats, white, Wack, and grey, befides beans, potatoes, 
and peafe.— Sowing of grafs and turnips is only in its infancy. 
Thb is no doubt partly owing to the ihortnefi of the kafea, 
«nd partly to the want of mdolures. The /cod time com- 
mences commonly abont the end of March,^ oj^^inning of 
Aprils and the harvcft about the beginning^ September. 
The crops on fome of the ftrath grounds, 3i^;^^diftance from* 
the fea, are very apt to be hurt by frofts,^|iiafting, or miklcwv 
particttbrly on the HighUnd eftatc of4Sraemore. The in- 
habitants in thefe parts fuflfered ;Mry much in 1782 and 
1754. The common mode of farming among the tenantry 
Is to fow bear and oats alternately, excepting what ground 
they lay down with potatoes. If the land in this parifh had 
the fame jufticc done to it, which other parts have, by be, 
ipg refted, and raifing green crops, there is no doubt that it 
would yield as luxuriant crops as moft parts of Scotland* 
Bat the cattle betqg fmaU, little is dooc by the plough. They 
go lour a-hreaft, and the driver goes backward, with his face 
to the ploughman and the cattle. 

)xS Staiijiical Acdpuni 

' Cattle^ Cs'r.— In the Highland part of the parifli the cattlef 
are fmall and hardy \ there is^ much room for the improT^' 
.ment o\ them. The (heep and horfes are alfo of a fmail 
kind, excepting ^r John Sinclair's flock at LangwalU 

Number of black cattle in the parifli - - 4055 

Sheep, cxclufive of Sir John Sinclair's 
flock .... 2555 

Sir John Sinclair's flock of Cheviot Qiecp aaeo 

■ Houfes .... i4j^ 

——Ploughs . . • - 343 

— .^ Carts . • - - - ^45 

Prices, of Labour and Frowjions. — Thefe two articles arc 
greatly increafed of late years. A day. labourer gets from 
8 d. to I s. a day ; women 4 d. and 5 d. Men fervants from 
, 3 U to 4 U befides 6 bolls of meal, or their maintenance in 
the houfe ; women fervants, befides maintenance, receive 
from 30 s. to 40 s. a year.— ^Pork and mutton fell commonly 
at 3 d. the pound, and even beef in fome feafont of the year. 
There is no market ih the parifli, nor any one nearer than 
20 or 30 mi)es. The gentlemen, for the moft part, muft 
therefore kill for their own ufe. 

jrrvfiv/.— It were greatly to be wiflxed that fervices were 
entirely abolLOied, as they are much againft induftry and 
improvement. However, according to the prefent mode of 
farming, fome ibrt of fervices may be abfolutely seceflary. 
Although unlimited fervices are wearing ont*by degrees, yet 
they are ftlU continued m fundry refpefts, which is both fla« 
- vifli and detrimental to the tenants* They have a tendencj 
to hurt their morals^ as well as to hinder induftry and im» 


of LMberon^ ^j 

jifUs^iatia.-^Thtrt are feveral old cafilet along tlus coaft, 
at Bnrindait *» Dunbeath^ ({lill inhabited}) Knadtinmn^ La^ 


* According to tradition, William Sutherland was the 
JaA who poffefled the cadle of Berrindale. He was called Wil« 
tiAM More Maccehim, /. e» Big William, the fonof Hector, 
implying that he was of a gigantic fize. He went to Orkney 
with one of the Earls of Caithness, and wa» killed in a ikir. 
milh there. Before he fet out on this expedition, it is faid he 
was prepofTefled with the opinion, that be never would return 
to his native country. He Jay down on the ground above Ber. 
rindale inn, contiguous to the burial place, and caufed the 
length of his body to be cut out in thf form of a gr^ive, wh«ch 
to this day retains the name of the long grave^ and meafures 
about 9 feet 5 inches. 

The following Memoir re/pe^ing the gigantic Will^am^ 
grand/on to Hector More of, Lancwell, has 
been communicated by another hand* 

About the end of the 15th century, Hfctor Sutherland, 
commonly called Hector More, or Meikie HcOor^ wasproprie-P 
tor of the eftate of Lakgwell. He was deicended of the fa* 
roily of DuFFus, and refided in a caftle on the rock at the wa« 
tcT mouth of Berrydale, the ruins of which arc ftill vifiblc He 
built a houfe at Langwell, for his eldeft fon William, who mar* 
ried a beautiful woman, ^d refided there. — Some little time 
afterwards^ William's wife was in child bed of her firft child, 
and Robert Gun, t^kfman of Braemore, came over the hills to 
Langwell, accompanied by fome of his clan, on a hunting par- 
ty. Robert Gun propofed to his friends, that they would pay 
a viiit to Hedlor More's fon, and his young wife, which they 
accordingly did. Robert Gun, upon feeing the woman in bed, 
fancied her. Upon their way home, Gun declared to his com- 
panions, that be would have William Sutherland's wife to him- 
felf, and that the only means by which he could accomplifh his 
deHgn, was to take away her hufband's life. His friends, whofe 
confciences were not more firait laced than his own, \\xs'\xi^ ap- 
proyed of his intention, they accompanied him the nrzt day 
over the hills, and lay in ambufh in the woods near William 
Sutberiand't houfC| until they oblerved him come out to his 


ftft StafiftM Acemni 

tJUfmt^ B0tfs^ Swimue, and Qpb. Thde were fbcws ^ 
fivaigth in the days of rapine and violence. Aloft of thefii 


gatden, vrben Robert Gun ibot him with an arrow frotti his 
bow.*-*Thej went immediatelj into his houfe» took hU wife oat' 
of bed) and carried her and her infant child in a large ba&ec 
they had prepared for that purpofe, to Bracmore, where Gnn 
refided How foon the mother recovered, (he was reconciled 
to Robert Gun» notwithftanding of hiv murdering her hufband* 
She begged of him to call her infant Ton William, after his de« 
ceafed fatheri though (he knew» had her hufband been alive» he 
would have named him Hictor, after his own father Heflor 
More. Robert Gun held the lands of Braemore of the Earl 
of Caithnefs in tack, but he wonld pay no rent so his Lordfhipb 
After being much in arrears to the EarU his Lordfliip fent John . 
Sinclair of Stircock, with a party of men under arms, to ^ 
compel Gun to make payment ; but Gun convened his clan^ 
and they defeated John Sinclair with his party» Several were 
killed) and John Sinclair was wounded in the engagement* 
This (hews that Robert Gun was both a tyrant and an ufurpcr. 
Young William's mother lived the remainder of her life with 
Robert Gun« and had two fons by him — After thefe fons had 
arrived at maturity, young William and they went one day a 
hunting ; and William, being more fuccefsful than the other two, 
killed a roe, which he deHred his two brothers to carry home. 
They objeded to this drudgery, and faid th^t he might carry 
home his own prey himfelf* Bot William, who by this time 
had heard of his father's tragical end, told them, with a me*- 
nacinff afped, thaty if they would not carry home the roe, he 
would revenge fome of their father's anions upon them, which 
intimidated them greatly, (though they were ignorant of the 
caufe of his threatening), as they knew he had more peHbnal 
iElrength than them both, he bein^ (hen about 9 feet high, and 
ftont in proportion ; they accordmgly carried home the roe, 
mn^ totd their mother that William had threatened them in 
fuch a manner. She communicated this circumilance to their 
father Robert Gnn, adding, that (he fufpeded William had 
heard of hjs father's death. Robert Gun being afraid of young 
William's perfonal ftrength, wilhed to be in friendfliip with hini^ 
and propofed that he (hould marry his (Gun's) fifter, who re. 
fided with them in the charader of a nouie-keeper. William 
did not reliih the match, and wonld not accept of her* Soon 
afterwards Robert Gun made a feaft at his hodfei whore he coi« 


caftles ftood on a hi^ rock above the Tea, mod cot oBF fron 
the land bj a deep ditch with a draw^iiridge. Part of tfao 


leded fereral of his friends, and by fome means or other goc 
yobng WiJJiam fo much iotoxicated, that he was carried to bcd» 
asd Robert Gun put his filler to bed with him.— When Wtl^ 
liam awakened next morning, he was ibrprifed .to find Gun's 
£fter in bed with him— She told him, he might recollect that 
the ceremonies of marriage paft bctwixc them the preceding 
evening, and that flie was now his lawful fpoufe. He got up 
in a paffioD, aod declared that r he was tmpofed upon, and that 
he would hold no fuch bargain. 

Robert Gun fljittered him, and £iid, that as he was now mar* 
ried to his lifter, he would make the match as agreeable to hiiB ' 
as poffible, by putting him iu polfedion of the eilate of Lang- *" 
well ; andy m order to accompiiih hi;> promife, he. with a fcw^ 
of his connexions, concealed th mielves near He6or Mo^^e^a 
catlle on the laid rock un:il early m the momiiig when the 
draw- bridge whs let down, they forced their way into the ca(^ 
tie, and carried Htftor More (who was then an old iecbic m.\n) 
onr of i:i3 caflle, and Uft him in a cot honfe in the neighbour. 
hood, where he remained f>^r lome little time, and afterwards 
went to SutlierlaiiJ, and p'^tlTcd the remainder of his days with 
one of hts relations, Su hcrland of Rearchar. 

Hobert Gun then rerun. ed in triumph to Braemorc, an^ 
cosdn6ed Willum Suthc^fiand and his tfpoufed wife to tha 
ikid cadle, and gave them alio prHViTion of the cftale of Lang- 
wctt^*— William beirg I'cry much dii&tisfied with Robert Guira " 
conduA^ and not liking the company ef his fifter as a fpoufe*' 
welitand complainev* of his j^nevanccs to the Earl of Caitb- 
neis, wbo prom-fed him redrefs a» foon as he returned from the 
Orkney^* where he was going to quell a rebellion, ^long with . 
the Baron of Rodin, and w«(hed that he, (William) being a very . 
ftouc man» would accompany him. William confented to do ' 
fo; and returned to Berrydate to bid his friends farewell before ;' 
he weald go on fo dangerous an expedition. Juft as he w^a ,' 
parting wtth them at the burial ground on the Breas« on tliue' 
eaft fide of the WHter of Berryc^ale, he told his friends that he*^ 
fuljpeded he never would return from Orkney ; he then laid ■ 
himfelf down on the heath near the faid hnrla] ground, and de- ' 
fired his companions to fix two Hones in the ground, the one at 
his head, and the other at his feet, in order to fhew copoderity 
his nacommon ftatnre j which ftonet remain there fiflly and thie 


'^m StaHjtieal Accotmi 

walls of the old cafile at Acbaijlat ftill renuuns entire *t ttid 
human bones are occafionally found in the ruins.-^Tbere are 
alfo the remains of many pi£tifh caftles to be found interfperf- 
ed throughout this pari(h» and likewife feveral arti6€ial 
cairns, fome of a fquare form, others circular* They are now 
covered with graft or heath. Some of them are fo high 


ezad diftance between them is 9 feet 5 inches. Tradition alfb 
mentions his height to haye been aboye 9 feet. He went with 
ImsA Caithnefs, &c. to the Orkneys, where he, as well as the 
£arl and his fon, were killed. This happened in the year 1530* 
The caufe of the faid rebellion was this : — In the year 1530, 
King James V. granted the iflands of Orkney to his natural 
brother James Earl of Murray^ and his heirs. male. Th|^ inha- 
bitants took umbrage that an oyer.lord (hould be interpofed 
between them and the foyer eign, and rofe in arms under tEe 
command of Sir James Sinclair of Sandy. Lord Sinclair Ba- 
TOn of Roflin, and ' Sinclair Earl of Caithne.fs» were fent 
with a party of men to quell the rebels ; but the Tflanders de- 
feated them, and the Earl with his fon, and William More Su. 
therland, who accompanied them, were killed. The Caithnefs 
men who furytved, carried back the Earl of Catthne(s's he^d, tob 
be interred in his Lordfhips burial place in Caithnefs. 

' * The old caftle at Achaifta! was built and pofleffed by John 
Beg, third fon to the Earl of Sutherland. In thofe times 
parties of. robbers or freebooters ufed to infeft this county. A 
party of thefe came to John Beg's houfe, and infifted that he 
ihould pay a certain fum in name of tribute to them, other- 
wife they would plunder his houfe, and carry away his cattle. 
John Bfg feemed very paffive to them, and entertained them 
very funrptuoufly, until he got them all intoxicated, by ftrong 
ale mixed with the juice of nightjhadey when he ordered thexn 
to be conveyed to the upper apartments of his caille. He then 
removed his family and furniture, and put thedi on board a 
^effel at the water mouth of Berrydale ; and hiving colleded 
a ^eat quantity of flraw and bruih-wood into the lower part 
of his houfe, he fet fire to it, which foon dellroyed the robbers, 
and confumed all the caftle, excepting a part of the walls. 
John Beg returned, with his family, to Sutherland. Tradition 
gives no account of the time in which thefe tranladions hap- 

gf LatherofU '^^ 

ilkUni thit a perfon of an ordinary fize may almoft fiand 
'«reft.* The walls are well built^ and covered with flags. 

Caves^ isfc. — A great many caves are to be met with on 
tUs coaftj ibme of which run: up fo far under ground^ that 
none have been able to get to the end of them. They af€ 
inhabited by vaft numbers of feals, many of which are kil- 
led by the inhabitants in the month of November, in their 
fubterraneous habitations. The employment^ however, is 
dangerous ; for (hould the wind blow hard from the iea^ 
t&efe adventurers are in danger of being loft. 

Aivatttagtt and Di/advantagei.'-^Thh pariih has feveral ad- 
vantages. The fea coaft, as has been obfervedi abounds with 
grteat variety of fifli. The prices of labour and provifions, 
although increafed of Ute years, are ftill reafonable in com^ 
' parifon of moft other parts of the kingdom. As an aA of 
F^liament has lately been obtained to convert the ftatute 
' labour into money, it is to be expected that good roads and 
bridges, of which there b much need, will be the happy con- 
fequence. The want of harbours is a very great dlfadvan- 
tage. There is not a proper one from Cromarty to Orkney • 
And the want of proper markets for the produAions of the' 
pariib h another. The fliortnefs of leafes, and the want of 
inclofures, are alfo great impediments to induftry and im- 
|)rovemcnts in agriculture.*— There are by far too many 
whiiky houfes b the pariih, which is a great incitement to 
the lower dafles of people, to hurt their health and morals, 
and to confome their time and fubftance. The want of 
jufiices of the peace is another great difadvantage. There 
Is onlj one gentleman who a£ls in that capacity, in this verj 
populous and extenilve pariih. The confcquence of this is. 
Chat the police is very much negleOed. If the cafe werfe 


3i Siatyikat Acima 

otherwiftt ^^7 grievances would be redreflad, tnd lEbw)^ 

' dffputes fettled, without going before the flieriff-court.-^ 

There 13 an old pra£licc» which ftill prerails in fome places^ 

4«nd whiek is very deirtmCBial to huflsandrj. It is commcm- 

ly termed rig and rennei. A number of tenants have the»r 

"^boilfes perhaps clofe to one another. Inftead of every one 

having his land in one pUce, it is fcattered here and there^ 

fevcral tenants having di^fisrent (hares in one fields or a rig a 

]riece akertiately. fiefides (topping the progrefs of improve- 

menc, wrangling and ftrife among neighbours, in fowing and 

!9ff fCiV^i^& ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ coofequences. If fome manufifiduret 

- v^were eftabli(hed on this exteniive and populous coaft, thej 

j!^! would be of great confequence to the inhabitants. If thej 

«*%! Anmk more beer, and lefs whiJky, it would contribute great* 

^^ 'fr H» their happine(s and comfort. Thefe, and fome other 

difadvantagesi under whirh the inhabitants labour, will no 

-'i'i 4oabt be refnedied in due time *• 

' * As the boundaries between Caithnefi and Sutherland lie 
in this parilhy it may not be improper to' give the folKiwing ac- 
count of them, as inferted in M^Farlanc's Geographical Collec* 
't!ons» (A. M. S. in the Advocates Library) vol. I p. 198, where 
there is a defcription of the pari(h of Latheron* 

** The hill of the Ord is that which divides Sutherland and 

«< Caithneff;. Ti^ march U a /mail rhuUt, calied the Bum rf the 

[ ^ Ord^ which takes its rife from (bme fprings near the top of 

' ;.*^ the hill. The fouth fide of the hill is tery Aeep, floptng all 

* < - '«v along to the top of a rock» which is many fathoms high* 

''^,'^Crbis the (bnth fide of this hiU is the conmion paflagc to and 

"''vif from ehb country. The road hath not been fo very dange- 

« rous as at firft view it would appear to the traveller, for the 

'^^_'«< whole face of the hill to the top of the rock has been covered 

T't;* # ^^g heatht fo that though a peifon's foot might flip, he was 

** not in great d^tnger ; but whether through moor burning, or 

'* fome other accident, it hath happened fome few years ago, 

^ that the heath was all burnt^ and now it looks more frightfol 

. ' M than formerly, but the road, by the pains of dir James Siix- 

^ dftir ot Puabcatbi is made fo broad that | hoties can eonTe- 

^ uiently 

gf Latbersiu 3d.a 

<< iileiitly ride it abreaft. jt iihk to the eafl rf the Bwm rf the 
« Ordf i^cb is the march^ there is a pleafant green moat* called 
«< the Danglafsy as high as the top of the rock. Since the 
«( heath was burnt, paffengers, who obferve, maj fee the Teftigea 
«< of a ditch, digged op trom the (aid Dun» all along the top 
<« of the rock, until it come to a bum» near the top oT the Ord» 
<< called Aultnuder, a fmall rivulet rifing from the moraflea 
^ about a mile above the top of the forc&id rock. The top of 
^( the Ord is large 9 miles (rf bad road to the foath.weft of the 
•* church/' 

This feems to put the matter beyond all doubt, in addttioa 
to which it may be obferred, that the mountain of the Old is 
esprefsly included in the charters of Langwell. 

The people of Sutherland are ready to acknowledge that the 
bum of the Ord is the boundary, but fome in the netghboor*!^ 
flood pretend, that they have acquired a fervitnde of commoa 
over the ground in the neighbourhood, though fituated in ihet 
county of Caithnefs. But it feems impoflible that charters^ r#. 
JtrUled U lands in the coussty of Sutherland^ can be the means of 
acquiring even a right of common, over lands in another coon- 
ty, that of Caithneft. 

The Bum of the Ord is ceruinly the natural dirifioa be* 
cween the two counties ; and until the roads were made, the 
cattle and (heep of Sutherland could hardly get into C>i>^neft 
at that place. 

When the roads were made, it was agreed by both parties to 
begin at the bum of the Ord, as the point of divifion b e t wec a 
the two counties. 

The point was incidentally decided at the Circuit Coort^ 
when the bridge was ordered to be boilt over the Bum of the 
I Ord, as being the boundary. 

Within thefe few years, Mr Howifim, who rcnu the kelp 
ihores on the eaft coaft of Sutherland, as is afferted on the an* 
thantf of Mr Gordon, late of Aufidale, quarrelled his men for 
going farther than the Bum of the Ord, being beyond their 
nght and privilege. 

Many old men now living can fofficiently prove the boanda* 
ry in qucftion« William Cuopbcll^ tetc of Aufdalci an old ] 
aboTe 80^ knew it well. 


rf JPencaHland. 33 



07 Lothian and Tweedalb. 
By the Rev. Mr Henrt SangsteRi Minjfter of Humhk. 

Form, Extent ^ River^ and Surface* 
T T i« nearly of the form of an oblong fquare^ extending a- 
-*■ boot 4 miles from E. to W, and 3 from S. to N. The 
river Tyne, running in a dire^ion from W* to E. divides it 
into 2 nearly equal parts^ which rife from it by a gradual and 
eafy afcent ; and the fouth, after rifing nearly to a level with 
the north part, flopes gently to the fmall rivulet of KInchey, 
which divides this from the pariih of Ormifton* 

Soiif Cultivation, and Produce. ^-^lYie foil in general is wet 
and clayey, and confequently not adapted for the turnip fyf- 
tem. The old Eaft Lothian mode of farming is to be met 
with here, and not the beft mode even cf it. Upon two 
{vn\s, indeed, where the foil is fit for raifiog turnips, that 
fyftem is adopted, and, in the execution of it, there appears 
a great degree of ikill and attention. One of them, poiTef- 
ied by Mr Alexander Wight, writer to the fignet, has 
exhibited, for fome years pa(V, a ftate of cultivation not fur- 
pafled, if equalled, in any part of this county. 

Vol. XVII. E F^rms 


34 Siatyiical Account 

Farms and Rents.^^laxiA lets from 1 2 $• to 36 s« per acre. 
The farms are of various fizes : They are not too large, nor 
are they of that diminutive ^ze, which » though it may give 
the appearance of population to a country, muft prevent the 
markets from being fupplied to that degree with grain, that 
is requifite for the iuccefs of manufafhires, and will always 
produce a difpirited and unikilful tenantry.* The valued rent 
is 65 19 1. 8 s. 4 d. Scotch. The may be fomewhat 
above 3000 1. Sterling. 

Minerals and Mineral Waters. — ^Free ftone is found in ma- 
ny places, and there are two quarries of it for falc. Coal 
abounds in this diftriA. It has hiUierto been dug only in 
two places. In the higher grounds ; the one on the fouth and 
the other on the north fide of the Tyne. From thefe pits 
coal is obtained for a great part of the fouth and eaft diftri^ts 
of this county, and a good deal is carried to Lauderdale. A 
pit has alfo been funk lately near the Tyne, and an engine i» 
ere£ling for clearing away the water, as the feam of the coal 
lies much deeper than the bed of the water. Lime*ftone 
may probably be found in many places \ kilns, however, are 
erected only upon the efiate of Fencaitland \ and fome idea 
may be formed of their extent, from the circomftance of 45 
cart-loads of coal, weighing each 15 cwt, being frequently 
ufed in the fpace of a week for burning the ftone. — There 
are feveral fprings of water of the mineral kind. They have 
never met with much attention from the public ; \spt are 
held in high eftimation by the common* people, for fcorbutic 

CUfnaU and Difeafes. — The air is more falulTrious than 
might be exp^ed in a fituation fb low, with the Tyne, a 
muddy flow running water, paiSng through the middle of it, 


of Pencaiiland. 35 

und many detached trees upon iti banks^ and in hedge-rows^ 
In general 'through the parifli. Local diftempers are un- 
known. After a late or wet harveft, putrid fe?ers» indeed^ 
are prevalent ; and in ihcfe cafes, the adminiftrators of the 
poor's funds give affiftance^ where it is neceflaryi with their 
nfual humanity furni(hing medicines^ and paying for the at- 
tendance of a furgeon. 

IFoM£r.— There are 155 acres of natural wood, confiding 
of oak and birch, and about 191 are planted with foreft 
XTcts» Sir Andrew Lauder has kept a regifter of the increaf- 
ed fize of a number of trees near his houfe, and intends to 
continue it. The following is an cxtraA from this regidcr : 

FeeU Inches* 
Girth of an elm *, In 1788, 3 feet above the 

ground - - - ^ 5 ^i 

Ditto of ditto, in 1793, - - 5 ii. 

Medium annual increafe * o i^ 

Girth of an oak*, in 1788, at the fame height, 3 6 

Dittoof ditto in 1793, " - 4 ^1 

Medium annual increafe • o i^| 

Around WtKtcn Hou/e f there are feveral uncommonly fine 
trees. Some beautiful artiBcial banks have alfo been formed 
near the houfe, at the time it was built i but the whole now, 
by being totally negleAed^ and though the fite of the houfe 


** Both thefe trees were 40 years old, and each of them in« 
creafed 2^ inches in one of thefe years. 

f This -was a fpacious building, ercAed in the year 1619 for 
Lady WiHTov, at the advice of a favourite of hers, an archi- 
ted, .when the Earl propofed to her the alternative of an addi* 
tion to her jotaturci or a houfe, and fhe chofe the latter. 


36 StatiJiUal Account 

is pleafanty has a Jitnbre appearance, and inftantly fills the 
mind of the fpeOator with the idea of the folly of engaging 
deeply in SiAion, whereby an eftate, (of which this is a part), 
more valuable and more commodious than any other of the 
fame fize in Scotland, was loft for ever to its owners. The 
young woods on the eftate of Fountainhail, it has been oh* 
i ferved, have of late fuffered much from fquirreb, which 

were introduced fome years ago at .Dalkeith, and have fpread 
to this neighbourhood. They have attacked the Scotch firs 
in the proportion of about i in 20, and almoft every larix 
and elm. Already many of each of them are killed. If the 
harm they do in other places be as great, and be progrefiive 
as they multiply, this intended improvement will be unfor« 

Population. — From the number of births regiftered during 
the laft 10 years, compared with a like period at any time 
fince 1750, it would appear that the population has been in* 
creafing in that degree which might be expected in a difiriQ 
like this, where the whole inhabitants are not employed in 
agriculture. This may be the more readily admitted as fuf- 
ficient evidence of the faA, that in the country pariihes, ma- 
ny of the common people, fince the date of the tax upon the 
regiftration of baptifms, do not regifter the births in their 
families ; a circumftance to be regretted, as it may, in the 
courfe of events, be attended with bad confequences to their 
pofterity. From various enumerations, however, taken at 
different periods, it is certain that the increafe has been by 
no means uniform, as will appear from the following table. 


Population Table of the Parish of Pekcait- 


Number of ibub, as returned to Dr Webfter in 1 755 910 
Bitto, as fiated in an accurate lill drawn up by Sir 

Andrew Laudse» (a refilling heritor), in 1779 886 

Decreafe in 24 years 24 

DittO| by another accurate enumeration^ in July 17939 1033 

Increafe in 14 years * 147 

EzaA increare within thefe 38 years 


Nomber of (buls in the villages 


- S« 

professions, &c. 

Minifter - - i Shoemakers 


Heritors, refidcnt - 3 Tailors 


I3itto» non-refident - 4 Weavers 

- 9 

Farmers - - 9 Smiths 


Mafons - - 4 Dyer 


Carpenters - - 4 Bleacher 


Colliers, and their fami- Teacher 


lies - - no Inn- keeper t 


Roads. — The roads are not in good repair. This is to be 
accounted for^ from the nature of the foil, a deep wet clay^ 


* The increafe during that period has been occafioned chief- 
ly by the houfes, lately ereded by John Hamilton, Efq; of 
Pencaitlandy for his colliers, whofe numbers, including their fa- 
milies, being 1 10, the increafe, independent of that circumftance> 
has braiy during the above period, 57. 

f The other inhabitants are employed in the Iime*works, 
smd the different occupations of hufbandry. 

3S Statijlical Actouni 

the diftance from materiab, the fituation of the parilh as a 
thoroughfare for the country, and efpecially from the paf- 
fage upon them for coal and lime from a great part of Eaft 
Lothian. The county, however, have at laft turned their at- 
tention to thefe particulars, and have this year allocated a 
confiderable fum for one, and ereAed a toll-bar upon another 
of the great roads \ by means of which, it is expefted they 
will be put into good repair, and prove, in that event, of 
much utility to the country. Notwithftanding the bad ftate 
in which the roads in general are, much has been done for 
them by Sir Andrew Lapder, on the fouth fide of the 
Tyne. From his accurate reports, given in annually to the 
juftices of the peace, it appears, that, bcfides the faithful ap- 
plication of the ftatute money, he has, from the year 1770 to 
this prefent date (February 1794)1 expended 5*60!. and ia 
proportion for other roads, belides thofe on his own eftate \ 
and there is reafon to believe, that a fimilar expenditure may 
be expeftcd from him for the future. Commendation is 
here by no means necefTary, but a wifli may perhai)s be ex- 
prefled, that proprietors in general would (hew a like attec- 
tion to that obvious fa£l, that good roads are the firft and 
moft beneficial improvement to a country. 

Villages. — There are 4 villages, viz. Eofterzni WefierPen^ 
cattlands^ Winton^ and Nijbet. In thefe all the trades people 
refide. In the village of Nifbct there are 2 weavers, who 
employ 8 looms for country work. They are the only wea- 
vers in the parifh who are independent of the farmers, and 
confequently employ additional hands. This little faA, per- 
haps, deferves notice. In the formation of villages, proprie- 
tors have too generally favoured the introduAion of trades 
people, from the fole confideration of raifing their rent-roll, 
by letting a very few acres at a much higher rate than far- 

fff Pencattland, 39 

mers could pay for them. It would be better policy, as well 
as more gratifying to every liberal mind, to permit this ne« 
ceflary and important cl^fs of people, to fit at very eafy rents, 
and free from every fervitude to the farmers. In thisf wa^ 
they would feel themielves comfortable, and be pleafed with 
their fituation. Farmers, and confequently landholders, 
would reap efiential advantages from the increafe of their 
cumbers, and their thriving condition } and there would be 
no neceffity for their retiring to the great towns, and increat 
ing there, the mafs of an unhealthy and debauched rabble. 
The above 4 villages contain only 5 1 2 fouls ; but it is better 
that this number ihould occupy 4 villages than one. There 
is a fallacy in the idea, that villages in the country are in a 
more thriving ilate the more populous they become ; for in 
the fame proportion as they contain above 200 fonts, they 
vrill be found to be declining, often in induftry, and always 
in morals. Proprietors, therefore, in the country, who have 
proper ftations for villages, would confult utility as well as 
ornament, by the erefiion of two fmaller,infteadof one large 
village. And while they give every reafonable encourage* 
xnent and fecurity to villagers, they fliould be equally cautious 
relative to feus, as the proprietors of them, when neceilarily 
removed, are too apt, rather than fell their property, to let 
it to any beggar or vagabond. 

Fromftms and KT^aiff/.—- Provifions of all kinds have rifen 
in their price one third completely, during the laft 20 years. 
A hen cods i s. a chicken 6 d. eggs 4 d. per dozen, butter 
g d. per pound, cheefe 6 d. The rife of wages has been pro- 
portional during the above period. A labourer receives daily 
10 d. in winter, and i s. in fummer. A young man fit for 
^m work, receives maintenance and 7 1. for the year. A 
fafm fervant, who lives in his own houfe, has an annual in- 

4^ StaH/ikal Acema 

come of 14 L The wages of an able woikman at the lime- 
kilns are 15 d» and, at piece work» he may earn 2s. 6d. 
The colliers are paid by the quantity of coal they throw out, 
and have a free houfe, together with coals for fuel. A col- 
lier, with a bearer, at the rate of working 4 or 5 days in the 
week, earns 65 L annually. Thefe great profits, as might be 
ezpeAed, are, in general, thrown away in a very injudicious 
manner, which tends not a little to produce a (carcity^ and 
to raife the price of coals at the pit. It were, therefore, to 
be wifhed, now that they have got their liberty, that fome 
tneafure could be taken, from which they might find it ne- 
ceflaryto ufe it with more difcretion. This,general ftric- 
ture applies by no means to the colliers on the eftate of 
Fountainhall, fome of whom are decent in their inorals, and 
in afiSiuent circumftances. Perhaps the fmallnefs of their 
number preferves them, in fome degree, from that diilipa-t 
lion which (o generally charaderifes that clafi of people, and 
on account of which alone, can they be deemed, by the pub* 
lie, unworthy of their great earnings. 

Bleachfiilds and Aft/Is^ C5V.— There is one bleachfield, and 
there are i lint, 1 (larch, i thread, 4 barley, and 4 corn 
mills. There are fevcral threfhing mills, and one in particu«- 
lar built lately on the eftate of Fountainhall, which is 
wrought by water, and, it is faid, performs fome additional 
operations above any other hitherto ereAed. A confider* 
able improvement is evidently obtained by thefe threfhing 
mills, when they are driven by water ; but when horfcs muft 
be employed, it is not to be rated high. In this diftrift 
there are many circumftances favourable to the introduAion 
and fuccefs of roanu&^lures ; but here, as in the Lothians in 
general, this important national obje£t meets with lefs atten- 
tion than in'other parts of Scotland^ where difficulties, that 


^ Penccdtfand* 41 

do not exift here, ue racooateredi and happ9^ 0Ter« 

Icd^Safikal Staii^--^llix%}ikuil^ron of Belhavep |s pa* 
troiie(s«-i^The value of the liyidg is 90L— The glebe is fmall» 
bat of excellent foil. The church is in good repair, and fit* 
ted up in a decent manner. No where are the people more 
regular in their attendance upon public woribip ; and, as the 
example of fuperlors is never without its effeA, this is to 
be afcribed, in a great meafure, to the attention which the 
refidiog heritors have paid to the public infticutions of reli* 
gioq. Their condufl, m this refpe£l, is richlj entitled to 
much praife, both in a political and moral view. The higher 
clafles^ maj a£t from a principle of hnour$ the lower never 
did, nor ever will. If thcie, therefore, are fet free from the 
influence of a religious principle, no regulations which this 
age, enlightjned as it is, may be pleafed to fubftitute in iu 
room, will command that fuhordinaihn^ without, which there 
is an end of all order and happioefs in /ociety. Without the 
confolations to be derived from their profpefis of future hap- 

VOL. XVIL F pinefs, 

* An attempt was made^ indeed, a.few years ago, to eftahlifh 
a woollen manufadure in this country, and many gentlemen 
and fanners became fubfcrtbers, and were to be in the diredion 
of it ;— -two circumftances, either of which will always be fatal 
to any fimilar undertaking. The nature of manofadure will 
not admit of fpeculation, nor accord with afibciations or 
extenfiTe beginnings. Succefs is only to be expeded, in any 
branch of manufadaret from perfons completely bred in 
that line^ and invited, by favourable circumftances, to com- 
mence it : And the more numerous, though fmall, the begin- 
nings, the better. An exienfive proje^y ivben it falls, and it 
frequently will, for obvious reafons, imprefTes the public mind 
with the idea of the impoffibility of carrying on any fuch ma* 
nufadore to advantage ; whereas, in fad, nothing might have 
bcfn more eafy, if it had been conduced folely by a &ilful in* 
dividual, at his own rifle, and with a view to .a moderate iiveli* 

42 Staiijiical Account 

pineis, they muft feci thcmfclvcs miferablc under the pret 
furcs of their prefent lot, and will readily look with envy at 
the n^ore fortunate condition « of others. — ^There are a ^ery 
few feftaries *, who have oecafionally come into this from 
neighbouring difiri^b. 

School. — The average number of fcholars is 50. The pay^ 
meats are, for reading, i s. 2 d. ; for writing, i s. 6 d. ; for 
arithmetic, 2 s. quarterly. The falaryj which was 100 merk^, 
was doubled feme months ago by the heritors, upon a peti- 
tion from the fchoolmafter. This is the more fingular, as 
it was in this county that the oppofition originated, againft 
the requeft of the fchoolmafters of Scotland, for fome fmall 
addition to their falaries. Such landholders as are averfe from 
this meafure, are ftill, it Teems, to be informed of the good con- 
fequenccs, that have followed from the education which the 
common people have received at their parifh fchools ; other- 
wife they would not, probably^ hefitate to raife thefe ufefill 
members of fociety to a (ituation as lucrative, at leaft, as that 
of a ploughmau^. It was no doubt a queftion in policy, 


* It is fomewhat remarkable, that during the incumbency of 
the late Mr Gborgb Andsrson, a period of 36 years, not one 
individual of his parilhioners left the edabliflied church. This 
fad, though not without a parallel, is to be accounted for, with* 
out doubt, from the prudence of his deportment, and the moder;!- 
tion of his principles, in conjunSion with the example of the heri- 
tors. Indeed it will be generally found, that every clergyman, of a 
limilar defcription, if aided by the attendance of the reading he- 
ritors upon the pubhc ordinances ot leliglon, will lead his 
l^earers, in the fpace of a few years, into the (ame train of 
thinking with htrofelf. This, it may be hinted, is the meafure 
to be employed tor checking the SecelTion, rather than having 
I CQomit 10 fc^/m evert uresy or inquiries concerning the ^r^w/A 
of fchifm^ which have agitated the public mind at different times^ 
ana wci c belter calculated, than any thing which the Seceders 
themfclvcs could have devifed, for promoting the growth of 

rf PencaitJand. 43 

Whether the common people fhonld receWe education ? Ha- 
manity revolts from the idea. Fa£b prove ignorance to be 

Pcor, — ^The flim expended annually for their flipport is 
' nearly, at an average, 70 1. In the year 1 782, it was 1 12 L 
None below 60 years of age are received upon the pcnfion 
L'ft, as an admillion, it is thought, to an aliment that is cer- 
tain, at an earlier period, might be unfriendly to their induftry, 
and to the honeft pride, which ought to be cheriflied in the 
loweft claflcs^ of eating their own bread. When any, how- 
ever, below that age, are in diftrcfs, they never fail to receive 
a proper fupply ; and the fum given away in this manner, 
is not lefs than what is expended for the penHon lift. — No 
where, probably, do the poor receive a larger allowance, or 
meet with more cordial attention. Indeed the funds of the 
parifh, though they have entirely arifcn, excepting a dona- 
tion of 100 I. from coUeAions fincc the year 1704, are now 
ib confiderable as to fupply thefe charitable demands, anci 
preclude any chance of an afleiTment at a fjture period. The 
. practice followed hitherto by the redding heritors, of not al- 
lowing the coUcftions to be Icflcned, by their occallonal ab^ 
fence fnm public worjbip^ has tended greatly to jncreafe thelc 
funds. Were this practice to take place in other parifhrs, 
and to be adopted alfo by mn-refiding heritors, (and .no good 
reafon can be afligned why it fliould not), it is llkf ly that 
afleflments, fo much and {{^ juAly dreaded, would, in mod 
cafes, be avoided : For though the farmers know they have 
only a temporary intered In thefe funds, and the loweft clafs 
arc aware that it belongs not to them, in any view of the 
matter, to maintain the poor, it is not to be doubted that 
both thefe claffes would continuei as hitherto^ from a reli* 


44 Staifikal Accomi 

glous prlncipje^ to throw in their mite, if they faw a propor- 
tioDal contribation from the whole heritors. 

Chara30r and Modi of Living. — ^The people m general are 
fatisfied with their condition, and arc induftrions. It is not 
remembered that an inhabitant of this pariih has been pu- 
nifhed by the civil magiftrate for any crime* AH of them 
can at Icaft read the Bible \ and the greateft part of the 
young men, whofe parents conld afford but little for their 
education, attend the fchoolmafter in the winter evenings ; 
who, for a fmall confideration, teaches them writing, and 
the common rules of arithmetic, by which means they ac- 
quire good habits, and become ufeful as farm and family fer* 
vants.—- The mode of living has become more expenfive than 
formerly among the farmers.— The loweft clals of people 
confine their tafte and expence to their drefs ; and in this 
refpefl they are not behind others in the neighbouring diC- 
triAs. In confequence of this rage for finery, though much 
more harmleis, in every view, than tea and dram drinking, 
(which pervade almoft every town- and great village)^ the 
common people, in the country through Scotland, will be 
found' at prefent to be living almoft as poorly as they did 50 
years ago, when their income was one half lefs ; tor it is by 
no means to be placed to the account, (as (omt feditious fpiriti 
have of late fhamelefsly attempted to perfuade us), of the bur- 
den of government taxes, which, it is well known to every 
perfon, duly informed about the matter, amount not to more 
annually than 2 s. 8 d« on the necefifary articles of conAimp- 
tiop, in the family pf a farm fervant, confifting of 6 perfons» 


N U M B E R V. 

(Fresbtte&t of Dunblane.— Stnod and Counties 
OF Perth anci Stirling*) 

Drawn up hj the R£%>. DoBor 'IkVL'E^ Robertson, Mim9e^ 
of CiMandir^ from Materials fumijbti bj the Rev» Mf 
John Kinross, Mlnifter of Lecropt. 

Etymebgj of the Kame, 

LECROPT is derived from two Gaelk words, which fi^. 
nify one half firm or drj land, alloding to the nataral 
divifion of the parilb into high and low, dry and wet ibiL 
One half is upland or elevated ground, the other is a dead flat 
of day land, which mud have i)een one continued norafs, 
when the fea retired from the extenfive valley, in which the 
Forth now winds its way to the ocean. 

Situatun, Form, Sivers, EtttiUf, Suffacij (5V. — ^About two 
thirds of this parifh are fittiated within the county of Perth, 
and one third in the connty of Stirling. Its latitude is 56^. 
1 1!. N. and its longitude 47'. W. of Edinburgh.^-Its form 
is not hr removed from an equilateral triangIe«-^The river 
Teati bounds it on the S. W. where it meets the Forth and 
the AUan on the E. The foutbern point is where the Allan 
&Us into the united ftreams of the other two. From E. to 

H^ Statifiical Accent 

W. it extends about 3 miles, and nearly about as much from 
N. to S. It contains about 2000 acres of ground, one half 
of which is a rich clay, the other half up-land, or what is 
generally called dry-field. The clay foil on the fouth is di- 
vided from the up-land by a beautiful bank, which ^rofles the 
pariO), almoft parallel to the north fide, and nearly at one 
third of the diftance between it and the fouthern extremity. 
— ^In all the clay land there is not a fingle ftone or pebble ; 
It is therefore inclofed and fubdivided with hedge and ditch, 
or with open drains. The up-land, which is feparated from 
the carfe by the bank, and rifes backward with a gentle af- 
cent, is alfo inclofed, either with ftone walls, or hedge and 

ProfpeB. — From the bank up Lecropt, there is one of 
the fineft profpefb in this part of the ifland, which has 
been always admired by every perfon oF tafte. The 
Forth, the Teath, and the Allan unite their ftreams^ 
and form the largeft river in North Britain, in the cham- 
paign country, on the fouthern borders of the parifli* 
Their waving banks being clad with the. richeft xrops, the 
fnug fteadings of farms, the hedges neatly trimmed, the 
lofty trees, through which the'fmokc afcends from the dwel- 
lings, and the bufy hand of man ^ engaged in the various o» 
perations of agriculture, beautify and enrich the fccne. — Oa 
the oppofite fide of this fertile valley* the Caftle of Stirling 
rears its head in rude magnificence, on the fummit of a rock, 
and leads the mind to review the hiftory of years that arc 
paft, when it was the refidence of the' antient kings of Scot- 
land. The huge rock of Craigforth on the otie fide of the 
Caftle, and the Abbey Craig on the other, form, with the 
Caftle itfelf, three vaft and detached piles, about the 
diftance of a mile from each other i and, like the pyramids 



of LecropU 4f 

of Bgyptf look down oa an extcnfive traft of flat country; 
where no other eminence intervenes \ The tower of the 
abbey of Cambulkenneth, in one of the finks of the Forth^ 
where the aQies of the weak and unfortunate Jambs III. reft 
IB peace from the tumult of civil difcord, and the confli£i of 
contending fadioni ;— the ftately bridge of Stirling, through 
which the Forth holds his majeftic courfe to the ocean \ his 
long circuitous links, through innumerable farms and thriv-' 
ing villages, and the floops failing along thefe links in all di« 
re^ons, amidft trees and houfes, feaft the eye with the plea- 
fimt profpeA, and delight the mind with the grateful idea of 
induftry and of wealth. — The diftanl hills of Dundsf^ on 
the footh-weft, (ftill the property of the defcendants of that 
gallant hero who broke the Roman barrier), the hills of Fal- 
kirk on the fouth, famous for the bloody rencounter between 
Ukrty and Difp^tfin ; the green Ochils on the eaft, piled on 
one another^ Bin^vor-Urb^ on the north; BmUds^ and j?^/i. 
Umcfu/^ on the weft» which raife their venerable heads to the 


* Thefe malfles, and all other detached rocks, and many of 
OUT mountain rocks* in this part of the world, prefent a rugged 
front uniformly to the weft, and have a tail of earth in the oppo- . 
ilte diredion. The weftern coad of Britain, and mod other 
iflands^ prefent a bold (hore of hieh rocks, while the land on 
the eaft /lopes generally by an inclined plane* and dips gradual^ 
into the Tea. , The Britifh rivers, for the moft part, now eaft- 
ward. This is the cafe in many other countries, efpeciaily in 
America. Whether this phenomenon be owing to the current 
of the general deluge^ or to the diredlion in which the earth re- 
volves round its axis, or to the eaflern inclination of the coun- 
try, is perhaps uncertain ; but there appears to be no doubt, 
that it is owing to fome general caufe s and there is as little 
doubt, that a large done, or a rock, in a river which is not very 
rapid, gathers a tail on that fide to which the current flows. 

t The mountain of great flags. 

f § For the etymology of thefe names, fee the account of 
Callanosr, Vol. XI. No. L. 

4? Statijlic^ Account 

jdoudsi ^1 diverfify the landfcapCj ^ graadonr to die prof- 
futlk, und prepare the fovd for QOotemplatipii. 

Sailf Cultivation^ Mburals^ {5V.-— The (oil in the t!9At has 
been rendered more produOivet by draining the fwamps, by 
hying a greater quantity of lime annually on the land than 
uied formerly to be done, and by Ibeighting the ridges in 
leveral places. The foil in the higher grounds is in general 
loam upon a till bottom, and in many places a ftiff tilli with« 
out any mixture of loam, efpecially where the hnd is fpouty« 
A great part of the uplandi fo lately as 20 years ago, was 
covered with forze and broom, wluch have been grubbed out 
by the farmers, fince the knowledge of improvement, and 
the deiire of induftry have been introduced into this coun* 
try ; and their labour has been amply rewarded by abundant 
crops. The land, where JFurze ufed to grow, is cow a ftrong 
generous foil 5 and its ftrength may in every cafe be eftima- 
ted by the fize and luxuriance of the whins, in its natural 
Aate. The foil which carries broom, in its uncultivated ftate^ 
is not £b ftrong as the former; but it is a trufty foil, and 
will make good returns of the ordinary crops, when tenderly 
dealt With, and allowed occafionally to reft in grafs. Where 
whins and broom are mixed, the foil is ftrong or light, in 
the degree in which either of thefe prevails ; and to encou* 
rage the hufl>andcnan ftill farther, fuch land feldom requires 
draining, where thefe plants are found. Blocks of granite 
have been blown in difiirent places off the higher grounds 
and removed at confidcrablc expcnce ; and land which was 
lately in a ftate pf nature, lets now at a guinea an acre in 
pafture. Where the foil was fpouty, at the fkirts of the hills, 
covered drains have been made ; but in the clay Und the 
drains are aU open. 


of Lecropt. 49 

Climate^ Difeafes^ and Longevity. — In the carfe, intermittent 
fevers were vtrj firequeDt fome time ago, occafioned, princi« 
pally, bj the dampnefs of the country ; but fince the ground 
has been drained, and the inhabitants are more comfortably 
lodged and fed, all difiempers, arifing from a relaxed habit^ 
are neither fo common nor fevere. — ^There is nothing extra- 
ordinary in the ftature or longevity of the peopfe. About 
the beginning of 17941 there died in the carfe a perfon aged 
93. Sereral perfons, now alive, enjoy good health at the 
age of 8o. The people in general are healthy and hardy^ 
inured, from their infancy, to the laborious exercifes of agri« 
culture, which, by their improved ftile of living, they are 
not only enabled to undergo with fuccefs, but with comfort 

Produce^ f^V.— The produce is wheat, barleyi oats, peafe, 
beans, clover, and rye-grafs ; and in up- lands lefs wheat and 
beans, but in their place more turnips, flax, and potatoes of 
various kindsi — ^The wheat 1% Town in the latter end of Sep« 
tember, and during the whole month of Oftober, ufually af- 
ter fummer fallow. The farmers begin to low peafe and 
beans in February, and oats as early in March as the feafon 
will allow. The fowing of barley is generally finiihed by 
the ittol May. Potatoes are planted about the middle of 
May, which is alfo the feafon for the barley feed time in the 
Up-laod. The turnips are fown in June. The wheat yields 
about 10 bolls an acre, having 8 or 10 chalders of lime laid 
on the preceding fallow. The harvefl begins about the mid- 
dle of Augufi, and is finlfhed in 6 weeks thereafter, when the 
feafon is £ivourable« The wheat feils generally at 2 1 s. and 
ibmetimes more, by the boll ; the barley froni 18 s. to 22 s. ; 
meal commonly at i6s. The barley is fometimes fown by 
itfelf, and fometimes mixed with Chefle|^ bear. The oats. 

Vol. XVII. G moft 

5© '^ Siaiijlical Account 

mod frequently cultivated in this^pariaif are the old Scotch 
kind. The Cupar Grange fpecies is ^Ifo introduced. The 
beans have always a mixture of about one- third of peafe. 

Wages and Prices of Provifions.^Scrvsaits wages have rifen 
cbnfiderably within thefe few years, A bred ploughman 
cannot be hired for a year under 9 1. or lol. } a maid»fer- 
vant charges 3 1. and upwards. Common labourers get i s. 
a day and their victuals. Beef fells at between 4 d. and 5 d« 
per lib. , mutton commonly at 4 d. ; a pair of good bam 
fowls at 2 s. 6 d. ; eggs at 6 d. or 8 d. the dozen ; butter at 
10 d. the lib. ; and checfe at 4d. 

' Farm Houfis — ^The farm houfes have lately undergone 
great imprpvements, owing to the general fpirit of induftry, 
and the defire of convenience, which has been fpreading for 
fomc years through this part of the kingdom, in every de« 
panmcnt of rural economy •. The dwellings are well lighf- 
cd, and confifl of 3 or more apartments ; and the farmers 
have generally a clock in every family, and other furniture 
in proportion^ comfortable and convenient. — They have kilns 
for drying grain, with brick floors, and fome with cad iron 

Cattle.-^l€i the carfe farms, few black cattle are kept, but 
they pay great attention to the rearing of horfes. In the 


* About 20 years ago, the houfes were meanly conilruded, 
without light, without air, and without accommodation, which 
mud have been very injurious to the health of the tahabttants, 
and, together with the wetnefs of the foil, proved the conccimu 
tant caufes of premature old age* and of many local didempcrs* 
The late Archibald Stirling of Kier, and mod of the other 
ptoprtetors, at the end of the lad ieafes, inclofed and fubdivided 
the farms, built neat fteadings of houfes in centrical places, and 
covered them with ules or blue dates. 

of LecropU 51 

more elevated parts of .the parifb, the fiarmers rear more 
cows, and pay confiderable attention to the dairy, which to 
them is a great fource of profit. Their foil is ^ell adapted 
for paftarc, whereas the clay foil is more produftive in bear- 
ing crops of grain. There is no mountainous ground in the 
parlib, and therefore there are no flieep farms ; fome large 
inclolures, which are let to graziers, are (locked with (heep : 
And from the richnefs of their graft, and their vicinity to 
the market^ they make good returns. 

Mcfs.^lt is evident, from a variety of circumflances, that 
the flat land in this neighbourhood was formerly covered 
with a firatum of mofs. This mofs was compofed of the de« 
ciduons parts of trees, which fprung up from the rich bed 
of clay that was ezpofed, when the fea retired from that ex- 
tenfive valley, in which the Forth flows from the head of 
Monteath to Borrowftounnefs. Marine fliells are found in 
the body of this clay. The roots of large trees are found 
adhering to its furface, and their trunks and branches are 
mingled with the mofs above \ which is a fufiicient proof 
that there was no mofs when the trees were growing *• # 


* By what caufe thofe trees, which in this valley are moftly 
oak, were felled, is not, perhaps, fo evident ; but by whatever 
caufe this took place, when the trees fell, the whole plain mud 
have been an immcnfe and wild morafs, when the water from 
the higher grounds was interrupted in its progrefs, and render. 
ed ftagnant by leaves, and branches, and large logs of wood*. 
The richnefs of the foil below would foon produce a rank 
growth of the long graiTes, and other plants peculiar to marfhy 
ground. When the furface was fomewhat confolidated by the 
annual decay of theie plants, it would become a vail quag-mire, 
acquiring a gradual conOQency, enabling it to carry heath on 
the top. From being flow mofs it would become firmer* efpe* 
cially at the fides, where there was lead water, and where the 
mofs was iefs deepf by reafon of the higher ground dipping in- 
to ' 

5^ Stati/lical Account 

Woods and Orchards — There is a great variety of planted 
trees on the higher grounds, which thrive well, flielter the 


to it by an inclined plane.— The rivers being fcarcely able to 
force their way through this defert, on which no four-footed 
creature durft venture for a long trad of time, depofited their 
tribute of flime, and meliorating particles of fine earth, upon 
the banks which produced a ftrip of rich land along their courfe. 
Thefe ftrips of fine arable land, on the brinks of the rivers» are 
fill] difcernible in all this country, while niofs» in many places, 
retains its antient pofTcflTon, between them anc^ the higher 
grounds farther back, by which it is furrounded. It is alfo 
probable, that thefe banks of earth, formed on the verge of the 
rivers, contributed to hold back the water in the morafs, and 
to increafe its depth, or the altitude of the mofs, as they grew 
higher, by a continual accefiion of more foil with every inunda- 

This may be the manner in which all deep mofles are hrmtd. 
The thin (Iratum of mofs on dry ground, which is produced 
folely by the leaves, and other deciduous parts of heath, is en* 
tirely out of the queflion. All mofles, of any confiderable 
depth, are found in beds of greater or lefs extent, according to 
the diftauce of the rifing grounds, or other obftrudions by 
which the morafs was inclofed,' wherein they were formed. It 
is an abfiirdity to all edge, that peat earth grows, any more than 
other earth. No fpecies of earth has vegetable life. It indeed 
^produces plants which have vegetable life, and thele plants, re- 
turning to their firft principlea, increafe the mold* The plants 
which grow on dry ground, when not carried off, add to the 
ftaple of the foil, and form a mold, fimilar in its qualities to 
that on which they grew ; and the plants, which are natural to 
land-locked moraffes, (among which that plant, (Iriiflly called 
fn^s^ is always to be found), the leaves, and branches, and bark 
of trees, where they happen to fall, uniformly produce a black 
mold, known by the name oi peat earth. 

In the middle of the carfe of Lecropt, there remained, till of 
late, 60 acres of mofs, originally formed in this manner. The 
people in the adjacent farms wer6 in the pra<flice of cutting 
peats from it, which rendered the mofs very irregular. The 
low mofs at the fides was from 4 to 6 feet deep, and the high 
mofs in the middle from 7 to 10 feet. This mofs was, about 8 
years ago, taken in leafe from Mr Stirling of Kier, by a far- 
mer in the neighbouring parifh. He was baffled at firft in ma- 
ny attempts to carry off the mois \ but by unwearied perfeve* 


9f Lecr^u 53 

country, and are i^^j oroamental and uTefuL Jn this pa- 
riih there are lo orchards, 5 larger and 5 left, which, io &• 
vourabie feafons, yield a confiderable <pantity of applet, pears, 
and plumbs. There is alfo a large natural wood, mofily of 
oak, which is cut twice in 24 years, and affords ^ plentiAil 
and occafional fupply of timber for the various pnrpofes cf 
husbandry. The only timber trees in the Carfe are faugh, 
which grow to a large fize ; and, when allowed to arrire at 
lull maturity, the red is durable, and admits of a moft beau« 
tiful polifh. 

Bfes. — ^Several perfons in this parifli have propagated beet 
with great fuccefs. The numerous orchards, the extcnfive 
plantations of trees, which abound with the faccharine juice, 
the large fields of bean), whofe grateful flavour embalms the 
very air in the Carfe, and the up-lands adorned with varies 
gated blofibms of clover and daifies, and furze and broom, 
afford a plentiful fupply to thefe mduftrious inleAs} and the 
warmth of the Bank, b well (heltered from the N. and run- 
ning from £• to W« through the whole extent of the parifht 
affords them that cover which fuits the delicacy of their 
frame, and cherilbes their unceafing induftry. 


ranee he fucceeded at laft in carrying a fmall rivulet about half 
a mile below ground, in wooden pipes, which confift 4 of wooden 
boards, 1 foot in breadth, joined at right angles, and hooped 
with iron. In the fpace of 4 or 5 years he cleared, by the aid 
of this fiream, about 20 acres down to the day. This land 
produces fine crops of oats, and, by being properly wrought, 
and turned up frequently to the enriching inQuence of the air, 
there is no doubt oif its carrying any other fpecies of crops, 
known in the clay land around it« But, to the unfpeakable lofs 
of his family, this ingqiious and induftrious man, whofe namd 
was Murdoch, was loft about 2 years ago, within a few yardt 
of his own hoidc, in paffing the Forth ; and fince his deat^ the 
improvementy on the mo(s have gone on but flowlf • 

54 Stati/lical Accouni 

Htriiortf Rmts^ fsfc. — The heritors are 5 in number, none 
of whom refide within the parifh. More than one half of the 
pari(h belongs to Jambs Stirling, £fq$ of Kier, whofe re- 
fidence has a commanding profpeA on the Bank of Lecropc, 
within a mile of the church. This family has been long and 
jnfilf refpefiedi by all ranks, for the qualities which adorn 
' human nature in the higher fpheres of life. They have eni- 
belliflied the place of Kier, by well drefled lawns and ezten- 
five plantations; they have given bread to the poor, in car- 
rying on thefe improvements ; and have, by their example 
and influence, diffiifed a ftile of hufbandry and cultivation 
through this country formerly unknown. The number of 
ferms is 25 ; and their extent is from 40 to 100 acres each. 
There are 7 pendicles, confifting of from 3 to 14 acres. There 
are 20 cottages, occupied by labourers and married fervants. 
The land in the Carfe lets, on an average, at 20 s. the acre ; 
and the average rent of the up-land is 12 s. The valued rent 
of the parifh is 2200 1. Scotch. The real rent is not exaftly 

Pcpulation.^Thc population of the parifli has rather been 
on the decreafe fince the farms began to be enlarged. The 
popidation in 1755, as returned to Dr Webfter, was 577 
The number of fouls at prefeiu({i 794) is - . 420 

Decreafe 157 

The number of families is - • . • 3o 

Employments^ — The people are employed, for the moft part, 
in the various operations of hufbandry, as farmers, fervants, 
and labourers. There are 2 weavers, i fmith, and 1 mill- 
wright) but neither taylor, ihoemaker^ furgeon, nor lawyer, 
in the pariih. 


of JUcroft, 55 

Jpyberiis.-^Tht cruives of Cnugforth are placed on a ledge 
ol rocks, which extend acrofs the Forth, having one end in 
this pariOi, and the other in the pari(h of St. Ninian's. The 
tide Bows up to this ledge ; which circnmftance renders it a 
proper ftation for a fiihing of this kind. A great number of 
iaImoQ IS taken, when the cruives are kept in proper repair. 
Salmon are aUb taken on the Teath and on the Allan, befides 
trouts, pikes, and perches. 

Village, Manufa8ures^ Mills^ bfc. — There is only one vil- 
l?ge, called tie Bridge ofAUan, which confifis of 28 families. 
None of the tenements are feued. They are all the property 
of Mr Stirling of Kier. The villagers are varioufly employed^ 
mioiftering to the convenience of the country. There is, par« 
ticularly, a brewery for mak liquor, where ftrong ale, fmall 
beer, and porter, are made. — ^This village is fituated on the 
Allan, a river more remarkable, at this place, for its roman- 
tic icenery, of a deep gles covered with a variety of wood» 
and its tumultuous current, than for the quantity of ile water. 
The Allan, within a (hort fpace, drives feveral mills, for meal, 
barley, and flour* There are, particularly, 3 mills for making 
a coarfe paper, known by the name of Caliender paper^ which 
clothiers ufe in preiBng cloth. The village has alfo the ad« 
vantage of being fituated in a plentiful country, near coals^ 
and' at the feparation of the two great military roads, the one 
going by Callander, to the weft of Scotland, and the other^ 
by Cnxff^ to the north : So that no fituation (eems to be bet- 
ter adapted for ereAing a village on a large fcale. 

Sotittes of Profit. ^^The farmers in the clay land, who have 
lime in abundance near at hand, and for a moderate price, 
make their returns moftly by their grain. In the upland, 
the fanners have not only the fame command of lime, but 


jO Stati/iical Account 

Ihell mart, smd make their returns partly by grain, and partly 
by tlic produce of the diary, and by fattening cattle for tiic 
i6arket. The women fpin woollen yarn, which fells, when 
thAc is good, at as. the fpindle, for making ftok:kiags, ihal- 
loons, and plaids. 

jRotfdlr.— The great roads in this pariOi are but indifferent ; 
but a toll is fbon to be erected on that leading northward, 
which will enable the gentlemen to pay more attention to the 
o^hcr great road, and to the bye-roads, which ftand much' in 
need of repair. Tht roads in the Carfe arc fcarccly paflablc 
in winter. The ftatate labour is not commuted. 

EicUJiapcalftate. — ^The church and mahie are beautifully 
dtuated on the face of the rifing ground, above the Qufe^ 
sCtid command a ricb and exceofive profpeft, alveady takea 
notice of. The chufch, which is in good repair, is an old 
Gothic building *, confifting of a nave and choir, 72 feet In 
length; the nave being only 14 feet broad, and the choir but 
11. The (ieps to the altar are ftill vifible ; and the facred 
ftnt is quite entire. The manft is commodious, and in good 
repair. The glebe corififts of 7 acres of fertile land, properly 
iiicloied. The ftipend is 48 L 19 s. 2 J d. in money, 4|j bolls 
of mealj atid 23 boljis of barley. Mr Stirling of Kief is 

Religious Perfuqftons.'^T)it town of Stirling was the origU 
aal feat of the (eceffion from the eftabli(hed church ; and, 


* It was formerly a chapel annexed to the biihopric of Dun« 
kdd, although it be fituated within the diocefe of Danblane, 
and only 2 miles from the biihop's feat. The curate was efia- 
blilhed at Lecropt, to be a check on the bifliop of Dunblane; . 
which pradice it feems, from fimllar inftitutions, was not un- 
CMiinon in thcfe times. 

of Lecrtpt. 57 

from a variety of cauies, the peculiar tenets of that perfuafion 
took carij a deep root in this oeighbourhood. A great va- 
riety of opinions have i'prung up fince that period. We have 
Burghers, Antiburghers, Cameronians, Bereans, and perions 
who adhere to the prefbytery of Relief. But it ought to be 
remarked to their crediti that perfons entertaining all thcfe 
different opinions live with thofe of the eitabtifhed church, 
and with one another, in friend (hip and brotherly love. The 
acrimony of fpecch, the fournefs of temper, the fliynefi of in- 
tercourile, and the reluflance to perform good offices, which 
charaderiled religious parties fome years ago, have now given 
place to Chriilian benevolence, and the fwcet intcrcourfe of 
ibcial affeAion. The intolerant heat of party zeal has be- 
come OK>re moderate ; and the mild fpirit, which the gofpel 
breathes, poliflies the ferocity of nature, and flnooths the 
ruggednels of the human heart. Men have diicovered, what 
they ought always to have icnown, that their opinions, wiih 
regard to fpeculative points, are often as different as their 
faces ; and that the harmony of fociety, and the intercourfc 
of life, oogbt not to be interrupted by the one more than by 
the other; chat meeicnefs and forbearance become Chriflians) 
that Tudenefs of manners is different from purity of morals ; 
that afperity of temper is do mark of ibundnefs in the faith \ 
and that it is a precept of the highell authority, to << hvt ofie 

School and Paor.'^Hht fchool is well taught. The fees are 
moderate ; for Latin and arithmetic^ as.; for Englifli, one 
mcrk Scotch, or is. 1/2 d.; for writing, is, 6d. Book- 
keeping and mathematics are alfo taught. The falary 100 L 
Scotch, with the perquifites arifing from the offices of pre- 
centor and feffion derk.-^There are no begging poor ; but 
a few poor houfeholders are comfortably maintained^ without 

Vot.XVlL H any 

5 8 Staiiftkal Account 

any regular aflcflment, by the intcrcft of loo 1. a fund allotted 
for that purpofe, together with the weekly colleftions. 

jintiquiiies, — An artificial eminence, on the eaft fide of this 
parifh, feenis to have been a poit of the Romans, near their 
great road to the church at Ardoch. Kif.r, already fo of- 
ten mcoiioned, is one of a chain of ru'tie forts, (which are all 
railed Kiers). that ran along th:r north face of the Strath, or 
Valley of IVIonte Jth. Thdc forts are at prefcnt in ruins, and 
are difcernible to ftran[;ers only by knolls of a green furfacc, 
covering a great heap of loofe llones * ; but well known to 
the inhabitants of the country, who carry away the ftoncs for 
building inclofures and houfes. One of thefe forts was fitua- 
tcd at the place of Kier. There are alfo Kiers at Achinfalt f , 
at Borland J, at Balinackader {, at Tar |K and in many other 
places in that direftion, all fi milar to one another, in rcfpcfl 
of fituation, conftrudlion, profpeft, and materials; which is a 
ftrong prefuniption at leaft, if not a clear proof, that their 
utic was the fame •*. There is, in the neighbourhood of t!hc 


• They fecm to have been conftru^cd moftiy with dry ftones, 
dug from the quarries near them, becaiife no other cement, ex- 
cept clay or mud, was known in this part of the world, at the 
time ihey were built. They were uniformly fituated near a 
fpriiig of water* or a running brook, and commanded an exten- 
fjve profpe^l towards all points except the north, from which 
quarter, it is probable, no danger was apprehended. 

f The Jield of the good profpc6} ', commanding the country from 
the moor of Dtimbanon to Qucensferry. 

X The lavd of htlls. Bor and tor fignify a hill ; hence all the 
torreys are hilly. 

J The fuller* s io^n. 

[^ The groin. All the /flr/ arc at the bottom of hills. 

** It appears highly probable^ that this chain of forts was 


of Lecropu 59 

church of Lecropt, a hill, where the bftron ufed to hold his 
court, during the prevalence of the feudal fyftem. The Gal- 
low Hill is near the Court Hill •. 

Advantages and Difadvatitages . — The advantages are, our 
vicinity 10 the umrtcet of burling, wh:;re the pariihioners can 
purchafe any co:ii modi tics they Hand in need of, and get a 
good price arid reauy uioney, for whatever they can fparc for 
(alc» They arc near plenty of coal, which cuninbutcs to their 
domefiic conxfort; and abundance of cheap lime enables them 
to improve their ground. — Bad roads are a great difad van- 
tage. Another inconvenience, no Icfs feverely felt, is the 
want of good water in the Carfc. There is but one fmall ri- 
vulet in the parifli, which is employed in carrying away the 
inofs. There arc fome fprings immediately below the Baiil:, 


huik by the Caledonians, to watch the motions of the trocps 
Aaticncd on the Roman wall, betwixt Bnrrowftoiinncfs and OiJ 
Kilpatrick, begun by Agricola afcer his irruption into lii:: 
north in the year 79, and completed by Antoninus Fius. Th^ 
Caledonian line was about 3 or 4 hours march, in moU piacev, 
from the Roman wall ; and this chain of forts, whether it wai 
conUruifted by Galgacus, who was no lels fagacious than 
brave, or by his fucccfTor, was planned with conivimmatc ju'^^; 
mcnt, not only for the reafon^ already mentioned ; but becauu* 
this h the narrowed tra^l of Scotland that the Romans ever vi- 
fited, and therefore the moil eaiily defended, and ulfo, becauk 
there are few fords in the river, which runs in the (Jrath lyin^ 
on the fouih ; and, if Mofs Flanders then exilled, it muft have 
been an impafTable moraf!^ and a good barrier, as far as it ex. 
tended, on the Caledonian frontier. 

• According to the fummary proceedings of thofe times, 
fsntence oi dt2LX\\^ execution^ TLwd inter msf:t^ followed one another 
in fuch rapidifucceilioD, that graves, gallows hills, and rtilty or 
court hills, arc found contiguous, not only here, but every where 
clie. The court hills are called mo^?, or mot hiils, from the 
Gaelic word mht^ or rnhd, which, to this day, is the only word 
ioT a cdurf of judicature in that language. 

6<i Stati/lUai Account 

at the head of the clay land ; hot in thisi and all other large 
tra£ts of horizontal land, whatever be the nature of the foil, 
there can be no fprings, for a very obvious reafon. 

CharaHer^ Drefs^ isfc. — ^The people are remarkable for their 
decency and fobriety. None have been bani(hed| or have 
fuffered the higher pains of law, in any other refpe^t, for 
mifconduA, in the memory of man* Remote from the temp* 
rations and lurking places of great towns, where the profli- 
gate expeA to elude the eye of the world, and to eicape the 
lafh of the laW, in a crowded population, every man confiders 
himfelf as known to his neighbours, and that he has both his 
own reputation, and the credit of his anceftors, to iuj^rt by 
his conduft. Habits of indu(!ry have become familiar to the 
people, whatever objcA they have in view. In literature 
they have not been deficient, when their genius led them to 
the purfuit .of Audy, and the improvement of the mind. One 
minifter, one preacher, and three ftudents, now alive, drew 
their firft breath in this pari(b.«— A remarkable change has 
lately taken place in the article of drefs. The love of fliow 
is natural i and imaginary wants are fometimes no lefs cla^ 
morons than thofe which are real. But, if the increafe of 
their earnings do not furnifh the labouting part of mankind 
with this increafe of luxury, their favings, upon which the7 
are to begin the world, muii be lefs at prefent than when their 
wages were more moderate, and their clothing lefs expen. 


^ PteJm-pMSk St 

N U M B E R VI. 


(Coui^TT OF East Lothian.— Prbsbytbrt of Hadoimo* 
TON. — 5tnox> of Lothian aub Tweeddalb.) 

-PjF tie Rev. Mr John Trotter, Minjfter^ 

Name, Situation , and Epctent. 

ABOUT a quarter of a mile Jo the fouth of Preaoa^pans 
ftands Ihe village of Preston, which, though at 
prefent but itoaWt was fornkerly of coniiderable extent. When 
fait paQ3 were ere&ed io ics neighbourhood, they would na- 
turaiiy be UiHinguilhed by its name. The building of the 
town of PreOon-paos is fiippoied to have taken place after 
tlfcat of the fait pans. In the laft century, and at the begin- 
ning of the prefent,. the town was commonly named Saitm 
Pr^on* Of the origin of the name of Prefton^ nothicg I'a* 
tis&ftory can be traced.r^Thia pariih is near 3 miles ki 
lengths Its grcateit breadih is about one. RaveolhaOj^h 
Bourn, which is the boundary of the pariih on the weft, di- 
vides the county of Eaft Lothian from that of Mid Loiiiian. 

Ereclian^ Scsi, Climate, and Dijeajes, — There are two baro# 
nies, the Ealt Barony and the Weft. The charter erefting 
the Eai't Barony, was granted in favour of Sir John Hamil- 
ton of Prefton» A, D. 1617, By it Pxefton and Prefton- 


6i Statifiical Account 

pans are erefted into at burgh of barony^ with the uAial liber- 
tics and privileges. The Weft Barony is that of Prefton- 
Grange. The writer of this account has not been able to 
learn in whofe Ssivour, or at what period, the charter creft- 
injg it was granted. — ^The foil is loam \ part heavy, on a clay 
bottom; part light, on a Tandy or gravelly bottom. The 
climate is mild. There are no local diftempers. The moft 
prevalent are fevers, chiefly thofc of the putrid and nervous 
kind. The gravel is faid to have been very common about 
40 or 50 years ago. 

Agriculture. — The rotation of crops, moft approved of at 
prefent, is a white and green crop alternately. Fallowing is 
little praAifed. The land is cleared of weeds, by fowing in 
drills, and horfe^hoeing the interilices ; and women are often 
employed to pick them out with the hand. The land de- 
figned for wheat is ploughed ^s foon as it is cleared of the 
preceding crop. If the land is heavy, the wheat is fown about 
the middle of Oflober ; if light, about the beginning of Nov. 
The land defigned for oats, peafe, and beans, is plowed in 
February. Oats are fown about the end of March and be- 
ginning of April. If the land is dry, peafe and -beans are 
fown in drills as early as poflible in February ; when broad* 
caft, they are fown early in March. When peafe and beans 
are to be fown in drills, fometimes the land gets two plow- 
ings, the firft after harveff, the fecond at the time of fowing, 
the feed being thrown into every third furrow. The land 
defigned for barley is three times plowed. The firft 
plowing takes place immediately after harveft ; the fecond 
in the fpring, as foOn as the land is dry, commonly at the 
end of March or beginning of April. If the land be fuffl- 
ciently dry, March is reckoned preferable. After this fecond 
plowing it is harrowed. The third plowing takes place 


of Preftoti'pam. 53 

in May, about the beginning of the month, if the land be 
heavy j about the middle, if it be light. Scotch barley is 
ulually fown about the beginning of May in heavy lands ; 
later in proportion as they arc lighter ; and in the lighteft, 
not till the end of May. Potatoes are planted commonly 
after the fecond plowing of the barley land, though the 
beft feafon is reckoned to be about the end of April or be- 
ginning of May. Turnips are fown the £rft or fecond week 
of June. When the land has not been fummer fallowed, 
one boll of wheat or barley, one boll and half of peafe at 
leaft, and rather more than 5 £rlots of oats, are fown upon 
an ^cre ; when furonrier fallowed, foniewhat lefs than 3 fir- 
lots of wheat or barley ; when grafs feeds are fown, an acre 
takes about |6 or 18 lib. weight of clover, and one peck of 
ryc-grafe. Dung is the chief manure. The quantity requi- 
fite for an acre is about 26 two*horfe cart-loads of good fta- 
ble dung. The land inclining to clay requires fomewhat 
more ; lighter lands, rather lefs. On good lands dung feryes 
for four crops in the ordinary rotation. The price of flable 
dung is from 2 s. to 3 s. 6 d. per cart load, of flreet dung 
1 s. Horfes alone are employed in hufbandry work. Horfe- 
hoeing was introduced about 24 years ago, and has been 
practiftd ever fince. SmalFs plough with two horfes is ge- 
nerally ufed. The harveft begins ufually about the lafl week 
of Augufl, and ends on the fir ft or fecond week of October. 
In the year 1785, early oats were introduced here. They 
were fown on the 5th of April, and reaped on the aifl of 
joly. In the year following they were /own on the 3ifl: 
of March, and reaped on the 25th of July. The harveft 
for the other grain was in the fame proportion later than in 
the former year. Thefe oats, being ripe fo much fooner 
than the other kinds of grain, fuflfered fo greatly from the 
birds, that the fowing of them was difcontinued. 

64 Statijlical Account 

Preduee^^Tht produce of grain per acre, on ordinary 
Iand» as well as on the beft ground, is reckoned to be nearly 
in the following proportions ; 

Annual Medium Product. Ditto of the heft Land. 

Bolls per Acre. Bolls per Acre. 

Wheat . .9 — — . 13 or 14 

Barley - - 7 12 or 13 

Oats - - 8 IS 

Beans - -9 ^— — — ^-. i^ 

Peafe . . 6 ■ ■ — 10 

Peafe and beans 8 — — — ' 

Potatoes . 30 or 6 tons .-_. 50 

Hay - - 230 ftones 300 ftones* 

Rents and Inchfures — ^The rent of land is from i h lis* 
to 3K IDS. per acre. ' Almoft all the parifli is inclofed« 
Walls built of ftone and mortar form a great part of the in- 
dofures. They are an immediate fence, take up Icfs room 
than hedges, and afford no ifaelter to birds* The common 
height is 4 1 feet above the furface. The price of building is 
3 U 5 s. per rood, materials fumiihed by the builder. lo- 
clofures have confiderably increafed the rent of the lands. 
The ftate of property has been fludtuating. Within the 
prefent century, the whole lands in the pariih, with the ef- 
ception of 4 or 5 acres, have been fold once, and fome of the 
eftates much oftener. 

Wages and Prices of Labour.-^Tht ufual wages of a man 
£ervant, living in the family, are 5 L Sterling per annum ; of 
a maid fervant, 3 1. Sterling } of a man fervant, out of the 
houfe, 6\ bolls of oat- meal, in money and other perquifites 
from 5I. 16 s. to 61. IIS. 6d.*, a freehoufeof los. or 

12 5, 

of VreJlQU-pans. 6$ 

1 2 s. "value, and diet in harveft ; of a day-labourer, employed 
during the whole fcafon, rod. per day, when oc«fionalIy 
employed, is.; of women employed in weeding grain, 
5 d.; of a man in harveft, io d. and diet valued at 6 d. ; of 
a woman in harveft, 7 d. and diet, valued as above ; of a ma* 
fon^ I s* S d. ; cf a carpenter, from i s. 4 d. to is. ic d. ; 
of a taylor, 6 d. and diet ; plowing an acre of ground 
cofts 10 s.; harrowing ditto, 2S. ; cutting ditto of grafs, 
2s. and as. 6 d. ; cutting ditto of grain, 6s, •, reapers, how- 
ever, arc feldom hired to work by the piece. 

Prices of Grain and Prcvj/^ons. — The price of grain is, in 
a great meafurc, regulated by the higheft fiars of Eaft Lo- 
thian. Beef fells from 3d. to 41 d. per lib. ; mutton and 
veal, from 3 d. to 5 d. ; pork, from 3d. to 4 d. ; good lamb, 
from 1 s. to 3 s. per quarter i fowls, is. fometimcs more; 
pigeons, from 2 s, to 3 s. per dozen ; eggs, from 4 d. to 8d. 
per dozen ; butter, at the beginning oi the fcalbn, 1 s. ;, it 
is feldom under 9 d. per lib. 20 ounce Dutch. 

ManufiiBures. — There are at prefcnt 10 Zalt Pans in 
the pariQi, but only 6 are wrought. * When tlic weather 
IS diy, and the coal good, a pan may be drawn j times in a 
week. Each draug^ht requires 3 fillings of water, and yit-lJs, 
in fiftii*mer, about 18 bufhelsf, in winter about 16. The 
difference is owing to the fea water being ftronger in fummcr 
than in winter : For the fame reafon, in winter it requires 
26 or 28 hours to a draught ; in fummer only 20 or 22. The 
procefs is fometimcs retarded by the badnefs of the coal. 
When the fea water is good, a Scotch gallon of it will yield 
of fait nearly one lib. Avoirdupois. The draught confumes 
Vol. XVif. , I from 

• A bufhcl of fait contains 8 gallons, and weighs 56 lib. A- 

66 Statiflical Account 

from 1 8 to 26 bolls of fmall coal or culm. The price of the 
coal Is about 8 d. per boll, when laid down at the pan. Two 
men are employed in working a pan ; their joint wages from 
17$. to 20 s. per week. From the time the fait is drawn 
till it is fold, the wade by lying in the girnel is computed at 
1 buftiel in 10. The better the (iilt is made, the wafte is the 
lefs. When it is conveyed by land, a high wind occadons a 
greater wade than a moderate rain. Three bufhels in 40 
were formerly allowed for waftc, when it was carried coaft- 
ways. A late aft of Parliament reduces the allowance to i in 
40. The original coail of a fait pan amounts to about 300 I. 
Sterling ; and once in 3 years it cofts about 40 1, for repairs. 
The price of fait at preient, duty included, is 3?. per buHicl. 
The average made in this parifh» duiiog the 5 laft years, is 
10,750 bulhels 4 gallons per year. 

A manufafture oijlone ware is carried on a little to the weft 
of the church. It commenced about 40 years ago, and belongs 
to Mcffrs. Cadell. White ftonc ware, and cream coloured 
ware, (of late the laft chiefly) are manufaftured. About 40 
men, and upwards of 30 boys, are employed. The wages 
of the men are from 6 s. to 15 s. per week. Some of them^ 
when working by the piece, earn more than 1 5 s. The wa- 
ges of the boys are from i s. to 2 s- per week. The boys arc 
taken at 8 years of age, and continue till they arc 14 or 15, 
when they arc either bound as apprentices, or go to other 
occupations. About 24 tons of coals are confumed per 
week \ the price is 5 s. 6 d. per ton, when laid down at the 
work. The cby ufed in the manufafturc is brought from 
Devonihire, the Hint from Gravefend ; white and red lead 
from London, Hull, and Newcafile. The price of the clay 
IS 10 s. per ton, freight 14 s. per djtto ; the price of the fliat 
is 1 8 s. and 20 s. per ton, freight 8 s. per ditto. Fire clay is 
found in great plenty in the neighbourhood* This manu- 

of Prejion-pans. 6j 

fafturc circulates upwards of 25 1. per week. At Morifon's 
Haven there is another manufadlure of the fame kind, with 
the addition of brown ware •. About half the number of 
men and boys are employed as at the former. Clay for the 
brown ware is found hard by the work, A third manufac- 
ture of the above articles was carried on at the Cuttle, but 
has been dilccntini ed fcr a year or two; it is, however, a- 
bout to be refnmed. The fales, for articles of earthen ware, 
jre comjuicd at upwards of 5COol.^«'r annum. Bcfides the 
h-jotch ni;irkct, the ware is exported to inoft of the fea poits 
ifi Europe, to the Weft Jndies, and to North America.— 
1 here is a brick and tile work adjoining to the old church- 
yard. Six men arc employed. The wages of each, at a 
medium, arc l s. per day. This feafon 13 kilns were fired 
with tkles, each kiln containing 10,000. Of bricks 107,000 
were made. Each kiln with tiles confumed 21 cart-loads of 
coals, at 3 s. 6d. per cart-load of I2,cwt. One cart load, 
partly great coal, partly culm, is required, at an average, for 
3000 bricks. A little to the weft of the above there is an- 
other tile-work by the fea-fidc, where 9 kilns were fired, 
each kiln containing 9000 tiles, isind confiiming 20 cart-loads 
of coals. Three men arc employed at 7 s. each per week. 
Tiles, including a duty of 8 s. are fold at the rate of 2 1. 13 s, 
per thou/and. Bricks, including a duty of 2s. 6d. at the 
rate of 17 $. 6d. per thoufand. 

A manufaflure of 'otl of vitriol^ aquafortis^ and fp'trit of fait ^ 
is carried on here f. For many years it was confined alinolt 


(• It is near 100 years fmce the manufaflure of brown ware 
coromeDced in this* parilh. Towards the end of the laft c<rn- 
I tury, a glafs-houfc tor bottles was cr€(5tcd at Morifon'b Havtrn. 

} The nianufatfiure wms carried on for ioroe years, but did uox. 

I fucceed. 


t It commenced anno Domini J7C0, under the direction of 


68 Siatijlical Aaeunt 

folely to the oil of vitriol ; of bte it has been extended to the 
other articles above mentioned, as well as to white afi^es and 
Glauber falts. Upwrards of 50 men arc employed about the 
works. Some of them are occupied during the day, and 
fome of them during the night ; becaufe great part of the 
operations require conftant attendance. They are bound 
under indentures for 21 years, during which time they are 
paid weekly 6 s. for Aated wages, with a proportional allow- 
aiKe for extra work, in which they are h-equently employed. 
Brimftone and faltpetre are the raw materiab ufed in \\i€ 
manufadure of oil of vitriol. The faltpetre is purchafed 
chiefly at London at the £aft India Company's fales. The 
brimftone is imported from Leghorn. About 60 tons of 
coals are coc fumed per week. Each bottle of oil of vitriol 
contains, at a medium, 140 lb. Englifh weight \ of aqua- 
fortis, about 100 lb.; of fpirit of fait about 100 lb. The 
prices of the articles vary according to the price of the 
materials. At prefcnt oil of vitriol is fold at 34d. per lb. ; 
aquafortis at from 7^ d. to lo d. per lb. } fpirit of fait at 6 d. 
per lb. with 3 s. for each bottle and baiket \ Glauber falts at 
12 s. per cwt. -, white aflies at 1 1. 8 s. per cwt. None of 
the laft mentioned article, however, is now made. The 
Company fell alfo Manganefe in powder. This article is 
made ufc of in the new method of bleaching. Oil of vitriol 
is reckoned beft, when it is of the colour of pure water. Be- 
lides the home fale to bleachers and printers, thefe dtfTerent 
articles are exported to various places in Europe. The prc- 
fent firm of the Company is, ^he Prejlon-pam Vitriol Ccm^ 


MeiTrs Roebuck and Garbet; bat has pair<:d, fmce that time, 
into other hands. 

of Prefton-fansm 6^ 

Fyberies, — ^Thc chief fiibery is that of pjflers. There arc 
at prefcnt lo oyfter boats belonging to the parifli. Each boat 
requires 5 men \ but the profits ^re divided into 6 {hares, 
one fharc being applied for upholding the boat. There 
are not, however, above 23 regular filhermen ; all the Others 
work occafionally on land or fea, as they find moft for their 
advantage. A boat feldom returns with more than 400 or 
500, often wich fewer*. The prefent price is 15 d. per 
hundred. A hundred, as fold by the fifliers, contains 33 
nvarpf equal to fix fcore and twelve. Tlie retail hundred 
contains only 30 warp. Four oyfters make a warp. Three 
or four times in a feafon^ a boat fails with a cargo of them, 


* About 20 years ago, the fcalps were fo produflivc that 
6coo oyfters and upwards were frequently dragged by one boat 
in a day. The price at that time was 6 d. per hundred. Be- 
fides the confumptiou in the neighbourhood, they were export- 
ed to Ncwcaft'e, Hull, and London. A merchant at Leith, in 
the year 1773, contra<flfd to fliip oyfters on comniiffion for 
London. He parchafed for 10 difierent companies, and for lO 
years paid 2500 1. Sterling per arinurn for oyilcrs. The value 
of the home conforaption was eftimated to be ftill greater. For- 
ty boats were tnen employed, ot which 16 b€lonj;cd to Coc- 
Icenv ie in the parifh of Tranent ; 1 6 10 Prefton-pans, Cuttle, and 
Weft Pans; and 8 to Frfherrow. The oyllcrs f^r the LoMUon 
market were packed in barrels. Twelve vcfTiN were employed 
in the trade, from the middle of Jnauary to the middle of May. 
Each vcifcl carried, at a.medmm, 33* barrels ; eich b:irrtl W4S 
fuppcfcd to contain 120c fizeable oyilers. A pntiern was given 
10 eveiy boat, with injnnflicns to barrel none of a fmallcr lize ; 
biu ibcfe ijijun«5lions were far from being ftridly oblbrved. 
Th.rty cargoes have been (hipped in a fcafbn. The oyften 
were dropt in bays at the mouth of the Th.imes and Medway, 
and othtr grounds, to fatten until the fall, when ihey were 
dredged ^nd ftnr to market. This trade was given up in the 
year (7*^6, owing to the fcarclty and advanced prices of oyfters, 
thf price having lifen from 4 s. 6 d. to 7 s. and 8 s. per barrel. 
During fome ot the lalt years in which it was carried on, part 
of iht cargoes were- made up of oyfters from Newhavcn. The 
fcalpc v.-cre greatly cxhaufted by this trade. 

7© Staiijlical Account 

to the number of 30^000, fometicnes 40,000^ to Newcafllr« 
It Is an open boat *, manned with 6 men« It brings no car- 
go homewards ; being open there is nothing to defend goods 
from damage. The prefent price at Newcaf^Ie is 2 s. per 
}iundred« Oyfters arc carried to Glafgow by land. Two 
carriers, with 4 one-horfe carts, come from Glafgow to Edin- 
burgh with goods, and return loaded with oyfters, which 
jhey purchafc at Prefton-pans and Cockenzic. The medium 
13 about 9000 in each cart. Oyfters are found on a ftrong 
clay bottom, on rocks and ftones, and fometimes, though 
but thinly, in what is called by the fifhers fea tathe. Thcfb 
laft are of a very inferior quality. Thofe caught ncareft to 
the town are ufually the largeft and fatteft ; hence the large 
ones obta'med the name of Pandoors^ i. e. oyfters caught at 
the doors of the pans. The fca> water, a little freihened, is 
reckoned the moft nouriftiing to oyfters. This may be one 
reafon why thofe caught near to the town and fliore are fo 
large. Sand is prejudicial to them. The fifliers dredge 
from 4 to 15 fathoms depth of water. When they drive the 
dredge, they begin the oyfter fong, which they fing till the 
dredge is hauled up. The large oyfters arc picked out and 
kept ; thofe that are too fmall for prefent ufe, are thrown 
back into the fea. An oyfter is reckoned fizeable, when its 
fiiell is an inch and a half in diameter. Buckles, clams, fea- 
urchins, ftar-fifti, and corfe-fifli, arc found in the oyfter beds« 
The two laft mentioned, efpecially the corfe-fifti, prey on 
oyfters, and likewifc on mufcles. The fcalps reach from the 
fhore about 6 miles into the Frith, and extend both to the 
caft and weft of the boundaries of this parifli. In May the 
oyfters caft their fpat of fpawn. They are fickly in June and 


* This voyage was once performed in T3 honrs. The boat 
failed from Pore Seton harbour at 3 o'clock in the morning, and 
arrived at Ncwcaftle at 4 in the afternoon of the fame day. 

of Preftonpans^ 71 

July •, but recover in Auguft. For this reafon, the proper 
feafon for dredging commences on the ift of September, and 
ends on the laft of April. The common obfervation is, that 
the 07/kr f<^fon hits during all the months in which the 
letter R occurs. But the fifliers have not confined them- 
ielves Ari^lly to thefe n.onths ; and this is another caufe of 
the fcarcity ^. That the fcalps may recover, it would be 
proper to dredge very fparingly for a year or two, to take no 
oyftcrs but fuch as are fizeable, and at no time to dredge ia 
the nK>nths of May, June, July, and Auguft. The yonng 
fry are faid to acquire (hells in 24 hours ; but do not become 
faleable in lefs than 2 or 3 years. OyAer fhells make an 
excellent lime, remarkable for its whiteneis* They are ufed 
likewife as a mcJicine. — Befides oyftcrs, many other kinds 
of fiih t are caught in their feafon ; cod, ikate, flounders^ 
whlthigf, mackerel, lobftcrs, and crabs. 

Boats. — The oyfter boats arc of different dimenfions. 
Some of the largeft meafure about 22 feet in keel, 26 aloft 


• Some of the aged inhabitants report, that, about 60 or 70 
years ago, oyftert were in little eftimation In a judicial de- 
claraiion, emitted A. D. 1776, by a refidcntcr here, then 67 
years old, he deponed, that he remcn^bered when there were 
not above 3 or 4 boats employed : That they feldom caught 
above 6co in a day ; and that there was little or no demand, or 
fale for them, at that period. 

t Haddocks formerly were plentiful, but of late years they 
have not appeared. Two years ago herrings were caught in 
great numbers near the town, in the month of Auguft. In 
the parfh records it i& narrated, that in the fame month, A. D. 
169^, the herrings approached {o qear to the (bore, that the in- 
habitants went out with fieves and riddles to catch them. It is 
impodible to fpecify the prices of the laft mentioned kinds of 
filh, as they depend on the quantity caught, and, of confe- 
quence, vary every day. It is certain, however, that the prices 
are more than tripled within thefe 20 years. 

ya Siatifiical Account 

from flem to fteroi 7 in eztreme breadth^ acd 2 feet 9 or 10 
. inches in dq)th. The prime cod of one of thde, fuilj fur- 
nifhed, is 15 U or \6 1. The boat employed id the New- 
caitle trade meafures 33 feet in keel, 38 aloft from (Icm to 
fiem» 1 2 feet 9 inches in breadth, and 4 feet 8 inches in 

Harbour. — ^The only harbour in the pariOi is Morison's 
Haven, fo called from a family of the name of Morifon, 
who were formerly proprietors of the el^ate of Prcftongrange. 
About 80 or 90 years ago, it was called Ktvibaven^ and often 
Acheson's Haven, from an ancient family, the progenitors 
of the prcfcnt Lord Vifcount Gosford in Ireland *• It is fi- 
tuated a little to the weft of the town. It has about 10 feet of 
water at ftream tides, but might be deepened fo as to draw 
12. It IS reckoned one of the fafeft harbours in the Frith. 

Trade f. — The exports at prefcnt arc only fifli, and the 
different articles of manufadture which have been alrcad7 


* GosFO&D, which was a principal feat of this antient family, iies 
5 miles call of this, in the parlfh of Aberlady. Their Screech title 
was Glencairfuy* Mr Alexander Aitchison of Edinburgh, 
now claims being the lineal reprefentative of this family in Scot< 

+ Before the Union, a confiderable foreign trade was carried 
on hercy efptcially in Dutch and French goods. BeHdes the 
home market, thefc goods, together with fait and tobacco» were 
carried to the north of England, and many of them were.fmug- 
gled into that kingdom witk great profit to the adventurers. 
From England they brought wool, and exported it to France. 
They eiported likewife malt, fait, and coals* In confequence 
of the duties that were impofed after the Union, the trade, ef- 
pecially with England, was much lefs advantageous. It was, 
notwithfianding, ftill carried on to a confiderable extent. In 
the year 1719, 41 cargoes were delivered at the port of Pref- 


^f Prefian-pans. 73 

mccitioiied. The imports are the ingredients uled in the yi- 
trlol work and potteries ; fometimes Englith barley for the 
vie of the diftilleries in the neighbourhood. More wheati 
barley, oats, potatoes, and hay, are fuppofcd to be confumed 
than are raifed in the pariih : Lefs peafe and beans. Con* 
iiderable quantities of cabbage plants are raifed. The feafon 
of fowing them is Lammas. Befides the fale in the neigh- 
bourhood, ijo^ooo at a medium are fcnt annually to Glaf- 
gow, and about 70,000 to Falkirk and Carron. The feverer 
tht winter, the demand for them is the greater. The price 
is from 3 s. to 6 s. 8 d. per 1000. The principal market for 
garden produ£lions is Edinburgh. 

Cuftom*Hoti/e. — A cuftom-houfe is eftablifhed here, the ju- 
TifdifUon of which extends from the Ftggat Bourn on the 
weft, to the mooth of the Tyne on the eaft. The port is 
Morifon's Haven : The creeks, the Figgat Bourn,* MufleU 
burgh, Port-Seton, Abcrlady, and North Berwick. There 

Vol. XVIL K are 

ton-pauf, 19 of which were imported in fiiips belonging to the 
town. Of thefe cat goes 21 were wholly from Norway* 6 from 
Sweden, 1 from Dantzic, a from Dantzic and Norway, a from 
Bremen, 5 from Rotterdam, 2 from Havre de Grace and St. 
Martin, 1 from Oporto^ and 1 from Maryland in North Ameri* 
ca. This Jaft cargo confifted of loa hoglfaeads of tobacco, 59 
of which were deiivered at Prefton-pans, and the remainder was. 
carried to Leith. Some years after this period, feyeral of the 
▼eflels belonging co this port were loft ai Tea. Thh, together 
with the check it received at the Union, gave the trade a blow 
from which it never recovered. No perfon of enterprife or ca- 
pacity, or poflefled of a fufficient ftock, made any perfevering , 
effons to re-eftablifli it: Purchafers not Ending fuch an aflbrt- 
snent of goods as formerly, had reeoarfe to other ports) and a. 
bout the year 17431 it entirely ceaied. The harbour moftly 
ufed by the traders was Port*Seton, about a mile to the eaft, in 
the pariih of Tranent. Before the Union, and for fome years 
after it, the Dutch trade centered chiefly in Prefton-pans and 

74 Siatyiical Acctmnt 

are 31 falt-pans in the coUc£lioQ, viz. 11 at Cockenzici 4 at 
Preflon-pans, t at Qittle/ 4 at Weft Pans, 4 to the weft of 
Fiflierrow at Pinkie Pans, and 6 at Daddipgfton Pans. 

Markets^ JUii/st {jjV.— There is a butcher market in the 
parifli every Wcdncfday and Saturday* which is fupplted by 
butchers from Tranent and MufTciburgh, no perfoo of that 
occupation refiding in the parifli. Though nine tenths of 
the lands are rented* there is not one family who depend for 
their livelihood folely on farming, — There are only 5 brewers 
'in the parifh *. There arc two mills» one of which, at the 
weft end of Cuttle, is tuined by the water of a coal-level ; 
the other, at Morifon's Haven, is turned by the fea water, 
colleftcd at the flow of the tide. They are employed 10 
grinding flint for the ufe of the potteries. 

Stage and Tolls. — A ftage coach goes to Edinburgh and re- 
turns every day in the week, except Sunday. It departs at 
9 o'clock in the morning, and arrives at Edinburgh about 1 1« 
It leaves Edinburgh at 4 in the afternoon, and arrives at Pref- 
ton-pans about 6. {t carries 6 in fide paflTengers ; the fare is 
i.s. 8d. for each. There arc 2 toll-bars, Ravcnffiaugh toU 
on the poft road, and Waltyford toll, on a crofs road leael* 
iHg to Dalkeith. Thefe tolls, of which the laft mcntionql 
draws a mere trifle, were let at the following yearly rents : 
Afino'i'j^S at L. 197 Anno ijgi at L.40I 
1790 390 1792 417' 

Heritors^ isfc, — ^There arc 20 heritors, the principal of 

whom are the Countefs of Hyndford, proprietrefs of the 

lands of Preftongrangc and Dolphinfton ; Mr Yinbj pf 

Drummore, Mr Symc of Northfield, Mrs Kamfay of Burn* 


• The brewery of malt liquors was formerly carried on to' a 
inuch greater extent than it is now. In the year 1754 therij 
^crc 1 6 brewen. 

of Pre/ion^pans. JS 

rigg» thefniftees of Schawls hofpital, and the^truftees of 
Watfoo's hofpital. The priacipal feats are Preftongraoge, 
Drammorc, and Northfield.* Prefton Houfe * is occupied by 
the boys on Schaw's inftitutioh, 

C/mrci and School, — The great body of the people adhere 
ro the eftablifhed church. About a twentieth part of the 
whole number are feceders, of whom nearly two-thirds are 
of the Burgher perfuafiou* There arc lo or 12 Epifcopa- 
Iians. The prefem church was built A. D. 1774* It is neatly 
£tted up, and may accommodate about 900 hearers. The . 
patronage belongs to the Countefs of Hyndfbrd. The manfe 
was built AD. 178a : The fchoolmafter's houfe, which con- 
tains the ichool room in part of the ground floor, A. D. 1 7J^- 
The fees at the parifh fchool are, for Englifh, as. per quar- 
ter \ for Eoglifh and writing, as. 6 d. j for writing and arith- 
metic, 2 8.6d.; for Eoglilh,- writing, and arithmetic, 4 s.; 
for Latin, 48. The number of fcholars is from 6oto ^o. 
About the fame number may attend three private teachers. 

Poor. — ^Thc number of poor on the ftated pcnflon lift 
amounts to 42. Their penfions are fettled by the kirk-feilioo, 
and. are increafcd or diminifhed as their circumftances re- 
quire. No penfioner with a family receives at prefent more 
than 2S< per week, and no individual more than i 3. 4d. 
The funds ariie from the coIleAions at the church door; 
the intereft of 250 1. Sterling of funk money fj the rent 


• Preston Towir, formerly the refidence of the Hamil- 
TOMS of Prefton, faid to have been butk about the year i;oo, 
is ruinous. At Dolphinfton there are alfo the ruins of a family 
feat. . 

t The fum of 250 1 above mentioned, was left by different 
perfbns to the poor. One hundred of it wa» bequeathed by the 
late Andrew Macdowal of Bankton, one of the Senators of 
the College of Jnftice, who bequeathed a like fum to the poor 


j^ ^ Statijlical Account 

of a houfe and garden at Prefton *; tnd perquifites for mort* 
cloths. From thefe funds, a fum of nearly 30 1* per annum 
h appropriated for theJlated poor. The refidue is left in 
the hands of the. kirk-feflion, to be dtftributed, as an interim 
fupply, to thofe who arc fuddenly reduced to want by mif- 
fortune or difeafe. Out of it, likewife, are paid fmall falaries 
to the feflion-clerk, precentor, and beadle ; ichool wages for 
the education of a few poor fcholaVs ; fums occafionally for 
clothes to the poor ; and the funeral ezpences of the pen- 
6oned poor. In addition to the 30 1. above mentioned, the 
heritors and feuers are aflefTed to the amount of what more 
is neceflary for the maintenance of the ftated poor. The he* 
ritors arc affefled in proportion to their valued rents ; the 
feuers in proportion to the value of their fubjefts. The pro- 
portion paid by the latter is to that paid by the former, as i 
to 6 ; corrcfpondiqg to the fuppofed value of their diflfercnt 
properties, Houies belonging to heritors, for which they 
draw rent, (their family feats excepted,) are aflcffird after the 


<^ every pariOi in which he had property. In the bequcft, a 
right of prefenting the ppor perfon, or perfons, to whom the 
intereft of it is to be given, is rcferved to the heir of entail, 

• A. D. 1753, the heritors, and (omt of the feuers, applied 
to Parliament, and obtained an a(fl for impofing a duty of two 
pennies Scotch on each Scotch pint of ale brewed, brought in- 
•o, and vended in tlie parilh ; the money arifing from which was 
to be applied for repayment of a fum to be advjmc^d for pur^ 
chafing a charity work houfe, for conveying fofl water to the 
town of Prcfton-pans, and for repairing Morifon's Haven. For 
the firft mentioned purpofc a lioufe was purchaftd at Prefton, 
with a fmall garden ; but, after a trial of a few years, the fcheme 
not anfwcring, it was given up. Befides the utter averfion which 
many in adual want had againft entering into the houfe, the 
expcnce was found to be greater than when the penfioners had 
a ftated allowance given to them, and were permitted to fpend 
it after ihcir own way. Since that time, the rent of the houl^ 
9nd garden have made a part of the poor's fund. 

fame maimer as thofe of the feuert^ and are included with 
them In the paTiaeat «f the fixth part of the afieflment. The 
afleffiag of thefe fubjcAs bj the real rents was coofidered at 
ineligible for many reaibos. When a proprietor ocoapies his 
own houle, it is dificolt to afcertain Jwhat the rent ought to 
be* Tenants and landlords may MK. always be difpofed to 
give the neceflary information, efpeciaUy when they have an 
iotercft in with«Jiold]ng it. Even where the rent is afcertain- 
ed, there moft be a dif&rence in afleffiog old and new houfes^ 
though the rents be equal, on account of the neceflary repa- 
rations which the former require. This it is not eafy to ap- 
preciate. Ten per cent, may be an equitable deduAion for 
one honfo, but not for another. For thefe reafoos, the other 
mode of afleffing, by the Talue of the fubjeds, was aA^pted 
ld)out 8 years ago, and the proportioUi with concurrence of 
the heritors, feukd as it now ftandt. The value of the fub- 
jeA, or fubjeQs, belonging to each individual, is eftimated by 
perioas of ikiU and of charaAer \ and the, afleflinent b levied 
in proportion. The medium of the whole dIfboHements to 
the account of the poor, for the 5 years preceding 1793, ^ 
about 1 37 1. Sterling per MMtun* The fum paid as the week- 
ly maintenance of the ftated poor, for the prefent year ( x 792), 
is a 1. t s. 6d.} which is lefs than it has been for many years 

Fricndij S^iies^—Somf private Friendly Societies are in- 
ftitotcd bcre« By contributing a fmall fom of money week- 
ly, whfo in health, a fubTcribar, when fick, receives a com- 

• During the years 1782 and 1783, owing to the fcarcity 
which then diftrcffed the country, the number of the poor, and 
the fom neceffat y for their fupport, was greatly increafed. The 
rate for ftated penfioners, in 1783, amounted to 3 L 10 s. per 
weeky be/ides what was given to the occafiooal poor. The num« 
bf r of poor ccoitinned to be greater than ufual for feveral years 


^8 Siatijtical Acamnl , 

fortable.sillowance till he is again able to work : And, ia the 
event of his death, op that of any of his family, a fum of 
money is given, to help in defraying the expence of the fu- 
neral. There is an abufe to which inftitutions of this fort 
are liable, which ought to be guarded againfi, viz. permitting 
iubfcribers to become, members of iaore focieties than one, 
which may furnifli a temptation to the indolent and avari- 
eiousi to fefgn indifpofitions difficult to be deteded, and, of 
confequence, occaiion a mifapplication of the fiind. 

CiaritaHe Foundation, — James Schaw, proprietor of the 
eftate of Prefton, bequeathed the lands and barony of Prei^ 
toni with the refidue of fome other funds, for maintaining 
and educating boys, whofe parents are in poor circumflances« 
He died A. D. 1784. The houfe of Prefton was, according 
to the terms of the deed, fitted up for the reception of the 
boys; and the eftaUifhment commenced in February 1789. 
There is a mafter, houfe-keeper, and two maid fervants. At 
firft 15 boys were admitted. The number was afterwards 
increafed to 24. Two have died. They are taught Engliih, 
writing, and arithmetic ; and, as thqy grow up, fbme manual 
employment, viz. to knit dockings; to mend their clothes 
and ihoes, &c. Four names have a preference, in the fol- 
lowing order: ScbaWy Macmily Cumngbam^ and Stewart. The 
age of admiffion is from 4 to 7. They may regain in' the 
houfe till they are 14. They muft be free from the King's 
evil, and from all contagious diftempers. The truftees are 
empowered to bind them as apprentices, or otherwife to fet 
them out to bufinefs, as they (hall judge beft. 

Chapnun ••—On the ad Thurfday of July, the travelling 


* This word is ufcd, in the Scotch fenfe of it, for an itme- 
rant feller of wares. 

tf Pr^ion-pans. 79 

chapmen of the three Lotbians meet annuallf at Prefton^ . 
pans ^, and ele£t (bme of their .ntimber« for the purpofe of 
holding courts to enforce the obfcrvance of bye»Iaw9» to which 
they are bound at their entrance into the fociety. They tltSt^ 
on this occafiooj a provoft or prefes, a depute^ a clerk, a 
treafurer,^ 6 bailies, and feveral counlellors. There is one 
bajlie for Prcfton-pans and Cockenzte ; one for Haddington 
and North Berwick; one for Dunbar and Oldbamftockss 
one for Muficlburgh and Dalkeith; one for Qaeensferry and 
Sorrowftounneis ; and one for Linlithgow and Bathgate. Af- 
ter the elcAion they uiarch in a body, preceded by aufic^ to 
the crofs at Prefton, there drink a few bottles of wine, and 
then return. In the towns where their booths are erected at ' 
fairs, the bailie for that tdwn gets a pawn from each chap- 
man, who is bound to attend a meeting of the whole num- 
ber, at an appointed hour in the evening, or next morning. 
Here the behaviour of each during the fair is inquired into. 
If anjr of the bye-laws have been tranfgrcfled, a fine is exaAed 
and paid. If the offence has beeil grofs, they are expelled. 
The fines are depofited in the hands of the treafurer, and are 


• The place of meeting, formerly, was in an open field ad- 
joining to Prefton, on the fecond Thurfday of OAober, at which 
time a fair was. held there, called St. Jbromk's Fair. About 
the j'ear 1732, this fair was transferred to Prefton-pans, where 
it was held for about 20 years, and was then given up. No in., 
formation has been obtained, that can be depended on, as to the 
time when this (bciety was firft inftituted, nor how they came ' 
to hold their annuaJ^neeting at Prefton. The members re» 
iiding tn £aft Lothiafltere always the moft numerous^ which 
might be a reafbn for holding the meeting in this county ; and 
Prefton, being (ituated at its weftern extremity, is the town 
neareft to the other two Lothians, In the year 1636, they ac- 
quired a right to the Crofs there, which they ftill preferve. So 
moch is Prefton now decayed, that this crofs ftands in a field. 
The number of pack-horfe chapmen is much fewer than it once 
was, and they are ftill 00 the decline. About 50 years ago^ 
there were 15 in Eaft Lothian, all of whom had a good trade. 

8o Statical Accmti 

appBed to relieve the wniowt or Aixnilies of thoFe members 
dF the fociety wbo need fupptyi and fomeshnes thoft wlio 
kaff e been mfiiecefsitl in bafiacTs. They eanoot proceed to 
2Xk eleftion ualeiB foiM married aBcmbers be preftnt^ bat the 
yrefet it vfuaUf chofen from amottg the onmarried } k being 
fuppded, that thofi^ of this defertption will mcve readilf at- 
lead the fiun. When a new member if adautted, he pays 
fime eiitrp4none7i which is added to the eommon ftock : 
Tke fon of a member pays lefs than a ftrsAig^. At preTent, 
the number in Eaft Lothian wiio keep^ pack horfes does not 
etceedtf. FcrTons living in the country arer now more ki 
the praAice of purcbafing articlerof merchaadife in towns^ 
where the offiirtmcnta are bdttcr, Mad^^o which the acceft vb^ 
by good roads^ rendered mort caiy^chan it formerly waaw 
The whale ^itnbera of this faciety at prcfent are about 24 
ia^nomber* * 

BaliU £^Pr^<*f.— Oa the eaft of the inclofares of Prefton 
was fottght the battle of Prefton, A. D. 174;, in which tlie 
v%rtf of the Rebek obtained the vidory over the King's for- 
ces. The afkion began early in the morning of The 21ft of 
September, O* S. The Highlanders, in their accounts, ufu« 
ally gave it the name of the BattU of Gktdfmuiri though 
Glftdfmuir is at leaft 3 miles diftant from the fcene of aAion. 
There was, it feems, a tradition among them, that a battle 
wai to be fought on the M^ar of the GUdiSi which, in the 
i^, would infure to the rightful Soveragft the peaceaUe 
poflelfion of his throoe. They ma^the apptication that 
was moft £ivourabIe to their views. 

Eminent Men. — ^This parifli has been the refidence of fe« 
veral men of eminence, viz. the HoqouraUc James Eb&kimb 
af Grange, brother of the Eari. of Mab, and Lord Juftice 


^ Preftcn-fani. 8i 

Clerk for the 3 laft years of Queen Anne. He refigned hit 
feat bb the bench in the year 17341 that he might go idto 
Pa^rliaoient to dppofe Sir Ro^brt Wali^oi^e. He was 
proprietor of the lands now belonging to Schawls Hofpital 
and WatfoD's Hofphal. Hrw DalryaIpLB) Lord Dauk- 
MORR, was a diftinguiihed and popular Judge. Williai^ 
Git ANT of Prcflongrangie was Lord Advocate in 174<5» and 
carried on the profecutionsj againil tlie unfortunate perfons 
who bad been tngaged in the rebellion, with fuch fidelity to 
the CrowDi tod, at the fame time, with fo much feeling and 
lenity for the accuied, as gained him univei'fal approbation. 
He was afterwards appointed one of the Senators of the Col- 
lege of Jufiice, and one of the Lords CommiiSoDers of Juf* 
ticiarjr. Some gentlemen, of the firft merit in their feveral 
lines of life, were educated at the fchool here, viz. the late 
Colonel Campbell Dalrymple, youngeft fon of Lord 
Drummore, who was Governour of Guadaloupe after it was 
taken in the war of 1756$ Sir Robert Mitrray Keitu^ 
and his brother SiR Basil Keith ; the lad of whom, after 
an honourable life in the navy, died Governour of Jamaica. 
The firft dill furvives, an honour to the corps diplomatique, 
as a member of which he has done eminent fervices to his 
King and country. 

Jtiftrra/s.^^Tbcrc is plenty of coal, pai'ticularly in the edatc 
of Prefton-grange ; but none is wrought at prefcht, nor has 
been for more than 30 years. The pafifh is fupplied with 
this article from the pits in the pariiLes of Tranent and In- 
Terelk. Whin-ftone rock is alfo found here. There do not' 
appear to be atjy free done quarries worth the working. 

Advantages and Difadvaniages. — Among the advantages are . 
to be reckoned the £diety, and vicinity of coal. Among the 
Vol> XVII. L difadvantagesi 

8 % Statiftical . Auount 

difadnuitagcs^ the Icarcity of foft water* The convenience 
for Tea bathing is alfo a confiderabid advantage, as it renders 
the town much reforted to in fummer. The accefs to the 
fea is immediate. At high tide it flows clofe to the town^ 
and even at low tide does not recede to a great diftaoce. 

Population^-^YTom accurate lifts taken this year (1792) 
compared with the return to Dr Webfter in 1 755, the popu- 
lation of this parifli appears to have increafed. above oitcfifth 
within thcfe 40 years, i he prefent number of fouls is 2028 
The number in 1755 was . • . ^59^ 

Increafe 432 

According to the parifh regifter, which appears to be very 
ex*ft, the number of perfons of both fexes^ born in the pa- 
Fifhior a century pad, is as follows : / 

Table x>t Bi 





From idpi 

to 1700 inclufive 















1730 ' 



















•' 1761 


















In the year 

1 791 




. 3<Si« 



rf Prefton^ptttu. 83 

Of the lafl: 10 yearc in the tabic, the grcatcft number of 

birtfasia one year, viz. 1789, was 82 

The Icail liumbcr in one year, vi2. 1790 57 

The medium of - - . ^ ijg is (j^j 

Annual average of the laft 10 ycar^ in the table 681 is 68^ 
Twins born within the laft lo years ♦ - ao 

Statistical T^bl^ of the Parish of Pres-tok-pansj for 


Houfes. Fam. Mai. Fern. ToU 

There are« in the town of 

Prefton-pans, - - 198 384 687 805 149.3 

In Cuttle - - - 3a 89 126 J65 291 

In Prefton, including North- 
field and Schaw's Hofpital 16 23 6^ 49 114 

lo Dolphinfion and Dolphin- 

fton Mains - * ^3 13 3^ 28 60 

In Pjreftongrange, Druxnmore, 

and the reft of the parifh 11 11 26 45 71* 

Total 290 520 936 1092 2028 

Perfons born out of the parifh - 301 453 754 

■■ in England - "95 M 

■I in Ireland - -10 



Maks. Females. 
Under 10 years of age . . 304 289 
From 10 to 20 - . - 188 - 160 

Carried forward 492 449 


• Ten females tircre bom at 5 births, 8 males at 4, and 
mak and one female at one. 

Si^di/lUal Account 

r ' M^US. 


Brought over 492 



From 20 to 60 - - - 357 


■■■■ 60 — 70 - - - '63 


— r^ 70 — 80 - - - ai 


— - 80 — 9a - . . - 3 







Proprietors of' land reiiding 



Ditto non-rcfidiflg - - - 



Proprietors of houfcs refiding 



Ditto non-rcfidiag ... 




Clergyman - , . - 



Schoolmafter . - - - 



Prt^ate teachers - -. - 



Snrgcon - - - ^ 



Officers of the cofloms 



Ditto of the cxcifc - * - 



Farmers above 50 1, fer annum • 



Ditto under 50 1. - - - 



Brewers - - - * - 



Employed at a diftillery in a neighbouring pariih 


Licenfcd to fell Britifli fpirits andHile f 



Salters and fait agents - ' - 



Shopkeepers r - - 



Gardners. - - -' 



Barbers ^ - - - - 

> 2 

f Three of thefe do not refide in the p^rlih. 
f Two of thefc arc licenfcd to fell foreign fpirits. 

tf Freftonrpant* 



'JntyiifSm jouTttiyffUft* ^ppfittim 









7 8 7 

12 . 


12 I- 


Sho^akers * 

14 4 I ' 



8 3 ^ 


Watchmakers « 

1 2 


jvopccmkcrs * 

1 I 2 

4 - 

Candlemaker ^ 







M » W * 

2 "• 

Slaters ♦ ^ 

^ • *• 

- 3 


m m -mm' 

« ' 


. 1 -. . 

8 •!. 


- - 


MaUs^ Femaks. 


Domeftjc fervants 

• P 73 


Farm iervants ♦ 

• 24 5.. 






« M . •» • 



• f» - ■ _ ^ 


Regular fiflbermen 



Perfons employed in 

the potteries, and their families 

aja ; 

^ vitriol works, with^itto 



. faU^nans. with ditto 

1 '• 


* Some of the land is rented by perfons who do not refide 
in the parifli* Their fervants are not taken into account. Some 
of it it parcelled into lots of a few acres among different te- 
mntsy who labour it themfelves, 

fS Statyiical AcMM 

Ftt&iisrci^sig to the aav7,xo the lill and former wan 28 

Ditto- in the army* - - - - M 

Lands, Remi*s, &c. 

Number of acres in Scouh meafntc, about <- 954 

Valued rent in Scotch money - - L. 526^ 
Keal ditto in Sterling f, about - - L. 2480 

Number of wheel carriages • - • 6 

— — .— . carts - • ■ • S4 

—— — ploughs - - - - 23 


Value of each. Total value. 
Number of draught horfes, 88 L. 12 12 o L. iioS x6 o 
■ faddle and carriage 

;ditto» - 18 20 o o 360 b o 

' ■ '■" black cattle 4:, ^ 800 464 o o 

-— — cows, - (Sj 700 455 o 

" ; * /heep, - 60 too 69 o o 

L.2447 i^ o 


^ Seven of thefe are Chelfeapenfioners. 

t This includes aioL for orchards and gardens. 

% The above is the medium price of the cattle when bought. 
They are fed chiefly on tuniipi, and fold at about 3 1, profit. 





^ o 2 P* 

ft- t 

^•R S» 

R - "^ " 

fj r^ ** ^ 

■ O 13 n 

::" " " 

^^ ^ -^ ^ 
OR) *U rt r^ 

« '* "^ *»^ 

^ £2 «^ -I 

s ^ ^ &* 

S'« '^ 

n • O 


__ c 




&i s 

P- CI* 







00 O^ M o» U» OS^ M O 00 

00O\« 00«<iVo 


O O O O M M 

00 00 ooNO - >a 

8 Z 

O wn o^n O M 

o o o 00 e o 

M VI -^ ^ \0 .0N*^ 0\00>| 00 « 

oooobo-i^oo o^Jg. 

- Pi- 


cog ^4 t^VoOs^MV^ 

e " oi o o\w\ 00 oiu> 

|l» M M (M 

r - S. 



a JL 



M \0 A^ M^4kVrt 00O^M<^ 


OsO O O 0^0 OVOCm Omc»» 








Suaijiical Accotim ' . 

>T\ 1 

11 f« fTi 


n "^ •t • 



o < 


9 ! 

3 B ' S 



o- 9: S: S*. 

7^ r* r* r* 


r* • 

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O O ' O O 

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.. nr 









M •>!'«• m' 


■• ' 

*a *» 

J "vs «a 


\o V 

3 00 oo 


»« O NO «0 


r» ' «^ r^ r» 



o o o o 



H B: - S: & 9: 


S R R « ?; 



8». o o o o 


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S M » 

i* > 

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3 N£ 

I- c 

; 4 








W»t V 

n A 

30 V 

> < 






O ( 

14 -^ 

1 < 
















pp r 


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u» 'J 

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a» c. 

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^ w 

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4 Nrf 







NO < 

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" N u'm B E R VIL 


BU&GH.— Synod of Mersb and Tiviotdals). 
By ibe Rev. Mr Thomas Elliot^ Mitnfhr. 

Farm^ Extent^ and Jtpp^rance* 

THE parifh of Cavers is irregular in its Ibrm, and ol 
coofiderable extent) being upwards of 20 miles long 
from W. to £. and from 7 to a broad. •The appearance of 
the weflem part of the parifh is hilly, and that of the eaftem 
flat Some of the hills are of confiderable height ; firom one 
of them, called the Wifp^ may be feea both the eaft and weft 

JRxvers^ &f/, aful Produce. — ^The foil in the lower part of 
the parifh, from the church to the eaf^ern boundary, at the 
confluence of the two rivers, Tiviet ar d Rulef is rich and fer- 
tile^ and produces good crops of wheat, oats, barley, and 
peafe. Clover, rye-grafs, and turnips, arc alfo raifed in con- 
fiderable quantities. The land there lets from 15 s. to 30 s. 
per acre. The foil of the upper parts is perfcflly adapted 
to the purpolie to which it is chiefly applied, viz. the breed- 
ing of fheep. 

Vol. XVIL M Sh^p 

|V Stafifiical Account 

Sheep and Images — The number of fliccp m the pari(h iJ 
about i2»ooo ; they are of the long white-faced kind, which 
bear the (hort clothing wool. The breed has been much 
meliorated ofiate, by means of rams got from the borders of 
the Cheviot hills, and the wool now fells at from 14 s. to 17 s. 
per (lone. A common labourer will earn i4d. per day in 
futiimer, and 10 d. in winter. A man-fervant employed hi 
farm work, gets from 6 1 to 7 1. per annum, with virtuals ; a 
maid-fervant, from 3 L 10 s. to 4I. los. A ftiepherd, on a 
farm where the maftrr refides, infiead of wages, Is allowed 
to keep fheep ; and on a led farm, is allowed three fcore 
and ten, and a milk cow, which may be valued at 18 1. 

Proprietors, Rent, isfc — There are 1 1 heritors in the pari(h, 
and, except the Duke of Buccleugh, all the principal ones re* 
fide in it. The valued rent is 18,921 L 16 s. 8 d. Scotch. 
I'he real rent b about 4700 L Sterlijogp . 

Population* — ^The number of births, deaths, and marriages^ 
cannot be precifcly afcertained, as few of the Seceders enter 
their childrcns names in the pari(h regifter. From Dr Wcb- 
fier's report, however, it is certain, that the population of the 
pari(h has increafcd confiderably within thefe 40 years* The 
number of inhabitants at prcfenf(i794) is about 1300 

The number of fouls, in 1755, was - - 993 



Church and P^or.— Gfiokcfc DouGLAS, Efq; of Cavers 
is patron of the parifli. The living confiih of 83 1. 6 s. 8 d. 
Sterl. in money, atid 2 and a hrrtf chalders of grain, half meal, 
half barley ; together with a manfe and garden, and a glebe of 
1 1 Englifl) acres, ficfides the parifh church, there is a cha« 
pie of cafe ercfledj for the convenience of the wcftern paits 


ef Cavers. j>t 

of this pariih, and that of Hawick The chaplain who performs 
the duty, is partly paid by the Duke of Buccleughi and the m)- 
nifters of Cavers and Hawick, and partly from a fubf^riptiqn 
by the people. The number of poor receiving weekly Aipport 
IS about 40, for which the heritors ^tis themfclves, to. the 
amount of 140 1. yearly. '1 he weekly coUcdions are givQn 
by the kirk-fcffion to the poor not belonging to the h(l of 
penGoners.-p-There iS| in the village of Dtnliolm^ a Camero* 
nian meeting-houfe, which is attended by ieveral of the in- 
habitants and neighbourhood, who are between 2 and 3 miles 
dlAant from the kirk \ few of them, however, join in com* 
munion with them. 

Eminent Mtn.^Aloxii Heathficl(J *, fo juftly famed for his 
miUtary exertions, particularly his gallant defence of Gibral- 

• GfioiGi AuGuarvs EtiOTT, Lord Heathfieli>, the 9th 
fon of Sir Gilbert Eliott, Bart, of Stobs, was born at the pater, 
aai eftate in the year 1718. He fhcwed an early inclination for 
a military life, and foon became an officer in the 23d regimenc 
of foot, the Royal Welfh Fufileers. He left this rcgin)ent, and 
went into the corps of engineers at Woolwich, where he conti- 
nued till the year J740, Tvhen he became adjutant in the 2d 
troop of horfc guards. He fcrvcd in Germany^ and was woun- 
ded at the battles of Dittengen and Fontenoy. In March 1759, 
he was appointed to the 15th regiment of li^ht dragoons ; and, 
in the ^uguft following, headed the fecond line of horfe under 
the Marquis of Granby, at the battle of Minden. Being con- 
ftitu ted a lieutenant general, he was, in 176:$, ordered from 
Germany, for the pjrpofe of adlding, as fecond in command, 
at the memorable «eduAien of the Havannah. He was ap- 
pointed Commander in Chief in Ireland in 17741 but being dif- 
guiUd, on his arrival, he made a requell to be recaiMed, which 
was complied with ; and, upon the death of Lord Cornwallis, 
be was made Governor of 'Gibraltar in his place, which fortrcf's 
he bravely defended during the late fiege, in the years 1779. 
1780, 1 78 1, and ,782 In 1783, he was granted a penfion of 
9000 1, psr annum^ and created a Knight of the Bath ; and, in 
1787, wa» railed to the dignity of a peer of Great Britain, The 


^i Sfai&fkal.AccouMt 

tar» In the years 1779, 1780, and 178.I9 is fprmig from tlie 
hwilyoi Stobs, nov reprefented by Sir William EUott, Bart. 
cae of (he principal heritors of this pariflu 

AnHquHtis —The remains of the Roman or Saxon fortifi* 
cation, called Cairail^ runs through this parifli, from S W. 
to N. W. towards Selkirk and Galla Water. There a^ (e- 
veral camps to be found in the upper part of this p«ri(h^ 
Some of them appear to have been Roman campti and others 
Saxon *• 

honours which he had thus juftly acquired, he did not lon^xn* 
joy, for he died in the year 1790. ; 

* At a place called Carlenrsgg^ a number of Roman nrnf 
were dug up about 5 years ago ; but when thefe camps were 
formed, or the urns depofited, the prefent incumbent has never 
been able to difcpver. At Priefl-haugh, a great number of gold 
coins were found, fuppofed to have been depofited by fome of 
the attendants of Queen Mary» when (he vifited Bothwell at the 
Hermitage Caflle. At a fmall wood, near Carlenrigg Chapel^ 
the famous John Armstrong was taken a;|d flaixi. 

'J • 



(County of M£RSE.<>*FRBtBTT£BT of Dukse;--- 
Synod of JMb&sb and TiviotdalB;.. 

£f tit Riv. Mr RoBfi&T.HoMB, Miiqfien 

Form^ SHuatum, mnd B$ctintm 

Tins' parifli is of a triangular toroi, and tarmtnatts in 
a point in the caft, where the tour parilhes o« roI« 
wartby i^go, £dff!^fl»^ ^ndXangtoo, all meet. It i^ aoom 3 
fldiles long, and its utmoit breadth aboul a* 

SeUttfid CnUivatbn.'^Tbt foil is various ; the greateft gart 
cfayi ahd fome of that on a tilly bed, which is beft auapfbA 
for grais i other p^fXB ok it are gravcUiQi, and lomc fandy. 
On tJie north-weft there is a conliderable extent of nuiir.— 
The whole of the parifh is ioclofed^ excepting a imall hrtng 
and the muir allotted by the proprietor to the ufe oi the 
.village, for pafture and fuel. Above 150c acres are in 
old ffrsSSf and i'ubdivided into inclofures of from 10 to 30 
acrest all of them luffiricntly watered. Thefe are let annn- ' 
ally by pobUc roupi and bring very high rents, for the ac- 
commodation of thofe farmersi who breed more dock than 
^ey can maintain at home, 


ffi, Stafiftical Ace$uni 

Produce^ FroprUior^ and Rents. — TKc principal ttops ta 
the parilh are oats and barley, a few peafe, and foinetimes » 
little wheat. Turnips have of late years become a more ge- 
neral crop, and iucceed well, i here it a confiderable quan- 
tity of old timber, ot good iize, befides much young plaot- 
ings which are, in general, very thriving — Great attention 
has been paid by the Earl of March mont (fole proprietor 
of the parilh) to the drefling of the hedges \ tnany of them 
are allowed to be the fincft in the country. The valued 
rent cf the parifh is 1O24 1. Scotch, llie real rent is about 
1000 h Sterling. Grafs land lets at from 10 s. to 30 s. per 
^cre ; arable land from 17 s. to 20 s. 

P$puiatton. — The village of Polwarth if the moft populous 
part ot the parilh. The population has, on the whole, jn- 
crtafcd within thefe 40 years, as will appear from the foU 
lowing tablq : , 

- Population Table of the Parish of Polwarth. 



In the village ' - 



In the country 



Total in I '793 

. 72 


Numbtr of louls in the whole parilh, as re- 

turned to Ur Webttcr in 1755 





in the Village. 


3 Tailors 

• 2 


I Shoemakers 


Snuth ^ 

I I'anner 



% Carters ^ 




' Village^ CBmaU^ and Difeafis.^Tht village of Folwarth b 
fituatcd on very wet, and even fwampy grotind[» (b that aU 
moft in' every hoafe they have a hole dug to coUe£k the uii« 
dcr water, which requires to be often emptied in wet wea- 
ther; and yet the inhabitants are very healthy^ being neither 
fobjcA to rheumatic nor aguifh complaints. The prcfent 
iDcumbent, who has been minifter of the parifli 24 years^ 
docs not remember any epidemical diftemper prevailing in 
the village •. — ^Thc houfes arc very much fcattered« not a- 
bove 2 or 3 at moft being fitaated clofe to each other. It is 
probably owing to this circumftance, that epidemic diftem- 
pcrs do not fpread. — In the middle of the village there are 
two thorn trees^ at about 6 yards dil^ance from each otlier, 
around which^ it was formerly the cuftom, for every new 
married pair, with their company, to dance in a ring \ iroux 
hence the fong of Poltvarth on the Green, But this cuftom 
-has fallen much into difufe, there not having been above % 
raftances of it thefe 20 years. 

Manner of Living. — Almoft every houfeholder, along 
with his houfe, rents a fmalt portion of land, called an acre^ 
but which is often nearer tnvo. With the produce thereof^ 
together with what they can fpare from their gardens, and 
the ufe of a confiderable extent of muir, which they enjoy 
by the indulgence of the proprietor, they are enabled to keep 
one cow each, and moft of them what is called a follower. 
As the rents of their rmall pofleffions are very moderate, 
they live comfortably, an^ fcldom recuove, moft of the fa- 
VD^)M,% having been in the village for fevcral generations 


• In autumn 1790, an epidemic fever and fore throat, which 
was very prevaUnt in Dunfc ani in every village round about; 
made its appearance in two di£F<:renC houifes ia Polwarth at ibe 
fiimc timci but fpread no farther. 

^ Sla^kal Jccouttt 

lack I wndt for every houlc thtt becomiBs emply» there Ire 
always feveral competitors. The 3 carters above memlooed 
have a brger portion of land, and keep 2 horfes, with 
which thef ptongh the people's acres } and bring home their 
twfy which is their principal fueL 

Cl^rcb * -4!)n the front of the church there is the fol- 
bHriBg inibiption :-»Timp/um boc Dei cuUm in iccUfia de Ps/* 
^Werihf a fnndi dpmhu ejufdem prim dt/lgfmfiMiSp dein cagtto^ 
mmtt aedificatum H dicatum ante annum /aiuHs 900, refforiom 
ft$ hemfiew doiaium Sed inaporis curfu UkefaBum^ a Dh§* 
}oHAh^EdeSAVCToCLA%ofdeHtrdmanfion genir$Dm.Pa* 
tricii de Poiwartb dt eodem^ circa annum 1 378, rtparatum^ tanm 
dmm viro vrtu/lttie ad ruinam Virgfns, fumptiius utrit^qur pr^ 
fipioe boiredis^ Dm. ParRicii Hume, Camitis de March- 
MONT, iSte. fiimmi Scctiar Cbancellarii^H Dnae. GtisSBl.L Jt 
Xar» Omitijbr^ ejus fpenfae, fepukbri Jacetlo arataU riant 
confiruSum^ et campanarum cbebjfc^ adauffum fmU Ann§ Do^ 
mini 1703. The living confifts of 64 bolls of oatSj 32 of 
barleys 24 1. 17 s. Sterling in money, with a manfc^ and a 
glebe <tf abottC 14 Engliih acres. 

p^0r.^*-The number of poor upon the roll of the pariOi 
aoBounts to twelve, and they receive in all, according to 
their difiercnt firuations^ 26 L 13 s. 4d« which is raifed by 
aflcflinent^ whereof one half is paid by the proprietor^ 
the other half by the tenants. Befides the inrolled poor, 
these are feveral who receive from the kirk-feffion in^ 


* Apam Nvmc, as appears from his tomb^ftone^ was the firft 
tainifier afrcr the Refbrmation fhc three laft minifters, as 
Well as the prelent incumbent » were ail Huh bs. 

t That is^ Lord Jchn SiMCMia. 

* of Polwartb. ^j 

terim TappIIes ; and others, particularly the widows of fuch 
as have been fervaots or day-labourers to the Earl of March* 
mont,^ are allowed, by his Lord(hip« fome a ftone, othen 
half a ftone of oat meal per week, whkh, with the pro* 
duce of their own labour, enables them to live comfort- 
ably. It may alfo be obferved, that there are many old and 
infirm men, to whom his Lordlhipi (who has "always been 
remarkable for his humanity and attention to the poor peo- 
ple in this parifl), as well as upon other parts of his eftates), 
gives work^ or rather wages for what they are unable to per* 
form* . 

Vol. XVII. N NUM- 

^8 Staiijlical Account 



(County of Kirkcupbright. — Synod and Presbytery of 


By the Rev. Mr James Littlb, Mini/lcr. 

Origin of the Names, 

THE name of the pariih of Col vend appears to have been 
antiently Culwen. In the 15th century, a Jol^nnes 
de Cukvertf the anceltor of the prefcnt family of Co R wen 
of Workington^ in Cumberland » ipto which the name, when 
unconncftcd with the territory, hath been corrupted, married 
a daughter of the family of the Stuarts, Lords of Galloway ; 
which is vouched by the principal contraA of marriage, in 
the poflefSon of the Curwen family — South wick appears 
to be a compound of the Englifli word foutb^ and the Saxon 
word w/'o which fignifiesi in that language^ the winding of a 

Situation^ Extent ^ and Form. — This is one of what arc called 
the ten parifhes ♦, which lie within the ftewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, on the eaft fide of the water of f7rr, or Orr^ but 
within the prefbytery, fynod, and commiiTariot of Dumfries. 
The river JJrr fcparatcs it, on the W. from the parifh of 


• The other 9 arc Urr. Kirkpatrick Durham, Kirkgunzeon, 
NcF-Abb.y, Kirkbcan, Troquire, Tcrrcglcs, LochruUon, and 
l^irkpatrick Irongray. 

xf Colvend and Soutbwick^ ^ 

fiulttle. It extends, in length, from £• to W* along the 
coaft of the Solway Frith, at>out 8 miles, and in breadth^ 
frooa N. to S. about 4 milesi forming nearly a right angled 
parallelogram. The pairifh church ftands 20 miles S. W, from 
Dumfries^ 16 miles E. from Kirkcudbright, and 9 leagues, by 
water, N. of the town of Whitehaven in Cumberland* 

Surface^ Sot/, Hillsy 55*r. — ^The furface of this parifh is ex- 
tremely rough and irregular. No extenlive tradls of arable 
land, or regular fields, are here to be met with; but only 
fmaii fpors and patches, and even thefe much broke and in- 
terrupted by rocks, large heaps or cairns of ftones, and im- 
penetrable copfes of thorn, fjrze, and briers or bramble. The 
furface is generally uneven, all aCccnding or defcending, but 
the many riHng grounds and hills are not very high. For 
near 2 miles towards the £• end of the parifh along the coadg 
the country becomes more fmoorh and fiat, and the fields 
more regular, and moftly arable: But along the northern fron- 
tier, efpecially towards the N. E. extremity of the parifh, 
there are very mountainous grounds covered with heath, and 
tunning in a chain, into the fkirts of the large and confpicu- 
ous mountain Crow-fell *. In fuch a country, it is next to 
impofllble to afcertain the precife quantity of arable ground, 
or even to conjc^ure what proportion it bears, to the many 
fpots and large traAs of what may be pronounced incapable 
of cultivation, and utterly unimprovable. The foil is, for the 
moft part, a light loam, warm and fertile, adapted for paOu- 
rage rather than tillage. It would be much more produftive, 
were it not for a pernicious mixture of coarfe fand, or rather 
large particles of fiint and crumbled granite ftone, which too 


• Both in this, and the neighbouring countieaof Cumberland 
and Weflmorland, many of the large gna^s of high mountainoua 
ground are called/^//. 

io# Statiftical Acanmi 

haftily abrorin the natural moifiurei and foon exhanfts the 
ftrength of manure and improvement. Of late years, confide- 
rable«nd pretty fucccfsful efforts have been made, for clear- 
ing the ground of ftones and bramble, extending the quan- 
tity of arable landj and building fences } fo that now almoft 
all that will admit of culture, or improvement^ hath been ac« 
tually brought under the plough. 

Sea Coaft. — The fea coaft here along the frhh Is remark- 
ably bold and rocky, forming high and tremendous precipicesj 
from which the tide ebbs, leaving dry a large traft of flat 
{and| from whence, at low water, may be viewed fome pt6lu- 
refque and magnificent fcenes : High aqd pointed fpires, at 
the bafes of which are paflages through them in form of rude 
arches ; fpacious and regular amphitheatres, and mouths of 
caverns running up under ground into the land, farther than 
any human being bath ever adventured to explore.. In the 
crevices of the rock, but generally where the precipice b over- 
lianging, or mod inacceffible, is found the marine plant y^ji»* 
phire, well known as a preferve or pickle \ to the dangerous 
expedients for gathering which, as alluded to of old by Shakc- 
fpeare *, the people here are, at this day, no Grangers. To- 
wards the eaft, about the mouth of Southwick water, the 
coaft becomes entirely flat. 

Fritb^ Rivers, isfc — ^The Solway Frifh^ here, is 9 leagues 
over. By it there is frequent communication with the towna 
of Whitehaven, Partoun, Harrington, Workington, Mary« 
f}Ort, and AUanby, in the north of England \ from whence 
Lme is imported^ and conveyed into the interior parts of 


> half way down 

Hangs one that gathers famphire; dreadfid trade. 

of C^lvend and ScutlmicL loi 

t}ie country up the water of Urr ; which is a miles broad afc 
its con^ttCDce with the frith, and is naTigable from thenoe 
about 8 miles by veflels of 80 tous burden. This navigable 
river, about 2 miles from its mouth, forms within land a large 
bafoD, commonly called GiU*s Hoid^ into which large veflcls 
are often obliged to put, in itormy weather, where they are 
well fhehered and fafely moored. The water of Southwick 
is a fmaller fiream, which faib into the frith towards the eaft 
end c^ the pariih, and alfo afibrds a convenience for impor- 
tation of linae $ being navigable for near 2 miles by veflels of 
fmall burthen* The navigation, howler, of theSolway Frith 
is every day becoming more difficult and hazardous, by the 
large fand Ixmks which lie in its channel, on which many 
ihipwrecks happen $ and which within thefe few years have 
rifcn niiich higher, and extended thcmfelves much farther 
out towards its mouth, ieeming to threaten, at no very diftant 
period, to Ihut it up altogether. 

C/ruM//, and Dijea/es. ^^Thls part of the country, enjoying 
a free circulation of air, a warm dry foil, and, like aU other 
rpcky countries, many fprings of excellent water, might be 
expefled to be more healthy than it i» really experienced to 
be. Exceffive falls of rain, brought by violent foutherly and ^ 
iboth-wefterly winds, blowing in from the neighbouring Atr 
lantic, have of late years been feverely felt here i and have 
probably contributed to the frequency of flow fevers, fluxes^ 
catarrhs, and confumptions, but above all to rheumatic com« 
plaints, which univerfally prevail here. In autumn 1772, the 
infedtion of a malignant fever was communicated to this pa* 
ri(h from abroad, and made great havock : It was 3 years 
before the infection was quite extinguiihed. The fodden and 
loud gufts of fouth-wefterly winds, feveral of which have be^a 
qtperienced in this part of the country, uncommonly violent 


X02' StatHlical Account - 

within thefe laft 12 years, arc by feme conjcftured .to proceed 
from volcanic eruptions from the bottom of the Atlantic 

&iaie of Property, < — ^The old valued rent of the parifh is 
3183L Scotch. The prefent rental cannot be precifcly ftatedf 
Accefs cannot be cafily had to the knowledge of the rent of 
fome farms ; fcveral grounds are in the natural poiTeffion of 
the proprietors : It may probably be ibmcwhat between 2500I. 
and 3000 1. There are 22 heritors, foine of whom have pro- 
perty in the parifti to the extent of 700 1. per annum i fome fo 
low as 7 1. Ten of thefe arc refident. There arc no towns or 
villages in the parifli. The farms are generally fmall ; There 
are about 130 tenants, or perfons who may be faid to occupy 
land in the parifh, not more than one or two of whom farm 
to the extent of 100 1. of yearly rent ; many fo low as 5 L 

Produce and Cultivation. — The kinds of grain produced here 
cohfift chiefly of oats and barley 5 and of green crops, pota- 
toes, turnips, and clover. The rotation of crops ufually ob- 
fervcd is, firft 2 or 3 fucccffive crops of oats ; then the ground 
is fummer fallowed, and dunged, with a green crop of pota* 
toes or turnips; laflly, a crop of barley, along with which arc 
fown rycgrafs, and red and white clover lecds: After one 
crop of hay is taken, the ground is paftured 4 or 5 years be- 
fore it is again opened up. Lime is uicd as a manure, and is 
imported from Cumberland, at i s. the Carlifle bulhel. Shells 
are found in great abundance on the ftiore, and have alfo 
been much ufed, but are experienced to be rather too ftimu^ 
lating a manure for fo very thin and light a foil, i he great 
excellency of (hells, as a manure, is for breaking or loofening 
a ftiff clay, or a heavy wet foil. The farmers here, and all 
•vcr Galloway, at length convinced of the benefit and impor- 


of Cohend and Souibwich. j 03 

tance of dang as a manure, arc difufing the praftice of lajing 
their black cattle out in the open fields all winter, and arc 
now beginning to feed them in houfes or (hades. The foil, 
^ot only of this parifli, but of almoft the whole county, bc^ 
ing warm and dry, in wet funniers produces luxuriant crops 
of corn and graft. Tiie crcjps here have been very plentiful 
thcfe laft 4 or 5 years. 

Exports^ Prices cf Wages ^ Ssfr.— Unpron.ifing as the appear^* 
ance of the country is, this parifli produces confidcrably more 
grain than is confumcd by tlic inhabitants. There arc gc» 
nerally exported from it, annually, about 2500 Wiocheftcr 
buftjcls of barley to Whitehaven, Lancafler, and Liverpool; 
and from 3000 to 4000 ftnnes of oatmeal to the fea-port and 
manufaAurifi^ towns in the weft of Scotland j bcfides confi- 
derable quanti'ics of jx^tiroc^; to the Englifh market. Th'* 
exporting prices of barley hf re iiave been, on an average oi" 
the laft 10 years, as. SJd per Wincheftv.r tufhel, and of 
oatmeal i s. 9:10*. per ftonc of 17 lib. 10 oz. averdiipois. Po- 
tatoes are fold at from 10 s. to 30 s. per ton. The prices of 
butcher meat here are regulated by the Dumfries niarket. 
The fmaller articles cf provifion, fuch as butter, fowls, eggs, 
See. arc rather hig!i, as there. are very frequent opportunities 
of conveying them to the fea-port towns in the north of Eng- 
land, where they find a ready market. The wages of me-' 
chanics, and prices of labour of all kinds^ have of late years 
rifcn very high here, as in all the other farming counties iq 
the fouth of Scotland, 

Woods and Plantations. — From the great quantities of large 
and full grown oak timber, ftill in good prefervation, which 
are dug tip in the many faiall fpots of peat mofs in the pa- 
rifli, it ^ would appear that natural wood had ^bounded in it. 


104 Statiftkai Auouni 

Indeed, the vulgar tradition is, that, a few centuries ago, it 
was wholly a wood or foreft. There are ftill fome natural 
wood-lands in the^nterior parts of the parifh \ and feveral 
fmall plantations of barren timber have been made lately, 
which thrive well. Very many attempts are now makmg to 
rear fruit orchards in the parifli ; but, owing to the extreme 
thinnefs and lightnefs of the foil, and the unfavourable expo> 
fure of this part of the country to the fouth*wefterly winds^ 
they do not promife much fuccefs. 

Fijb^ {5*^— The kinds of fifli taken here are falmon, white I 

flounders, plaife, fome foles of a very large fize, fkate, and, 
very rarely, turbot ; but the great ftaple is cod, of which 
large quantities, and fome of excellent quality, are taken here, 
and'Carried to Dumfries, and other neighbouring fmaller towns, 
and fold at from i d. to 3 d. per pound. Of (hell fiffa, large 
quantities of cockles and mufdes are found on the coaft \ al- 
io fbrimps, wilks, and other fmaller kinds, of little value* No 
companies are aflbciated here for the purpofe of carrying on 
any fiflieries. Moft part ot the inhabitants, however, near 
the coaft, are occafionally employed in fiihing, but all as (ingle 
sidventurers. The (hallownefs of the water near the (hore, 
and the roughnefs of the fea in the cod fi(l)iog leafon, render 
the u(e of boats in fifhiag dangerous, and almoft impraAicable. 
The {hores*produce 15 or 20 tons of kelp once in 5 or 6 
years ; an article reduced nearly one half in price fince the 
barilla aft was pafled in lySi. 

Ec^lffiaftkal Siati. — ^The church, which is (ituated near the 
S« W. corner of the parifli, one mile N« from the frith, and 
at the fame diftance £• from the water of Urr, was built in 
1771, is very plain, but large and commodious. The manfe, 
which ftands about a quarter of a mile N. E. of the churchy 


nf Colvend and Southwick. 1 05 

tipon the banks of a lake of 50 acres extents and in form of 
a crefccot, was built in 17631 for what was at that time ua* 
derUood to be the legal alio wance, 1000 1 Scotch, aiMi con- 
fequentlf upon a fmall plan, and poorly executed. In 1 777 
it was repaired, and fome additions mide to it. The glebe 
confif)s of about 6 acres. The annexed parlfli of South* 
WICK lies to the eaftward, and the roiniftcr i^ofTcflcs alio a 
glebe there of about 8 acres. Although the walls of the old 
church of Southwxk, which (lands in a very romantic imall 
flrath, about 4 ajl.s E. from the pariOi church, Itill rennia 
in many places at their full heighth, yet there is not the 
fmalicft tradition of atiy incumbent there, or of any circum- 
ftance rela^tiog to it as a feparatc charge* It appears to have 
been annexed to Colvend ever fince the reformation. In Fe- 
bruary 165c, Mr David Hope, then incumbent, obtained de- 
creet againft thr heritors of both parKbe?, modifying the fti- 
pend at 3 chalders of victual, two thirJs meal and one-third 
bear, and 400 1. bcotch of money, with 50 merks for commu- 
nion elcfijents. By a new decreet in 17^9, the ftipend was 
modified at 80^ L bcotc4i, with 40! Scotch for communion 
elements, and the vi<ftual continued. However long thcfe 
panlhes have been united, their antient boundaries are ftill 
diilindily known. Coivend is to Souihwick *, in point of 
rental, extent of territory, and population* nearly as three to 

^ch-ioL — Thfrc was ujodiScd, fo lately as April 179^, aoo 

n:crks of fchoo; falary, of which one rchoolurailer, who tcach- 

VoL. XVil O es 

• There has been found lately a diary of the pcrfonal expen- 
ces ol Km^ Kdwa;..d 1. of £ni;land, in one of his expeditions 
^gninit bccthiRd, kejjt by iiio purfer, or fome of the domcftic: 
in liis fujte, wheife, amting other arMcles, is ftatcd a fmall fuin, 
ofTtrrcd, wiih his devotions, to our Lady vf S(/Utfrj>::sk, 

I otS Statijlkal Account 

es within a mile of the church, enjoys 7 1. 2 s. and has up* 
wards of 40 fcholars ; his income maybe 18I. per annum ^ 
The remainder of the modified falary, with 2I. yearly of mor- 
tified moneyj is given to another teacher, who keeps a fchool 
in the eaftern end of the parifh, and has ufually 30 fcholars. 
His yearly income is about 13 1. The heritors have lately, 
eflcfled thcmfelves in 60 1. for building two commodious and 
lufHcient fchool-houfes, which will be executed in fpring 

Population. — Although the number of births, which is 
generally about 36 annually, greatly exceeds the number ot 
deaths, which is from 18 to 24, yet the population fccms j 

not to have increafed much thefe 18 years. This, and the 
excefs of the number of females to that of males, may be 
accounted for, by many of the young meti going to fca, or 
to fettle abroad. In 1772, by an epidemical malignant fe- 
ver, and in 1774, by emigration, the population of this pa- 
rilh fuffered two fcvere fhocks, from which it hath fcarcely 
yet recovered. Notwithftanding thefe circumftances, how* 
«ver, there has been an increafe upon the whole within 
thefe 40 years. The number of inhabitants at prefent^ 
(1794) is, Males - - 456 

Females - - 508 


The return to Dr Wcbftcr, in 1755, was 898 

Increafe 66 

Oceupatiofis.'-^lt is impoffible to clafs the above inhabitants 
by their refpe£Uve occupations. . About 52 are Tailors. The 
farms being numerous and fmall, many hufbandmen are oc« 
cafionally alio mafons^ wrights, carpenters, (hoemakerS| wea- 


of Colvend and SouibwUk. i oy 

vers, and tailor?, and one man profefles fometimes twoj or 
even three of thcie different mechanic branches. 

Horfes and B/afi C^///f.— There are in the parifli upwards 
of 200 horfes, being conildcrably more than are iufficient 
for all the purpofts of agriculture j but fo it generallj; hap« 
pens where there are many very fmall farms.. There ar« 
kept about 650 milk cows or breeders, all the offspring of 
which are preferved, and carefully reared to aged cattle. 
There are about 1300 riling cattle, from 1 to 4 years old, 
kept the year round, at which age, when they are arrived, 
they are fold lean to th^ graziers on the foutK-eallern coun- 
ties of England, at from 7 1. to lol. a-head. All thefe arc 
of the true Galloway breed, moftly wanting horns, not of 
the largeft fize, but very handiome. The breeds both of 
horfes and black cattle in this pariih h<^ve been muchi io)- 
proved within thefe 5 years. 

S/feefi and G^a//.— There are about 2000 fheep kept in the 
parlfli, and about 100 goats in the more remote and moun- 
tainous groudds. Among the fheep there are fome flocks 
of the brown-faced fmall old Scottiih kind, with fine fhort 
wool i the greateft number are of the black-faced kind. There 
are alfo a few upon the lower and more improved ground^ 
of the larger breeds, with white faces, which have in later 
years been introduced from England •• 


* Abont 6 or 7 years ago, a gentleman of this parifb, a Mr 
CaosBiE, then mailer of a vefTel in the Baltic trade, purchafed ' 
from fome Laplanders he faw at Stockholm, a Lapland ram 
With 4 horns, of about the (ize and weight of the common black* 
faced (heep of this country ; but his great excellence was his 
ileece, which was very abundant, and remarkably fine and iilky, 
{Je brought him home to this country, with which he (^emcd 

loS Statijlical Accwni 

Minerals *. — The rocks and ftoncs, which abound fo nrodi 
in this parifh, are all of hard granite, many of them intcr- 
fpcrfcd with veins of flint or fpar. They furnifh excellent 
iiiaterials for walls and fences. There is likewife a quarry 
of a free or foftcr fpecics of granite, on one part of the 
fliore, which is worked for mill- ftoncs, and from whence all 
the mills in the fouth-wcft of Scotland are furnifhed. Ma- 
ry of them arc aifo carried into the inferior parts of the 
country, and fome arc fent to Ireland. From 20 to 15 are 
fold annually at about 3 1. each. 

Fuel, — There are very many fmall fpots of peat mofs in 
the parifh, which arc now much exhaufted. The prepara- 
tion of this kind of fuel, upon which the fole dependence 
of the generality of the inhabitants has hitherto been, is 
here attended with vaft expcnce of time and labour, and af- 
ter all they are but poorly fupplied. However humane the 
intention of the Icgifiature wa?, in the late commutation of 
the coal duty, it has been in a great meafurc fruftrated, as 


:o agree very well. He was obfervcd to delight much in crop- 
ping the heather, and to prefer it to every other plant the cli- 
mate produced. He lived 18 months in the country, and ex- 
perienced all our variety of feafon. He propagated with a 
cwc of this country ; but both he and his offspring were killed 
by fon?*e other animal, by which means the breed was unfortu- 
nately loft. 

* About 25 years ^30, a copper mine was opened in this 
. pavifii, near the rocky (here. A confidcrablc quantity of or« 
was dug up, and fent in cafks to a fmclting furnace at foirie 
diftance. It was found 10 be rich, and a«5lually produced as 
much copper as cleared all charges upon it ; but the work was 
Tciinquifiicd. The ellate, upon which it was found, was then 
the paternal eftate of the late Countcfs of Sutherland and La- 
dy Glenhrchy, but is now the property of Mr Oswald of 

cf Colvend and Soutbwick. 1 09 

to this part of the countrji bj the fdfifhnelj of the propri- 
etors or tackfinen of the coal mines along the Cumberland 
coa(V» who immediatelj availed themfclves of the opportu- 
nity it gave them to advance the price of coals at the pjt« io 
far as to keep them ftill above the rqich of the fmaller far- 
mersj and inferior clafles* 

Xare Natural ProduElions. — Befides the wild quadrupeds^ 
common to all the fouth of Scotland, there have been found 
here fome few individuals of a fpecies of the weafel, more 
rare in this country. It refembles the poIe«cat| or common 
foumart, from which it is diflinguiflied by the largenefs of 
its fizc, the fupcrior quality of its fur, and by being free of 
that foetid fmell which renders the other fo difagreeable 
2nd difgufting. It is vulgarly called the martin^ and is the 
mvjiela mariis of natural hiftorians.-^Thcrc arc found upon 
the (hore here fome of thofe wonderful marine produflions^ 
which feem to be the links that connect the animal and ve- 
getable lyQcms, viz. the Polypus, called alfo the Sea Ane- 
mone. It does not pofTcfs a loco- motive faculty, and its or- 
gans are too impcrftft to entitle it to be ranked with ani- 
mals \ but appears to have fomewhat of more fdnfattGn than 
can be afcrlbcd to a merely vegetable fiibftance, like fome of 
which, too, it is reproduced from any part cut oflF. Such of 
them as are found here are of a fmaller fize, and their co- 
lours arc not fo vivid, as thofe in warmer climates •.—Some 


* A neighbouring clergyman, howcver,(,ht Rev. Mr Muia* 
HEAD of Urr), fcems to be of a different opinion refpe^ing this 
vronderful femi-animal. In a letter to a friend in town he 
gives the following dcfcription of it : " About 5 years ago I 
" dtfcovered, in the parifii of Colvend, the Animal Fionverf in as 
*« great perfcftion and variety as it is in Jamaica. The lively 
" colours^ and the various and elegant forms of the Polypus 

« on 

Elo StailJlUal Account 

of the fprings that ooze through ihe rocks are of a petrifyt 
it9g quality, particularly in the higher and more rugged hilk 
jo SoDthwick, near Crow-fell, where fome chryftallizations are 

Jbaiqmtiis *• — At Fairgarth, near the center of the pariflj. 
there is a well formed of a very copious fpring of excellent 
water, arched over, which gees by the name, of St. Lavj* 
renews Wdl^ hard by which are the veftiges of a chapel^ with 


*• on thfs coaft, are truly equal to any thing recited by natural | 
" hiftorians, refpedting the fea- flowers of any other country, 
«' To fee a flower of purple, of green, blue, yellow, &c. driving | 
<< to catch a worm, is really amufing." 

• About the year 1780, there was found upon the eftatc of 
Sonthwick, belonging to Sir James Riddbll, Bart, in the mid- 
dle of a large granite ftone, when blalled with gun powder, in 
a ibcket exadlly fitted to it, a piece of the fame kind of fub- 
(lance, fmooth and polifhed, in form fomewhat refembling a 
rude hatchet. It was about 9 inches loiig, 6 broad at the one * 
cKid, and 3 at the other end, about the thicknefs of the palm of 
the hand ; one of the angles at the broad end a little more acute 
than the other, the corners a little rounded, and fliarp round 
the edges. The vjrtuofi, to whofe infpc«5tion it was fubmitted, 
did not hefitate immediately to pronounce it to be a hatchet, 
whijch had been ^fed by the Druids in performing facrifice, 
which conjcfture they imagined warranted by the veilige of a 
f^roidical temple very near the place where it was found : But 
this depends upon an hypothecs which admits rather of feme 
doubt. When the fize, the firmnefs, and folidity of the mafs 
in which it was found, are confidered, and the difficulty oi af- 
figning any period flnce the creation as the commencement of 
the formation of fuch a mafs — indeed our entire ignorance of 
the nature and progrefs of fuch a procefs, or the time it would 
require, — it mud be owned it becomes rather problematical, 
whether this hatchet is the work of art, and ever exifted in a 
ftate icparate from the (lone out of which it was taken ; or if 
the phenomenon is only a lufus naturae. 

if C§hend and Soutbwlck. 1 1 1 

burying ground^ around it, now occupied as a barn-yard.^^' 
At chc fouth-wcft corner of the pariih, on a very high pro- 
montorv, or head of land, formed by the junAion of the 
Water of Urr with the Solway Frith, there are the yeftiges 
of a work of flrength, fuppofed to be Danilh \ the fofse is 
i] ill very apparent. It bears the nsLtne of the Caft/cbUI of 
Barclay. Upon the bonk of the fame river, on the eaft fide, 
about two miles farther up, upon the narrow top of a fmall,' 
but high, Aecp, and rocky hill or mounts haVe lately been 
discovered the veAiges of another work of flrengtb, which, 
from the fcanty remains of its materials that are to be found, 
antiquarians fuppofe to have been a vitrified fort. The 
place is called the Moat of the Mark, or MerUand of- Bar^ 

Manners. — The lile of Man» which lies 24 leagues diftant 
to the S. W. the higher grounds of which arc in fight herci 
is well known, before the lordlhip was purchafed by 
government in 1765, to have been the great channel of a 
contraband trade with France, to the fecret operation of 
which, the nature of this country as. above defcribed, but 
then in a ftill more unpolifhed ftate, was mod favourable* 
Having the advantage of many fecret caverns, iinpervious 
thickets, devioas paths, and unfrequented traAs, which 'af- 
forded ionamerable and fecure hiding places, it is not to be 
wondered at, if the inhabitants were generally and deeply^ 
engaged in it, and cohfequently addlAed to idteneli, and to 
that fpecies of . intemperance to which the ftaple of that 


* Some people were alive lately, who remembered tohave feen 
ibme of the tomb-ftones and infcriptions, but aone^an now be 

t ^fdSr A&CHJEOLOGU, Vol. X* 

f 12 Statiflical Auount 

trade immediately miniftred.' But the abolition of that trade 
has had a happy cffcft upon the improvement of the country^ 
and the manners of the people in this corner; and the traces 
of thcfc more licentious times, which were a proverbial re- 
proach to this pariih, are now almoft wholly obliterated. 
The prefent generation are trained up in habits of fobricty 
and induftry» for vrhich» and for their attention to their 
farms and refpeftive occupations^ they are perhaps now no 
lefs remarkablei than they were in thofe more diiTolute times, 
ioT their diffipation. 

Dif advantages, '^'Vht raoft ftriking which occur apply to 
the whole county of Galloway^ as well as to this parifb, 
namely, the difadvantages under which the farmers and 
breeders of black cattle, the great ftaple of this part of the 
country, labour in marketing them. — A number of young 
fdlows, of the very lowed clafs, who diflike, or affcA to be 
above labour, turn what are c2X\cd jMers^ fcour the country, 
and infeCl the cattle markets, and, by picking up the youn >.er 
cattle, intercept a profit between the breeder and grazier, to 
the prejudice of one, or perhaps both of them. This is an 
evil which it is impra£licable to reftrain, unlels .by iomething 
like the following method : That the farmers in general, for 
their mutual advantage, (hould enter into a concert, where- 
by it (hall be underftood, to be laid down as a rule, that 
thofe who rear the cattle (hall fell them only to thofe, who, 
they know, can graze them upon their own farms or poifef- 
iions \ and that thofe again ihall buy only from thofe, whom 
they know to have reared them, or who have kept them at 
lead for months. — Anorher evil, of which the confetjuences 
have been, and prcfently arc, fcvercly felt by many, is the 
frequent and weighty failures of the greater drovers, that is, 
thofe who yearly buy the aged cattle through the country, 


of C$lvend nd Seutinvlck. gi% 

collect them into large droves, and carry them up to the 
markets in the fouth-eaft couDties of England. They ge- 
neralij buy upon credit ; payments are not expcftcd, until, 
' in the courfe of 4 or 5 monthsi they are enabled to make 
them from their returns in the Englilh marketSi and confe- 
quently muft» in a great meafurei depend upon their focceft 
thjcre, which they themfeives have the ezclufive privilege of 
reporting to the farmer their creditor. Of thefe advento« 
rers, who thefe many years have obtained the credit and 
confidence of the country, the greater number have at one 
time or other failed, and fome repeatedly. By fuch failures 
large fums have been loft, honeft and indufbrious farmers 

^ much hurt and reduced, and whole families ruined. It were 

to be wiflied that the fingiiOi graziers, or cattle merchants^ 

I were to be feen buying their cattle in our own markets, n^ 

ther than that our farmers ihould be obliged to run fuch 

/ riiks. In trufting their property to fo great extent, in the 

^ hands of people, fo many of whom they have experienced 

i to be onworthy of their confidence, in order to get it dif- 

pofed of in the.remoteft parts of the illand. 


114- Statytiud Autoni 


(County and Syn^d of Galloway.— Presbytery 

OF Kirkcudbright). 

By thi Riv. Mr Gborgb Maxwell of G/enarm, Minjfler 
of that Parifi. 

• ' * ft 

I— ■— I 

Ifarhe^ Situation^ and Extent* 

VARIOUS opinions are entertained as to the derivatioa 
of the name. Some have thought that Boot-hiil^ or 
Buit'hill^ was the original name of that territory which now 
compofes the parilh- of Buittle, on account of the frequent 
mutters of cavalryi or archers, that muft have taken place in 
the vicinity of the caftle after-mentioned. With as much 
probabitity, however, it may be fuggefied, that the word 
Butttle is but a contradion of Bowet-hill or Bowet-hall, an ap- 
pellation ooccafioncd by the beacons in the neighbourhood bf 
the caftle alluded to ; or the great light which it difplayed oa 
feftlve or folemn occafions. Men of the name of Bootkf too, 

are frequent in England, and to be found in Scotland Buit- 

tie is one of thofe pariflies in the ftewartry of Galloway, 
that border upon the Solway Frith, and have the advantages 
of navigation. From the march of Crofsmichael, upon tlie 
norths Buittle extends fouthward to the Tea. This is the 
length of the parilb^ and includes about 8 miles. On the 


ef Buittle. 1%$ 

whole of the cafi fide It is bounded by the river and pariffi 
of Urr. From thence to Kelton and Rerrick» which are 
conterminous to Bnittle, on the weft and routh*weftj its ave- 
rage breadth may be 3 miles. 

Sm/, Stir/ace, HUls^ istc.—Tht foil of Buittk is like moft 
of 'ihe land in lower Galloway (efpccially near the mouth of 
the Urr)> kindly and fertile, even beyond its appearance. 
The lurface of Buittle is unequal, and jufiifies BochanaA'a 
remark npon Qalloway to general:-- *< Nufquam fere 10 
u roontes attollitur, fed colUbus tantum frequencibus intu- 
<( mefcit.^ The hills, howeveri being moilly green and 
without heathy have lately drawn the attention of the induf- 
trioos ; nor have their pains been ill repaid, as the foil is 
often found deeper on the heights than on the lower ground* 
It is here to be obferved alfo, that there are few hills in this 
part of Galloway, where cultivation is at all practicable, that 
do not bear diftinA marks of the plough. The depths of 
the furrows, too, plainly declarCf that this tillage has not 
been cafual, or merely experimental, but frequent and fuc- 
ccffive. This ihoold fet both the anticnt population and in- 
dnftry of this part of Scotland in a more favourable light, 
than that in which they are ufually beheld. It alfo affords 
probability to a tradition repeated by the country people to 
this day^ " That at a time when Scotland was under a pa« 
f« pal interdid, or fentence of curfing from the Pope, it was 
>v found that his Holinefs had forgot to curfe the hills^ 
^ though he had commanded the land, ufually arable, to 
«« yield no Increafe \ and that while this fentence remained, 
«( the- people were necefStated to feck tillage ground, in 
<< places tmufual and improbable *." The grafs through 


^ That King. Robert Baues, and what part of Scotland 


%f6 Statifiieal Account 

the fpeMt ptrt.of Baittle is excellenti bring moftly what » 
called the Sheets fefeut gra/s. Excluiive of other good pro- 
pertiest it may be adverted to, that this plant defies extirpai- 
tton by either b^d farming or bad (locking : For oftoo when 
land is fo much plowed that it will bear no more corn, and 
even the roots of the larger grades are deftroyed^ we fee the 
.£eld covered with the fefcue in a very fhort time. Agaio^fay 
overftocking a pafture, the feed ftalks1>f moft grafies are 
eaten up, and the very roots preyed upon. But the prodi* 
gious crop of finall feeds, light and eaiily transferred by the 
winds, afforded by the fefcue, hinders Irs deftruAion in tho 
fortner fenfe ; and the fmaiinefs of its fibrous roots in the 
latter. ■ •* 

Plants^ (s'r.— 'The natural produ£l!o|is of Buittle difo 
little from thofe of the lower parts of Galloway in generaif 
and whichi in all probability, will be particularly mentioned 
in the account of every parifti beioLgrflg to that diftrift. 
The plants and flowers in Buittle are no ways remarkable. 
Even by gentlemen in affluent cifcumdaoces, that cultivation 
of the earth, which produces ap immediate return, and con* 
ne£ls with general utility, is preferred to attempts of unprofiir 
able curioOty, as to rearing exotic plants, or cvea thpfe of 
this climate that are of a precarious growth* This pariflf, 
in<ieed, abounds fo much with excellent natural (belter, that 
it is believed few plants or trees iMMild fail here, that fucceed 
well in any other part of Scotland, if not of Britain. With 
great fafcty one might take any bet, thacv^ ccmmumius Jiehu, 

fubmitted to him, were under the Pope's curi« for a good ma* 
ny years, and that Galloway acknowledged his authority pret« 
Ij early, every one knows ; but if the above tradition, as (land- 
ing coune^ed with this fa<fl, is true, we may place it among the 
few benefits that fuperftition has conferred on sniittl(iadt 

the thernxxneter ftanda. higher during the ywr in Bnitde 
thaio at LoDdOQ. For ibmc ages, this pvifli w$is» in €0|\fip» 
quence of the above natural advantages, diftingiiifliecl as s^ 
bottodiag with orchards. Of iate» however, thefe have fal« 
len ffloch into decay. It has indeed beeii complained of, 
that for many years pad the growth of frtiit'tinibeis and of 
trees in general, has been lefs fsvouved by the tempqratnrt 
of the air than lormerly ; and (bme gloomy philofopheni 
have dreaded, that Scotland might experience the calamitia 
of Iceland, or Dantlh Greenland. Even under lefs drea^rj 
imprcffioiis, candour mnft admit, that, for thefe 15 or 2Q 
years, new plantations have not come on fo vigoroufly^as 
could have been expelled \ and that the fruits, inch aa ap- 
ples, pears, &c. have not ripened to the degree of perfeAion, 
that even middie aged people a£Srm to have been fioarmerly 

jimima/^/ewiri.'^TWl of late, perhaps, it has not been 
inoch adverted to, that the animal flower, or water polypus, 
is even common aioogft this ihores of Buittle, Colvend, and 
very likely around the whole coaft of the Stewartry of Gal- 
hnray. The form of thefe polypufes is eIegaQt,.and pleafant- 
Uy dhnerfified. Some are found reiembling the fun-flower, 
fiuiAthe hundred leaved rofe, but the greater number bear 
Tihs Ukeodi ef the poppy. The colours diScr as much as 
she fbrnt. Sometimes the animal flower is of a deep purple, 
frequently of a. rofe. colour, but moftly of a light red or 
AeSkf bus. . . The moft beaotiful of them, that could be pick* 
iM up, have often been carried from the fliore of Colvend, 
12 or 15 miles up into the country, where they have lived, 
fed on Vbrtns, and even bred for feveral weeks, and might 
^have cadfted much longer, if they could have been fupplied 
with fe;hwater. In 9 wotd, it feems probablCi that an m- 
^ '"^^ ' '' daftrious 

t^tt Statiftkal Aeetunt 

dnftrious fitturajlift might dircoveri on ihis^cmrfV, Ibine of 
Aofe fingidar animab, ' not much inferior to thofe produced 
IS the Antilles^ and other tropical countries. 

jF^.^As the fouth end of Buittle is walhed by the Sol. 
way Frith, a good deal of fifli is taken^ and much more 
might be had. As other fubfiftence is plenty, however, smd. 
as labourers and their £unilies are maintained by their em- 
ployers, neither choice nor neceffity leads any one to follow 
the fifliing bufinefs, much farther than as an amufemenr. 
Neverthelefi, it is believed by many judicious people, that if 
a few fiihermeo firom the Highlands fhould fettle about the 
mouth of the Urr, they would find profitable employment,' 
and be of fervice to the country siround. The fifh mfually 
taken at prefent are, falmon, cod, flounders, &c. Cockles, 
mufcles, and federal other kinds of (hell fiih are aUb to bq 
had in tolerable plenty. 

^adrupedf'^^The quadrupeds are entirely of the com- 
mon fort, and the black cattle (which are almoft all polled) 
are of a good Ihape. During the time that a farmer fociety 
fubfifted at Dumfries, which invited the tenantry to (hew 
their beft iH'eeding cattle, and diftributed premiums, the 
fhould of cattle was vifibly improved. Since that fociety 
was dropt, farmers have become, it is thought, more careleis, 
both in Buittle, and in many parifiies around. The breedi 
of horfes u mubh improved, fo far as concerns the purpofes 
of agriculture i but the old hardy Galloway fpecies is moftly 
eztlnA. Sheep are kept in fmall numbers, being thought 
prejudicial to the pafiures where black cattle are fed; nor is 
the growth of wool attended to, or confidercd as an obje€l 
#f profit, unlefi on the fmall fcale of domeftic oeconomy. 

Birds^f^To tnentioD the fathered lace m^' hare fe^ 
to be a matter of levity } but when tt is confidered that they^ 
perhapi of all living creatortSi have the moft delicate fenfil« 
tions, as to climate and the ftate of the air ; that natnre has 
enabled, and even inftniAed them» to chooie or to change 
their refidence accordingly $ and that their appearance or ab* 
fence may afford no contemptible eftimate of the inc^afing 
warmth or cold of any country, (things much connected wit£ 
the ftate of agriculture), one may venture to hazard ridicule 
on this fubjeA. Perhaps inattention to fubjefts not vifibly 
important, and ignorance of natural hiftory, might hinder 
our anccftors from remarking upon birds any ways fingnlar. 
If that has not been the cafe, this country has lately beeft 
frequented byfeveral that ufed feldom to appear in Scotland* 
Since fome g;roves of pines came to be of a refpcAable 
growth, the crofs-bill has been frequently feen, and it is be« 
lieved breeds in the country. The bull-finch is common, and 
pheafants have been obferved, which, in all [nrobability, muft 
have come from England. Quails, hardly known a few years 
ago, are now in abundance* In hard winters, too, the Bohe- 
mian chatterer, and even fome Ar£kic birds have vifited us. 
The; common moor and black game have difappeared from 
this pariih, fince agriculture beeame eztenfive^ and tl&e heath, 
broom, furze» &x. were defiroyed. Other game would be 
very plenty, but the game laws have never been rigoroufly 
executed in this part of the country, unleis when people 
break fences, dlfturb cattle, and do the £urmers aranton mif« 
chief in the courfe of their amuiemcnt. 

Mintralf.-^^ to minerals or foffils, little can be here 
mentioned, ferving either to gratify curiofity, or prompt in- 
doftry. Rock cryftals, but of no great brilliancy, are often 
foun^. Talcs and fpars ^ fcveral kinds are pretty frequent- 

(tuo Sta^kcat Juoma 

Jy met with % and iron ore aqipeatf to be in fuch abundance 
ID Buittle, as wcU as the ndghbooriog pariflies^ that fome 
have thought an iron manafadure inight be copioufly fop- 
plied *• Certain burrows in the earthy frequently talked of 


"^ Though the writer of this account propofed to be concife 
on the fubjed of antiquities^ he cannot help mentioning here 
certain fnbterraneotts p4irages or gallertes» difcoTcred in this 
aeighboorhood. Thefe are dug through a firm kind of graTcl, 
perhaps iron ore; nor is the roof fupported bj wood, or 
arched with (lone. Into one of thefe lurid grottos, the prefent 
Mr Maxwell of Terraughty, when a boy. ddcended, and tra« 
▼elled farther than perhaps prudence could choofe to accompa* 
sy curiofity. The upper part of this pa^flage or cave he de- 
fcribes as above ; ** the bottom (fays he) was like an i/ijwpl 
«< kirkt and here and there were heads of fpears, and human 
^* bones.'' If thofe excavations wefe ought clfe than iron 
mines, thev muft have been places of fepulture. Tacitus, how- 
ever; pla^ily fays of the Germans, Funerum nulla amhith^ fip^' 
chrum cefpes crigitf. And though Caefar calls the funeral ob« 
.fequies ot the Gauls, Sumfiuo/a et magmfica fro cultu. he fays no« 
thing of their carrying the bones of the dead inio caverns. It 
would be mere pedantry to (hew, that a work, fuch as that a- 
hove defcribed, has as little to do with the religion of the Gauls 
and Germans, as with their funeral rites, and the conclulion 
mud be, that fuch works are perfeAly Scotitlh. Any inquiR. 
tive gentleman, wiihing to know farther qn this fubje^, might 
apply to Mr Maxwell of Terraughty, whofe a&bihty and good 
fenfe need no commendation. Or if any antiquary choofe» to 
repeat Mr Maxwell's experiment, the inhabitants of Auchen* 
reoch, near Spottis-hall, will yet point out the entrance. Pity 
but the celebrated Mr M*Phbrson would explore this Jefenfiu 
jivcrm; the world might be bleifed with an appendix to Fingal, 
and with recent accounts from the fpiritsof Loda and of Dr Sa« 
muel Johnfton. In feveral parts of this country, too, there are 
oblong fquares, made with banks of done. In the centre there is 
a hearth; and, in digging up the banks forming the fquare, col- 
lars, chains, hooks, and forks have been found. Such places 
have, by fome ingenious gentlemen, been fuppofed to be ac* 
commodations for burning dead bodies ; and certam niches in 
the furroundtng banks, underftood to be recepudes for the 


f Tac. d^ Morihus Girm. tap. XXVII. 

xf Buittle* 121 

^n cliflFcrcnt parts of the couitrv, woiiIJ lead one to think 
that iron had been wroupht ,„ t^ig p^^t ot the world, at a 

very carif period. There -^ ilill marl in almoft ^very mofs ; 

but, as Icme can be had by water carriage, marl is now but 

littfe valued. 

Farms^ ReniSy and Proprietors — ^Thc generality of farms 
in DHittlc arc of moderate extent. Some there arc of 300 
ncres or more ; but thcfc, (with an exception or two}, con- 
fift of brofccn or hilly ground — ^Thcre may be about half a 
dozen farmers in the pari/hj who pay 200 L a year of rent. 


bonci i. Nevfertielcft, as the chains, collars, &c. fcem as fit 
for holding living bodies as dead oncs» there is room to believe 
thofe oblong fquares were places of facrifice, or of puniihmcnt 
which arc moftiy found fynoninious terms, when human fi^crl' 
ficc is in the qucftion. The Scotch are affuredly cither of Ger- 
man or Gaelic extraalon, perhaps a mixture of both. As to 
the funerals of thefe nations, Tacitus cjtprefily fays, the Gcr 
roans ufed the rogus in the common manner ; and Caefar f^vs' 
the Gauls burnt their dead, but ftates no peculiarities ; on the 
contrary, he rather tranfcribes Homer on the fiibjeil. Rcg-^^rd 
wig the religion of thefe nations, however, Tacitus lay^ rhe 
Germans did offer human facrifices to Mercury ; aud Caefa- 
(lib. Ti.cap. 16,) fays, The Gauls offered human facrlrtce., fome 
of a private, fomc of a public nature. He adds, that thcv i;i. 
cnficed m this la(l manner criminals, as jnoft acceptable to the 
Gods ; but mnoccnc people, if criminaU could not be found -^ 
One of the oblong courts or fquares is not tar from the cavern 
already mentioned. This leads one to compiire what Mr Bruce 
fays about the inhabitants at the fource of the ^\\^, their car 
lying part of their facrilice s into caves, with the aOertion of Ta" 
citn., that the Germans had the Egyptian religion, or at ieail 
worlhipped IPs. Perhaps this is the only faint argument that 
could connca the caves already mentioned, with the religion of 
the Gauls or Germans. ° 

J fl 5- ^^/''^^^ 'f KinV^Grafige^s very in^emous ireatije on 
tbti Juhjea, prejented to the Mancbejler Society of ^^ntiquaricu 

Vol, XVIL o 

122 Siatijlical^ Account 

or upwards ; hardly fo many paying from lol. to 20 1. The 
moft common rent is from 70 1. to 1 20 1. per annum. In- 
deed, in Buittle, property of the landed fort is not ill divid- 
ed» either among the landholders or the tenantry. There 
are 1 5 heritors iiv the pariih ;-^the largeft eftatc is abput 
1000 1. per annum, and there is only one below 70 I. 

Fuel, Cultivation^ and Produce. — From a port in the ITrr, at 
Barlochan, or Garden Creek, the greater part of the partOi is 
fupplied with Ijme. That port lies on the caft fide of the 
parifli, and is centrical. At Mun(hes, about a mile farther 
up the river, fome is alfo landed. Lately (and moft tintc- 
oufly) coal has been imported at a reafonable rate, namely, at 
10 d. the Carlifle buQiel. While this country retains its fb- 
ber fenfcs and habits, it cannot readily forget the perfons 
by whofe interpofition and efiorts this deiirable event has 
been brought about. — Tillage and pafturagc are almoft c-' 
qually objcfts to the farmer here. The greateft tillage per- 
mitted is one third of the arable, which is certainly more 
than is profitable. After liming, three white crops are taken, 
two of oats, and a third of barley. If, after the third white 
crop, the farmer dungs and has a green crop, a fourth white 
crop is permitted, when the ground is always fown out With 
red clover and rye-grafs, the only foreigi^ graffes propagated. 
White clover, and the perennial red, are fo common in the 
£elds, and rife naturally in fuch plenty, that the bought feeds 
of thefc plants are feldom ufed. Not much wheat is fbwn^ 
The. foil, though kindly, is light 5 but that is not the only 
reafon. — The ftraw of wheat is not ufed as fodder in this 
part of the country, though it is in England ; and this, to a 
farmer in th<ife parts, is a great draw-back on a crop, as moft 
of the farms can maintain more cattle in fummer, than can 
be provided with food in winter : For the fanie reafon, fal- 

tf Buiti/e. 1^3 

lowing Is little koown, grafs being valuable^ and the fields 
abundantly clean, fince t^ie corns were drefieJ!!^ with foru % 
a praSice equally profitable and univcrfal. From the ine- 
qaatity of the furface of the ground) the watering of land> 
bj the numerous wells and rivulets, is eafy ; but of late 
the praAice is not much followed, where other manures can 
eafily be had^ as it is believed to render the foil thin and gra^ 
velly, and to cxhauft it fo, that hardly any other improve- 
ment is an efie£lual reftorative — Of commons we have not 
one foot. Ring fences (ftone dykes) around every farm^ 
have been erefled long ago, and even fub-divillons ; but the 
latter are quite too large, efpecially for the turnip huibandry. 
Indeed of laie, potatoes, which are exported in great quan- 
tities to England, to Glafgow, &.c. have fuperfedcd almoll 
every other fallow or green crop. The price is from i s. to 
is. 6d. per cwt. as the feafon is plenteous. — The imple- 
ments of agriculture are in every rcfp^<5t the fame with thofe 
in the north of England ; and as the inlcrcourre with 


* To the credit of this country , this fimple and moft ufeful 

machine was, a few years ago, brought to pcrfci51ion, by two - 

natives of this neighbourhood. Without this aid, farmers 

might ftill have been obliged to place their barns in the moft 

aujkward and inconvenient fituation* from the view of obtain- 

I ing wind for winoo wing. Even then the corn olttn rotted ia 

\ the bam; and fields remained unfown, becaufe the air was calm^ 

' or the wind nnPiitable, or accompanied with rain or fnow. Ser« 

{ vantsft are now fet to winnow thp corns, in the fore part of the 

I winter night, when they were ufually ftraggling, or unprotit- 

ably employed. Their health is no longer expof^id in this part 

of tbetr duty ; and, in a word, the date of the corn trade, in 

{ this country, feems to coincide with the period when the fan 

\ was introduced. It is with no bad intention, that we mention 

the names of the inventors, to whom the world has been more 

indebted than to thoufands of renowned empyrics in politicst 

law, divinity, phyfic, &c. The faid ingenious mechanics were 

Mr Mum, joiner in Dumfries, and Mr King horn, miller of the 

town's mills, both dead feveraj years ago. 

1 24 Statyikal Account 

Whitehaven, and the other towns on the oppofite fick of thr 
Sol way FTitbi% daily, it is believed the utenfils of hufbandpj 
arc juft as well made here as any where elfe, and better ac- 
commodated to the ftate and fituation of the gronad, than 
could be done by a (Iranger tradefman. No oxen are u(ed 
for draughty probably owing to the temptation people have 
of felling thofe home-bred horfcsi that are good, to the ilng- 
lilh and to jockeys in general. The breeding of black cat- 
tle, too, is followed by almoft every farmer, as Lr as the 
nature of things will peruiit. 

Prices of Labour^ Improvements^ iifc. — The wages of fcr- 
vants. are, for tot men ^ as they are called, or cottagers, about 
14 1. per aw;«f»;.but the articles of maiQtenance furniflied 
arc, perhaps, cftinatcd in Galloway, 2 1, or 3 I. a year lower 
than in Lothian, and fomc other counties of Scotland. — La- 
bourers, by the day, get from 1 s. 2 d* to i s, 4 d. — Farm 
houfes are generally very good, as well as offices. In a word^ 
the continual repair of drovers, cattle-dealers, and even fa- 
bo'jrers, to England, and the fpirit of iniprovcment that has 
prevailed in this country for thefe 20 years paft, has made 
the farming of "thcfc parts nearly equal to what it is in the 
fouthern part of the ifland, in all ordinary matters, and due 
-regard being had to the means of the inhabitants of rhc dif- 
fircnt countries. As a teft of the happy confequences, 4 or 
5- of the befl farms in Buictle, which^ about the year 1747^ 
vere rented at 200 1. Scotch, or 400 merks each, no^ pay, 
(or wopld j>ay if cur of leaie), 230 j. a p;ece, whilft the te- 
iMints- would live incomparably better than their predeccfTors. 
One prejudice fecms much to obfiruft the fucccfs of the far- 
mer in this part of the world — it is that of fowing too late. 
'1 he fields^ where the corns (haken by violent winds, if earl]r 
vloughcd, have been known to yield a rcfpeftable crop ia 

of Bmttk. IS5 

the foUowing feafon. In fpite of the rigours of winter | and 
though conftant experience declares, that the oats, Ibwn in 
the bcgioniog of February, afford the moft profitable return^ 
&\\\ the fowing of that grain is delayed till the middle of 
March ; nor is the feed barley committed to the ground fooner 
than the middle or the btter end of April. The harveft^ 
as might be ezpeAed, correfponds with the feed time. SeU 
dom does it begin before the middle of September, and it 
IS often later, as the foil and expofure of the ground^ or as 
the nature of the feafon, may decide. 

Lia/es.-^In farming, as in moft other concerns, a man's 
exertions depend very much 00 the prudence of thofe prin« 
cjples, In which his endeavours originate. In Galloway, and 
perhaps elfewherc, one maxim feems for ages to have fetter- 
ed the hands of indufiry. The farmer reafoned thus with 
himfelf :— >« My forefathers and I have had this prefent po& 
^ feffion, in which I am now fettled, by fucceffive leafes of 7 

* years, or lefs, for ages. The rent has been fiiU the iao&e ^ 
' but to keep it from rifing, we have not only omitted every 
^ improvement, but, in many inftances, we have, to our own 
^ detriment, been obliged to labour for the depreciation of 
^ the fubjed. This is the confumate prudence of the farmer ^ 
^ and departing from this maxim, every farmer may expeft 
*' to £nd his ruin, either in the avarice of his laird, or in the 
« envy of bis neighbour i as the latter will offer, and the for* 

* mcr chearfuUy receive, whatever any parcel of ground can 

* afford, let it be improved at whofe coft, or by whofe in* 
•duftry, it may** ^ Two methods of refuting this dangerous 
maxim leem to have been adopted in England. The one is, 
by leafing the ground from year to year, and ftipulating, an« 
anally, what improvement Is tQ be made, and whether at 
the coaft of the landlord or tenant. The mode of farming is 


ii$ Statifiieal Account 

thns too fixed. The otlier is, that of granting leafes for 
UveSf or for a great number of years^ upon fines, &c. (b that 
the intereft of the tenant in his pofTeflion becomes greater 
than that of the proprietor. In this part of the world, a 
xnedium has been fought. Few leafes are granted for lefs 
than xp jears; and it is now, indeed, not io much the qoef- 
tioB With a fen»it, whether his induAry will redound ulti- 
mately to the benefit of his landlord, or of a fucceeding te- 
nant, as whether it will pay him, (the prefent pofleffor) in 
conformity to his ikill and outlay. — < If the farm (now rea- 
« fons the latter) is worth lo 1. a year more, at the end of my 
< leafe, I may juft as well give that for it, as for any other of 
^ equal vahie/ After all, it is probable tl«it longer leaies 
t&an thofc of 19 years would be favourable to permanent 
improvements, fuch as hedges, &c. and it muft bo owned, 
that as the Icafc draws near a dofc, the tenant is often found 
comjjorting himfclf, as if under a conviftion that he inhabi- 
ted hoftile ground. To fay the truth, however, that nar- 
rowncfs'of mind, or ariftocratieal pride^ which adjufted every 
matter of Icafc, to the vifible purppfc of keeping tenants in 
abjeft dependance upon their landlords, has of late been 
put very much to the blufli. Through all Galloway, as wdl 
as in Buittle parifli, a 'prodigious alteration took place in 
huded property, through the fatal American war, and the 
fcarcc lefs deplorable concern of the Douglas and Heron 
Bank. Moft of the eftates brought to fale in this county, 
were purchafed by natives of it— men acquainted with the 
world, and in affluent circumftances. Thefc knew better 
things than to ruin thcmfelves with Baillie-work •, to put 
their importance on the number of kain hens paid them by 
ragged cottagers; or to recommend their own aflfability, by 

; What arc called Boon days in England. 

e^ Btiiftk. 


encouraging idlends and intoxjcifttioti^ in ale»Iiou(e con^en* 
tions. The permanent part of the improvements^ neceflsuy 
on their eftates, they took upon themfelves ;— their tenants 
were prudently chofen ; the leafes they gave were of confide-i 
rable length ; and, to give tenants more confidence and fpi- 
rir, it is (^ipulated with feveral, that they fhall be allowed to 
reHgn, on a year's warningi if times are dlfircfiiogi pro* 
vided they have not committed waAe^ or done confiderable 
detriment upon their refpeAive farms. 

Populaiion.^^'Rtior^ faying more of other concerns, it may 
be fit to mention th^ population of (he parifhy and iSme 
matters conne^ed with it. — To fave words, and communi- 
cate information as readily as pofiiblct recourfe is had to fi* 

Statistical Table of the Parish of Buittl£» soa 


P<^uIation in 1 755, as 

returned to Dr Wcbftcr, 


Ditto in 1793, 

- - - 




. Religious Pees 

u A s ion s • Families. 


Members of the eftabiiflied church 133 








Roman Catholics _ 

- 19 






Total 177 

855 ' 





* • » 

. 463 



Stakftical Account 

AVB&AGES Jir three years preceding 1793. 
Births « - 24 Average of marriages 

Deaths - - 24 for 5 years - 5 

Ferfons under 10 years of age 
— »— ^ between 10 and 20 
20 and 50 
50 and 70 
70 and 100 

Professions and Conditions. 



Proprietors of land 

. 16 





Public-houfe keepers 








Salary of the principal 


" 3 

fchoolmafter . L. 




Ditto of the fecond ditto, 



with bed, board, and 



waOiing . L.3 



Scholars in the principal 

Houfehold fervants 




Laboiiring ditto and 


Ditto in the next fchool 



'- 38 

Prifoncr for debt 


Clergymen ' - 


Ditto for alicdgcd mur- 



dcr, fiocc 1790 


Cattle, &c. 

Horfes - 

- ipS 



Black cattle - 




Sheep • 

- 7S2 



nf BtdtOi. \%$ 

Farm hoofts rebuilt within the bft iQ years * 13^ 

Cottages ditto - « * • • 18 

Valued reot in Scotch mooty «. * L. 344; 

Real rent in Sterling • . • 5054 

Minifter's ftipend • • • * 73 

CoMm»rfip.^The parifli of Bnittle has no commefrce, ex* 
oept what confifts in the exportation of barley, oats, pota- 
toes, &c« to England and Glafgow, and the fendir.g of black 
cattle to .the Engltih markets. After every acceffion of agri« 
coltnral and mechanical knowledge, it is m queftion but the 
old obfervation on Galloway, and efpecially this part of it, 
may hold good, « Univerfa pecoris quam frumtnti frrtilkr!* 
More efpecially of late, many creditable people have conten- 
ded, that the improvement of the breed of flbeep, and the 
growth of wool/ would render this country more valuable to 
alt concerned, than ever it has been heretofore \ perhaps i( 
might here be equally tedious and impertinent to enhance 
the idea« 

Roads^ Wcod^ (5V.—- The roads are tolerable, rather be- 
caufe the foil is hard and dry, than becaufe the manage* 
ment of them hitherto has been judicious, or the expend!* 
tores regarding them liberal. There is not one village in all 
the parifb, nor is there any kind of manufafture* Indeed^ 
for many years pad, the waDt of fuel icems to have aded as 
a prohibition refpedting both. Even the veftiges of fome 
villages, of which we read in the charters of iome eftates, 
cannot now be difcerned. Of wood there may be growing, 
and even fit for cutting, at this day, to the value of 1 0,000 L 
and the late plantations abundantly repay the care and in« 
duAry of the owners, Afh and oak are the trees moil coin« 

yoj..XVlI. R mofti 

jf^di Siaiifikal AccQtttA 

mon ;— the larix is the favourite plant of the day j but to 
rapid and towring growth renders it incommodious to be in- 
tcrfperfed in plantations. It fccms thus to be threatened 
with exile to the tops of .hills. Evei^ thei^e^ few of the ^e« 
des fail. 

^fiStf^/r.— Knowledge, as to both its ftate and extent, is as 
refpe£table in Buittle as could well be fuppofed, whilft the 
opportunities of acquiring it are confidered* There is a 
public fchoot, to which moft of the children attending it 
travel. fome 2, .fome 3 miles. The fchoolmaftcr is chofca 
from year to year, as it is called, and the only fecurtty for 
Iiis falary pf \o 1. is the good will of the heritors. There. 
is alfo a cheaper fchool, having a (lipend of 3 1. per annum : 
Thus the whole funds of jpublic inftruAion, for the rtfing. 
generation, for the whole parifii of Buittle, are 13 1. Ster« 
ling ! — What can be the meaning of this parfimony ? Is it 
from the learned, the well informed, the religious, — or is it 
from the ignorant, " the molc-cy'd, half difcerning,'^ and 
confequently unprincipled, that civil fociety juft now ftands 
in dread ?— From fome circumftances, one would think it 
Was from the former. 

Poor. — Buittle has no poor's rate, i^ conftquence few 
poor, and no travelling beggars. The colleflions in tbf' 
church, joined to the prudent charity of .well difpofcd pcc-*^ 
fons, afford abundant fupply to thofc really in need. — Vaga- 
bond beggars, the fcum of cities, who beg half-a-crown a 
day to drink it at night, are pretty numerous, and often, 
troublefome ; nor is the law of the land very ftriftly execu- 
ted, in reprcfling thefc pefts of iocicty. Indeed, the failure 
of manufaflures at prefent, affords them too good an excufe 
for their idleneft. 

vf Buitfle. 131 

AniiquUus.^J.i Is now the difpoCtion of the world, (per- 
haps it may not decreafe)! rather to know how things are^ 
than how they have been. Were it proper to fwcll a work 
of uftfalnefsy and to load the page of profitable inforqiation 
with urns, coins, calcined bones, unfalhionable implements 
of daughter, amd other precious relics, over which the con- 
jedloral tribe of antiquaries rejoice or lament, we might men- 
tion numerous difcoveries of the kind made hereabouts. On 
fuch matters few words (hall be ufed. — ^Thc Caftle of Buittle 
is afluredlj the vnodt coniiderable remain of antiquity in the 
parifl). Some have affirmed, that it was formerly called the 
Caftle of Knare^ Kare^ or Bar-mare^ and was the chief refi- 
dcnce of the Reguli of Galloway. An adjoining hill, nam- 
ed Craig^nair, gives fome weight to ^his fuppofition* Yet 
when we recoiled, how large a divifion of the Britifh if^ 
land * once bore the name of Gallovidia, or the province of 
the Galwalenfes, (Strath Clyde), and that feveral places in 
this great extent of country, both from name and fituationf, 


• Buchananus entm^ non ah alils m^do^ fed a fe if>/b diver/us ahiS^ 
fays Mr Roddiman. Here that remark would icem to be jufti- 
tied. In lib. 1. Buchanan makes Gallovidia to fignify Gaul in the 
Scotch language, and what but Gauls were the Galwalenfes, or 
Cumbrian firitoos ? )n lib. 5. however, Buchanan makes Gal- 
lovidia a fingle county, peopled with Hibernian Scotch. Again, 
in lib. 8. he mentions a difpute between William the I^ion, and 
the King of England, as to the vafl'alage of the Lords of Gal* 
loway, and he makes Earl Allan vafTal to both, on decent 
tenns indeed. — The truth is, Buchanan was too bufy in fettling 
kingdoms, to be precife as to the limits of counties. Truly 
does that great roan fay §^ <* Jta tamen cum iniquiiaie tewporum 
*• uonfitxerim ut aUquid reflitijje videar,** Even from the hafty 
account which he gives, it may well be fuppofed, that part of 
the ancient Gaihvldia lay in Scotland, pari.iu England* 

+ E. G. Botel^ now called Bol^ in Cumberland, and Barnard 
Caftle^ in Durham. 

f BucHAHi de Jure Regni apud ScotQi^ 

»3t Statiflical Accauni 

may as probably havt been the princely refidencet a* tbe 
Caftle of Buittle-*thcre is reafon for our leaving thofe whq 
tbink themfelves competent, and interefted in this matter^ 
to decide. Country clergymen may well be ezcufed| for ig- 
norance in concerns very little allied to the fucceis of their 
labours. Certain it is, however, that the ruins of Buittle 
Gaftle. denote it to have been a place of ftrength^ and even 
inagni6cehce. It now belongs, with its precin^s, as con- 
tained in the charter,. to Mr Murray of Brooghton, the re» 
prefentative of the Caillie family. The vaults and ditches 
of Buittle Cafile, are all that remaia of this proud flrufture. 
They have baffled the ravages of time for fcveral centuries, 
and may for feveral more. The vaults are covered with 
large a& trees ; and into thcfe fubtcrraneous parts of ,the 
Caflle, no perfon has ever penetrated, though it might be 
done with eafe and fafety, probably with much gratification 
to curiofity.-— Befides the Caflle of Buittle, the only other 
remembrance of ages equally rude and remote, which (hall 
be mentioned here, is one of thofe ruins^ coinmonly called 


\ Probably it was tuilt by Allan, Lord of Galloway, huf- 
band to Margaret, the cidefl daughter of David Earl of Hun. 
tindon, and father of Dervigilda the mother of John Baliol. 
About 7 years ggo, there was found iu a lump of lime, taken 
from the ruins of the Caftic, an old coin pf yellow metal, a 
fhade lighter than common brafs. On one fide were infcribed 
the names of Nuremberg, and feveral other towns in Germany 
or Flanders, with the word Pfrnnlng^ and on the other fide a 
coat of arms fuppofcd to be imperial. The date of the coin 
was I2 20, From this, indeed, nothing conclulive can be affirm- 
ed ; only about the year 1220, Earl Allan mutt have been 3(J 
years of aie, and mud have attained to the meridian of his 
good fortune and power. After belonging to the Balfols^ th^ 
Cummings, the Douglafes, this Caflle fecms to have bccom^ 
the property of the l,ennoxcs of Caillie, • ' 

tilrifigd firii^^ Veftiget of fuch buildings are not uncoin* 
mon m the lovrcr parts of Qalloway, and the one now alluy 
ded to fiainds on the north-weft border of Buittle pariQi* 
\ within a farm called CqfiUrG^fr, wl^ich lies along the march 

of Kelton. 


* Few people are ignorant of the romantic opinion mdYan* 
crd 9^d adopted^ retpediog thofe vitrified forts, as chey are 
indiedy namely, that thejr w^re flruAnres of dry done, cemented 
dnd confolidated through fufion, which was procured by fetttng 

i £re to hnmenfe piles of green* timber* all around the wail or 

caftie that was to be thus iugenioufly fini(hed« . 

The difficulties viiibly attending this theory would not be 
few, if detailed, and may fafely be left with men of fenfe. Suf- 
fice it to fay, that *Caefar leads us to conjeftorefr fully more pro^ 

I babk than the a^ove., That author tells us f, that the Gauls^ 

whom he calls genus fummae filcrtiae^ built al mod every wall 
with a kind of wooden frames, in which the upright beams were 
placed about two feet from one another, and the void fpaces 
filled np wiih (tone. Caefar commends the invention, as a wall 
thus conflmded did not eafily yield, either to the ram or to 
fire. But in Scotland, a few centuries ago, it will hardly be 
denied, that moil of the caflles, not taken by fcalade, were re- 
duced by rolling banks, or huge fafcines of wood, which were 
pufhed up to the walls, and then fet on fire. When one, there- 
fore, lights on a maff of vitrified ftones, here and there inter- 
fpecfed with fragments of burnt wood, and bits of charcoal, htf 
is almoft as ready to believe, that fire has been employed for 
demoiiihiag, as in ereifiing the pile, whatever ingenuicy may ad- 
vance to t£e contrary. This ebfervation, however, is not o£ferT< 
ed pragniatically. If made before by any body, no doubt it has 

\^ been already decided upon. Speaking farther of the upright 

\ bsams, Caefar fays, •< revincitintwr intfr/ut% et multo aggereSief- 

'* tivntmrj^ Now ag^er more frequently fi^nifies a bank of 
floses, than a bank ot earth. He obferves alterwards, that the 
' thtckneis of a wall thus formed was very greau— ^< ifateriO'^ 
^ fierpttms irabibuj% pedis qmdragenoi fhrumque introrfus revinifa*^ 
•— Agreeable to this, chei'c walls, conmioaly called vitrifiedf. are 
ever found, in this jxut of the iiland at leafi, exceeding thick ; 


t J>9 Beth Qall. liL viL cop. XXIIl, 


%§4 Statijiical Account 

CBmaie and. CiaraBer.-^ As the foil of Buittle is in general 
drjt as the air of it is good, and the traA of country it com* 
prehends warm, good health and length of days are corre- 
fpondent to thofe aids of both. ^* Medicina fumma medica* 
*< mentis npn uiL** With this moft important maxim of phy- 
fic, the inhabitants of Buittle are well acquaioted| without 
confulting antiquity. There is a furgeon about a mile from 
the border of the pariOi, and an attorney at nearly the fame 
dtftance. £itber| or both of them, will come if feot for^ 
but this is as fcldom as poi&ble. Indeed it is juft rather than 
complimentary, to fay, that the morals of the inhabkants of 
this parjfli, as feldom peed the interference of law, as their 
health does the aids of phyfic. — Religion is ftill reverenced, 
and they efteem a Cbriftian Church the heft tempU of reafin. 
To mention politics might be extraneous and petulant, rather 
than ferviceable to the work for which this article is defign* 
ed| were it not> that it becomes every good citizen, at a time 
like the prcfent, to omit nothing that may any wife increase 
public confidence, or allay capricious innovation. . Indepen- 
dent in their fentiments, and in their circumftances, the peo- 
ple of Buittle, (like many of the county to which they be- 
long) feem neither fo befottcd as to imagine, that any human 
form of government Is without infirmity, nor fo infatuated 
as to believe, that every thing is wrong in our own, and that 
reformation muft be fought in anarchy* The apoilles of Mr 
Paine feemed at one time afBduous, and his works, (and 
works of lefs merit too), were as common as the church ca« 
techifm. They arc now forgotten. One idea has of late 


end the inner part refembling an aggtr of fmall ftones ; but the 
walls of caftics muft have been proportionally more (lender than 
thofe of large towns. In cither cafe, however, the quantity of 
wood in futh buildings muft have been very great, and ftiffi- 
cient to vitrify many kinds of ftoae, if the wood was once fair* 
1^ fee on fire. 


of Buiuk. Xj5 

l&ore ^ffeQed the public mind. That fpirit of xioxty and in-t 
diVi&bWkyf that is, of arrogance and depredation, which had 
fo fatally attraAed the rabble of PariSf may preTall izs 
Edinburgh or Glafgo# : — Should that be the cafe» the 
peaceahte and unarmed inhabitants of tUe country kno^ 
vrhat awaits them. On this principle, it is believed,, more 
national guards 'might be cnlifled in this quaner in one day, 
than alt the declamations againft regal tyranny, or parlia- 
mentary corruption, could afiemble in a twelvemonth. The' 
lowering the freehold qualification, and the abrogating or li- 
miting the law of patronage, have been the ultimatum of 
propofed reformation in this country. 

Di/advantttgts^^lf thefe and the like are fpeicidative and 
imaginary grievances, we have but few real ones to complain 
of. Inftances, however, of this kind might be given. That 
PEN^E of the waters, (as modern naturalifts fay), which is 
roaoffefted by the retreat of the fea on every wedern coad, is 
abundantly remarkable on the fliores of the Solway Frith. 
Many acres there, which were barren fand 30 years ago, are 
now good pafinre land 1 and in the middle of this arm of 
the fea, banks or mountains are daily increafing in fize, fa 
that they will Toon be iflands, and will foon be arable. The 
con/equent ihallownefs of the Frith, and of the river Urr, 
renders it therefore impofiible, that the navigation of the Urf 
can be carried on by vefTels much above 50 tons burden ; 
and thefe can only find accefs at the ufual landing places, 
(and the moft ufcful), at fpring tides. Now, as the law 
fiands, the fees, &c. of the cuftom-houfe, are as high for a 
▼efiel of 50 toSs as for one of 500, and as high for a boat 
of 5 tons, as for a floop of 50. In a few years, however, the 
trade of this river muft be carried on, perhaps, by veflels as 
iinall or fmalW than any we have mentioned f and the pro- 


>3K StaHftkal Accmnt 

portioning of cuftom-hoCife fees, and the (hortenfaig of" de- 
lays incident or oibal there» wilt then be objtds t>f cbtrc* 
ipondent magnitude. But the Statistical Accoitiit is 
aot meant as a magazine of grievances. May providence 
avert greater tharf we have felt) perhaps than we have ima- 

The author of this article, having thtts noticed every thing 
in the parifli, where he does his duty, that he conceives help- 
fuPto public utility, and conneAed with the patriotic work 
he would wilh to fupport, claims from the reader that ii^ 
dulgence, in refpeft of literary endowmeotj which may well 
be looked for, by one who appears in print, from no view of 
profit or of praife, but (like many reverend gentlemen) frtua 
compulfion. Minus aptus acutts nariitU'^U it is now ac* 
cepted, he hopes it may be a while before he has occafioa to 
repeat the above apology. Devoid of thofe brilliant ulents^ 
and ill fupported by that profound erudition, which DoAors, 
Chaplains, and Almoners only poflefi, the humble paribo of 
Bttittle doubts if he has perfuaded the world, that in his 
humble parifli, << all is for the beft."— -Happy Ihould he be, in 
'believing, that the fcnfe of the public adoutted things to be 


^f Cupar df tifii 1I37 

(County and Synod of Fife. — Presbytery of 


By the Rev. George Campbell, D.D. Mlnifter^ 

Situation^ River^ Extent^ l^c* 

THE parifh of Cupar is fituatcd in the middle of the 
peninfula cf Fite. The river Eden divides it into 
two parts. It is of an irregular figure, xneafu'ring from eaft 
to weft 5 miles, and nearly of an equal extent from north ta 

Etymolcgi£s. — ^The etymology of the name of the parilU 
is uoknown. The hatnes of dificrent places in it are evi- 
dently of Gaelic original 5 (uch as Pitteiicrieff^ (Gaelic, Pit" 
nan-craobb)^ Eaglifh, the dale \ Klngajk^ (Gaelic^ ceanngajk^^ 
Englifli, the termination or ending of ihe lands of Gaiig 
or Galk j Pitbbddo^ a hollow, named after fomc pcrfon ; 
Kilmarortt (Gaelic, CUl'Mha-Rain)^ Engl:ih, the cell, or place 
of worihip of St. Ron or St. Roan j Bah/s^ Ba/garvie, towns 
named aftef particular perfpns. 

Ta^n of Cupar. — ^Thc burgh of Cupa^, which is the coun- 
ty town, is beautifully fituate^ in the center of the parifh, 
on the northern bank of the Eden, in the fpot where it 

Vol. XVU* S forms 

i^S Staiiftical Accmd 

forms a junAion with the water of St. Mary.-^-The t6wa 
boafts of high antiquity. The Thanes of Fife, from the 
earlieft times of which any account has been traofmitted to 
us, held here their courts of juflice *. It is at prefent go- 
^emdd by a provoft, three bailies, a dean-of-guild, 13 guild 
counfellors, who choofe one another, and 8 trades counfellors 
or* deacons, eleAcdby the 8 incorporations* — ^The.towu of 
Cupar is the moft wealthy commonity in the county of Fife. 
Its annual revenue, at prefent, amounts to 430 1. Sterling. 
In coojunAion with the towns of Penh, Dundee, St. An- 
drews, and Forfar, it ie^ds a commillioner to Parliament. 
The revenue arlfing from the poft-office, in 1763, was 20 1. 
fer quarter ; it now amounts to 90 1. Sterling per quarter. 

Pofmlaihn. — ^Thc population, which was accurately afccr- 
taincd in the month of June 1793, ^^^ increafed greatly 
within thefe 40 years, as appears fr6m the following table i 


• In the chartulary belonging to the Benediainc Monks of 
DanfermTine, we find a precept by •* Willielmus^ Comst "de Kofs^ 
^' juftitUrius ex pvrU Urealu "maris Seofi^rriy cmftttuUs^** idkt^tid^t 
" Davsdi dt Vemysy vice^omiti de Fyje^*^ warranting him to de- 
liver, to the monailery of Dunfermline, the eighth part of the 
amercements of Fife, impofed in the courts held at Cnpar, in 
t^^year 1239* In the rolls of the Parliament, afTembled in the 
beginning of the reign of David II. may be feen the names of 
the Cpmmtflioners from the royal burgh of Cupar. The town, 
in anticnt times, depended on the Earls of Fife. The cattle of 
Cupar, was the chirf rcfidence of that powerful family for many 
ages. The town Is in poffeffion of feveral royal charters, con- 
ferring on them cxtenfivc property, and many valuabre privi- 

rf Cupar of Fife. 139 

Population Table ojf the Parish of Cupak of Fife. 

t^ , Males. Females. Total. 
Inbabitants in the town 1464 1671 3^35 

— — in the country 255 31a 567 

Namber of fouls in both 1719 1983 3702 

Majority of females • - 264 

The return to Dr Webfter^ in 17559 was 2192 

Increale 15 10 

A more particular ftatemcnt of the number of the inha* 
bifants, ranked according to their different profeffions and 
occupations, will be inferred, along with other articles, in 
the Statistical Table, at the concluCon of thif ac- 
count. '* 

Buildings^ 55*r. — Cupar, efpecially when approached by 
the turnpike road from the eaft^ has the appearance of a 
neat, clean, well built, thriving town. The ftrcets, within 
the laft twelve months, have been all completely paved at the 
expence of the corporation. There are no houfes in ruins, 
aad none untenanted. Upwards of a third part of the town 
has been rebuilt, during the U(t 25 years, in a nea,t and 
hand/bme fiile. ConCderable additions have alfo been nxade. 


• The number of females, {o much exceeding that of the 
males, mud be accounted for chiefly from this circumllance, 
that the youth of Cupar, at all times forward to engage in th« 
military life, are many of them, at prefent, abroad iu the fer* 
vice of their country. The population has advanced rapidly 
cf late years, owing to the extenliou of the linen manufacture, 
and to the increafed demand for hands employed in <;te^ing 
pew buildings, and in carrying on importani and eztcn(ive im 
provcments In gardening and agriculture'. 

i^o Sfati^ical AtCQunt 

No Icfs than 70 houfa, chicflj for manufaaurcrs and labon 
ters*, have latdy been built on St. Marfs Water ^ or, as it is 
lulled, tht Lady Burn, A ftrcct, in a better ftile, has bcgua 
to be formed, on the road leading from the bridge on the 
ibuth fide of the town. 

CHurch.^Thc parochial church of Cupar, in early times, 
ftood at a confiderablc diftance from the town, towards the 
north, or^ a rifing ground, now known by the name of the 
Old Kirk-yard. The foundations of this ancient build^ig 
-were removed by the prefent proprietor, in 1759 5 and ma- 
ny bunian bones, turned up in the adjoining field by 4hc 
plough, were coUeflcd and buried in the earth. In the year 
1415, this ftruclure had become ruinous, or incapable of ac- 
commodating the nuirtbers who reforted to it. In the coorfe 
of that year, the prior of St. Andrews, (the head of all tl\c 
regular clergy in Scotland, and poffcflTed of immenfe re- 
venues), for the better accommodation of the inhabitants 
of the town of Cupar, and that the rites of religion 
might be celebrated with a pomp, gratifying to the taftc of 
the age, erefted, within the royalty, a fpacious and magnifi- 
cent church. The year in which this ered^ion took place, is 
afcertalncd by the following extraft from the Book of Paiflcy : 
— « Stf/.- Hum. 1415. In Cupro de Fyfefundata ejl nova 
*• parochialis eeclefia^ quae prius dijlahat a Bur go ad plagnrn bo* 
<* realemP This church was built in the beft ftile of the 
times, of poliflied free ftone, in length 133 feet, by 54 in 
breadth. The roof was fupported by two rows of arches, 
extending the whole length of the chDrch. The oak cou- 
ples were of a circular form, lined with wood, and painted 
in the tafte of the times. In 1785, this extenfive building 
was found to be in a flatc of total decay. The heritors of 
the pariih refolved (a pull ^own the old fabric, and to ere€^, 


,if Cupar of Fif^. 141 

fln the faaie fite^ a church on a more convenient plan. This 
plan tbcy have accordingly carried into execution, at a very 
confiderable expence ; and the nzw church of Cupar is bj 
far the mqft convenient and elegant ftrufture of the kind, to 
be found at prcftrnt in the county of Fife. It js to be re- 
gretted, however, that the new btiilditig was not joined to 
the /pire of the old church, which ttill ftands. The veftry, 
or fcflion-houfc, by intervening between the church and 
fp^re, gives a detached. and aukward. appearance to both. 
The (jpire has always been confidered as a very handfome 
ftruAurc, and appears light and elegant when viewed from 
tl\c cafk or wc(l. It was built by the. Prior of St. Andrew;^, 
in 1415, only up to the battlcmcnr. All above that yas 
jjddcd in the beginning of the laft century, by Mr Williata 
Scot *, who was lor many years miniftcr of Cupar. 

C^ittty Rsom. — During the period in which the church wa« 
crefled, the gcntlciBcn of the countj-, by fubfcription, and 
by an aflcHment on their valued rents, built on a largp fcale, 
and in the modern taflc, adjoining to the town-houfe, a 
.riK>m fcr their ufc at head courts, for their accommodation 
at balls, &c. A tea-room, and otijcr apartnacnts, have fince 
been added* 

Prifons* — Oa the oppofitc end of the town-houfe, and under 
the fame roof, there arc apartments of a very different nature, 
not conflrufled for the elegant accommodation of the rich 


• This gentleman was of the antTcnt family of Balwhasic, 
pofiefTcd of a confidcrable eflate, and a great ftivourite with 
Archbiftop Spottifwood, with whom he paffed much of his 
lime in the neighbouring delightful retreat of Dairfic. He 
died in 1642, in his 85th year, and his remains were interred 
in a handfome tomb, crefled by his family, at the weft end of 
^e church.yard. 

I4S Stati/iical Account 

and powerful^ and to afdd to tly Tplendour of their ^ gajr- 
<« fpcnt feftive nights ;" bat calculated for fecuring and pu» 
nKhiDg thofC) whO| by their mifconduA or their crimesi have 
fubjeAed themfelves to the arm of the law, and which have 
continued, in their prefent fbrtn, for ^ges paft, the difmal 
receptacles of the accufed, the profligate, and the guilty. 
— The prifons of Scotland, (if with propriety we can give 
that name to the dungeons in which, all over the king, 
doffij criminals are confined), accord but too well with the 
barbartfm which marked and difgraced that remote pe« 
riod, in which moft of them were ereded, and with that 
favage and illiberal Ipirit, which feems to have diAated 
no inconfiderable part of our criminal code. The pri- 
fon of Cupar, which is the public jail, for the very popu- 
lous and wealthy county of Fife, yields perhaps to npnci ia 
point of the rneannefsi the filth, and wretchednefs of its ac- 
commodations. It is, in truth, a reproach to the town in 
which it ftands, a difgrace to the county which employs it, 
and a ftain on that benevolent and compafiionate fpirrt, which 
diftingnifiies and dignifies this enlightened age, and which has 
led it kindly to attend to <* the forrowfol fighing of the pri- 
f« foner," to meliorate his fituation, and foot he his woes. 
How woold the feelings of the benevolent Howard, who, 
with unparallelled activity, and aftonifliing perfeverance, un- 
ihaken and unterrified, like a kind angel, went through every 
land, demanding and obtaining comfort to the wretched, and 
liberty to the captive ! — How would his feelingrthave been 
fliocked, if, in his companionate tour, he had turned afide 
into the peninfiila of Fife, and vifited the cells of Cupar I 

The apartment deftined for debtors is tolerably decent, and 
well lighted. Very different b the ftate of the prifon un4^ 
k, known by the name of <* the Iron-houfe,^ in which per** 
fons fufp^ed of theft, &c. are confinedi This is a dark^ 


^ Cupat of Fife. 143 

datnp» vaulted duBgeoo, compofed entirely of ftone, without 
a fire-place» or any tbe inoft wretched accoaimodation. It 
is impoffible, indeed, by language, to exaggerate the hortors 
wfatc&'here prefent themfelves. Into this difmai recefs, the 
beams of the fan can with difficulty penetrate* Here '^ is 
*' no light, but rather darkaeis vifible {* A few faiut rays^ 
entering by an irregular aperture of about 9 inches fquarc^ 
barely fuffice to difclofe the horrors of the place* An open** 
ing, or dit, on another fide of the dungeon, thirty inches ia 
lei^th hy two \h bfeadth, but almoft filled by a large bar of 
iron, ferves to admit as much frelh air as merely to preTcnt 
fuffocation. As the aflizes for the county are held at Perth 
odI^ in fpring and autumn, prifoners have frequently been 
doomed to lie in this cold dungeon, during the rigour of Xh%, 
fevereft winters. — ^The confequences may eafiiy be,apg>rc- 
hended. It is to be hoped, however, that the period is now 
happily arrived, when the landholders of Scotland, havix^ 
more humane fenriments and enlarged views, than thofe who 
went before them, will attend to the wretched ftate of the 
different county jails, and be difpofed to follow the example 
of the neighbouring kingdom, in which, of late years, many 
prifons, bridewells, &c. have been ere£tcd, on plans of the 
inoft extcnfive benevolence, and of the foundeft and moft 
enlightened policy. A fum of money, adequate to the/ex«» 
pence of bujlding a prifon oh a modern improved plan % a 
pehitentiary-houfe, with accomxhodutions alfo for the deftir 
tute fick, might, it is believed, without much difficulty, be 
procured in the rich and extcnfivc county of Fife, were a few 
men of rank and public fpirit to patronize and fupport the 
benevolent attempt. VJf.tQ\ the (um to be levied firom the 
three different orders of men» who are chiefly to be benefitt- 
ed t^ the new ereAion, namely landholders, manufaAurers, 
and bxmsft^ the proportion necefiary to be advanced by in« 


J44 SidTyitcal AuduHi 

dividers tirould * appckr biit' fmatt; sftnd the hnifdeti #6tit2 
fcarccly be fck by the county. Perhaps they could mdbpt 
BO plan Which promifcs to be of fo much public uiiliry. A 
xodfure cf this kind will appear every day of more preffiog 
necefiity, when the Bridewell now buil<}ing at Edinburgh 
fliall be fiaiflied. If Fife takes no Itcp to defend itfclf agaialt 
the influx of pickpockets, fwindlers, 6cc. which may nalu- 
rally be cxpcftcd, it will become the g«:neral receptacle of 
fturdy beggars "and vagrants; and the riling indaftry of the 
counry muft be expofcd to the depredations of the dcfpcratc 
and the profligate, from every quarter *. 

ManufaBures. — In Cupar, and the neighbouring countrj^ 
a conliderable manufaAure of coarfe linens has been efta- 
blifhed. They confid chiefly of yard-wideSf as they are com* 
monly named, for buckram, glazed linens, &c. There alRy 
they mapufaflure Ofnaburghs^ tow (heetings, and SHefiaa* 
About 500,000 yards are annually {lamped ia Cupar, whici) 
amount in value to about 20,000 1. Sterling. Cupar being 
the principal n^arket in Fife for brown linens of the above 
dcfcriptioD, web^ from the adjoining country, to the value of 
more than ao.oool. come to be fold there. All thefe arc 
purchafcd with ready money, and fent to London, Glaigow* 
and other markcts.^^lThe linen merchants m Cupar pay an«» 


♦ Though, in dcfcriblng the pi ifons of Cupar, the writer may- 
have b«cn'led to adopi terms feemingly liatih and ferere, yet 
he mean& not to coavey, ia the moCl defiant manner, reSci^ion* 
or cenfure on any bodj of men, or on any individual. He has 
frequently Bad occafion to praife the humanity of thofe, to 
whole care priibacrs at Cupar are committed, and to wkncfil 
every kind attention paid to them, which the nature of th« 
J)l3ce in which they arc confjneid would permit. He only wifh- 
cd to embrace the opportunity, which the prefent' publication 
affords, of turninr the attention of the county, to obje<5l$ whicli 
be deems extremcTy intcrefting and important to ibcicty. 


If Cupat (f Fifir. 145 

Woiiy Id ttie ina]iii£i£^r«rt and wesiven, betwixt 40,000!, 
and 50,000 Lr— There are at prelent iu the parifh 223 looms^ 
Unplojod chieflf in making linens of the defcription given 
abovc-^There are two tan-works in Copar^ where confider* 
mble quantities of leather are manufa&ured.-— The demand^ 
for faddlery bom the furrounding cotmtr j is increafcd of late 
jrearsy in an extraordinary degree^ and is fuppUed from the 
^ork-fliOps at Cupar. The bleaching field on the Eden is 
in good repute* The bricje and tile work has long been pro- 
fitable to the proprietors, and ftiU continues to thrhre, but ia 
fiot yet able to anfwcr the great demand for tiles. 

Obtatbs to tieir /utce/i.^CupSir^ though enjoying many 
natural advantages \ though fituated in the midft of a plenti- 
ful country } on a river that never ceafesj even in the fcve« 
teft droU^t, to flow in abundance | in the immediate vici- 
oity of lime) free-llone, atid coal, yet poilcfles no conlider- 
abie niann£iAure, that of linen excepted. — ^Tbis want of at* 
tention, indnftry, and exertion in the inhabitants, in impro- 
ving the happy fituation in which they are placed, may, in a 
great meafnre, be afcribed to the two following caufcs. In 
the firft place, hifgh politics have ever operated here as a fatal 
check to ioduftry. A fucceffion of contefted eleAions have 
introduced, and, it is to be feared, confirmed, among the 
members of the incorporations, habits of idlenefs, diflipatioDy 
and vice. Miflcd by that fclf importance, which the long 
expcQed return of the burgh ci^vafs befiows i feduced by 
the flattering attentions and promifes of- the great i accufto* 
xned to the plenty and coviviality of the tavern, open to him 
at all hours, the tradcfmao learns to defpife the moderate 
yrofics arifing firom the regular performance of bis accnfto* 
ssed toil : He quits the path which alone coul4 have con^ 
duAed him to peacci and comfort, and independence *, he 

Vofc^XVII. T feWora 

ijfi StatiHicdl Accom 

ftldoiii vifits his work-houfe or his (hop, and wheii fEe'^^Qb 
tion has at length taken place, and the fcenes» which had ib 
much engroflcd and fafcinated htm, have vaniQicd, he awakes 
to folitude and wai^t, and^ with extreme difficulty, can pre* 
vail on himlclf again to enter on the rugged taiks of patient 
hiduflry. But the fucccfs of manufactures in Cupar has 
hitherto been retarded by another caufe, of a very dificreuC 
nature, the great expence of land carriage. St. Andrew't^ 
Leven, Newburgh, and Dundee, are the neareft fea-ports, 
though all of them are diftant 9 £ngliih miles. Thus the 
^ibanufadkurer mud bring to Cupar the raw materials he ufe$» 
^tit'a very heavy expence; and his different articles^ when £•• 
lO^Uhed, cannot be again conveyed to the fea (horC| botataa 
iadditionai charge. 
'.I >» 

f» Advantages h he derived from a Navigabk Canal. '^^To «•» 
iab^^ the induQry of the inhabitants to rife fuperior to thiat 
natural difadvantage, it has been fuggcfted, - that a navigable 
canal Uiight be formed, nearly in the courfe of the £den, as 
high as Cupar. The river falls into the fea about 9 mHes 
below the town. The j^atcr part of the channel is already 
navigable. The tide rifes as high as Lydox Mill, little more 
than 3 Englifh miles firom Cupar. The fall ht>m the tewa 
is very gradual, and to the pUce to which the tide riles, 
thought not to be more than a6 feet. It is thus evident, 
that a navigable canal might be formed, as far as Cupar, at 
fto very formidable expence. The advantages to be derived 
from this cut, to the inhabitimts of the town and of the 
neighbouring country, would be great indeed, and could not 
be cafily calculated. Cupar is already the Aorohoufe, to an 
extcniivc tra^l of couniry, for iron, tar, ropes, bricks, tiles, 
wine?, fpirits grafs fccfis, foap, candles, t bacco*, tea, fugar, 
fruitSj and all kinds of groceries. The faving in the (Carriage 


^ Cupar of riff- «4jr 

«{ tKcTe v^lcks, to tho(e who d^al in thetn« fappoiin^ the 
«L> lunipiJOR to be no greater than it ^fcaJy. U> wouid oe 

-mmec^fe. \J^ a(iv9nta^es would like«viie be experienced 
by Cuf^r aod itn viciiiitj, in the' eaiicr ra-e at which ttisry 
•IMrniriti hciappUed with limber and ilitcs for buildLng» now 
brou|;ht, at a very j^reat Cf ( cr*ce, from iSc. Andrew'^ iJuu- 
dee^^c.i by the faniiers ou both tides of the river, in the 

.coovcnient fuppiy of iiine aiui other manures j and by aii 
raiiks^ in the reduiCtioa of the price of that expensive; 
but oeceil'ry article qi djn\f confugipcion* C04I — Scotjai.d 
has at \sk\\ opened her ^^t»^ to the vaU advantage tg be 

--^trived tp her commerce tnd agriculmre, fr;in the eafe 
m^d i'uaW exi enceof water carriage. She now fuilows* with 
fpirit and i)eadine1s, the bold and fucctli»fui lie(.s of her fii^ 
ter kingdom ; and when rhofe canals, on a grand iolc, which 
are now carryii>g on, ihaU be fiailhedi it i> to be hopedi that 
th\s cut on the i:.deiii> will be one of the tirll^ on a inore 
-bumble I Un, to be adopted and executed. 

Ec<il€p»nftrcal 5^0/^— The diftrid of Cupar formed a parifh 
%Vi e^riy umes, when tlu: great parochial dividons of Crail| 
Kitrcnny, Kilconquhar^ bt. AndrL*w's, Leuchar;:, and a few 
XMhers^ compreliended all the eaftevn pare of the county* 
.1 he fniall partth ot St. Michacl'a» lying on the iouth of the 
£deny was joined to ttut of Cupar in the beginning of the 
laft century. I'hc church belonging to the parifli flood oa 
that btaciitui Ipot, now known by the name of Sa Michaei^s 
Hill Hun. an bones iire Hill occafionaily difcovQrcd in the 
field, when the operations of hufbindry arc going forwards 
The rains of a fniail chapel, tiruatc^j ncir the eaftern boun- 
dary of the lands of Kilmaron, were to be fccn not many 
jrears ago. 

Ihc church of Cupar is collegiate. The King is patron 


iii StatiJDcal Accowti 

of both chargo. The ftipend, annexed to the fifft» tonCfts 
Df 8} chalders>of meal and grain, and about 25 L in iponqp-^ 
with a fmall glebe. Of the grain and meal, there ate oolf 
paidj within the parifh of Cupar, 19 bolb. The ftipeed ti 
the-fecond minifter it aboqt 1000 K iScotcfa* There it 116 
mantis belovging to ehher of the nsioifterf • 

'■ Religious Pjsrfiirftom.-^TWL wtthtn thefe few monthn, there 
has always been an Epifcopal meettng-hottfe in Gnpari haying % 
fixed paftor refiding in the town, or in the knmediate vici^ 
nky* • At prefent the people of that perfuafion^ who ar« 
now reduced to a very iinall number, aflembk for poMic 
worlhip only occafionally^ when the Epiicopal mmtftcr from 
Pittenweem prefides. The feA of Relief have a meetiog- 
houfe in Cnpar, built in 1769. IThe number of menabers ia 
the pkriih, (belonging to this cpngregation, cannot eafily be 
nTGcrtained, as they are in a fiate of confiant flu£hiattoa. 
There are alio a few Burghers and Antiburghers, who be- 
long to the congregations who meet at Ceres and RachiUet. 
About 7 fit 8 perfons afleoible on the Lord's Day, in a 
private houfe in town, for the purpo(es of devotion ; but 

their principles and mode of worfiitp are not knovn ^It is 

pteafant to conclude this detail of the retigtous perfuafions 
which prevail in this place, with remarking, that the TeAa- 
rsea in Cupar live on good terms >rith their neighbours, the 
members of the Eftabhflied Cluireh;**-that their different opi* 
nions In i>eligioa fcldom interrupt the focial intercourie of 
lifei or prevent them from doing kind offices to one another \ 
..-^hat a more lit>eral and benevolent fptrit begins at laft to 
prevalH and. that, except among a feW| that gloominefs of 
afpcA, that bitterneTs of fpirit, and that fiercenefs of zeal» 
which in former times marked and difgraced the different 
f:^Si are, at the prefent day, happily unknown. 


-> P0or.«^TtM»fegh the parHti of Gopor b vcfy popnlooii, yetv 
Aormg die laft 20^ yearsy there have nerer becn^ at any tlin^ 
more than firain 4 to 9 beggars belongiog to it. The mmiA 
berel begging poor is at prerctit 5. The mmber c^ poor 
4)oafe»holders« however^ is veiy confiderable. Fifteea reeeiT^ 
firom the kirk-feffioii a weeidf allowance, proportioned t6 
their varioiis claims A far greater number are fuppUed oc^ 
tafioAsdly. Parochial aSeflmentB, for the maintainance 6F 
the poor, m this part of the khigdom, are yet unknown ^ 
yet a more decent and adeqttate provtfion ts made for the 
liippon of the indigent in Cupar^ than in molt parilhe^ 
periiaps, where thefe obtain, and where the ))Opnlation h 
cquaHy great. The poor receiTe annually, coIIcQed at the 
doors of the church, between 70 1 and 80 L; and i6Lta 
the iffterefl of a lund in money, which has long been thshr 
property. — ^In a building which ftands near to the churchy 
known by the irame of tie Aims- Hw/is^ and under the ma* 
Aagement of the kirk-feffion, a few aged and infirm women 
are lodged, and, in part, fupported, out of the above fiind.— 
But, befides the confiderablc fuppUes, which the poor thus 
receive firom the ordinary parochial fund, they are indebted 
to the libccai ^irit of public bodies, and to the compaffiott 
of individuals, for cfiential and feaibnable fup^ort The 
town of Cupar^ greatly to their credit, give liberally out qf 
the revenue of the burgh, to the mdigent and diltrt&d. 
The incorporations, too, as far as their Icanty funds will per- 
mit, contribute to the relief of their decayed members, r. A 
fociety has been formed, among tradefmen and mechanieSy 
which has the happicft cffe£b. By contributing, when la 
health, a very fmaU fum weekly, they provide for their 
fupport in fickneis and old age. The ladies of feveral 
of the principal heritors of the parifli, who oonftaniijr 
relidc in it| have e^h of them their lift of weekly pen« 


95% StatiJHcal Accmni 

fioncrSf to whofe wants they kindly and regularly attend; uml 
other mdividuals are not; more din:ingui{h-'d by their raulc and 
opulence, than by their cxitnfivc chanty, and exeiitpi^ry l^ue^ 
Tolencc *.— It may be laid wirh the (Iri^ert rcgr^rd to t^utU^ 
(and to the honour of the huraaiiity of the a^c, ^nd of the 
I^ace, it cu^hr indeed by no means to be concculc^ ), th^t ua 
cafe of priva'c diftrtfs is made known, which du<r$ nu^ orr^ 
meet with kind fyii^xathy, and iuftanr r litf ^ ihar no ctjiic 
of general (c-iiciiy occurs, which does.not btor teitimiM y re 
Ihe virtue of individuals, and call forth the m it bciicv.>lrnt 
cxcrtioni, Thcfc ads of bencHcence arc by no mtacw peru« 
liar to tl'ofc of high rank, and in affluent circumiuncr* ; io« 
fiances of compaffion to the afflj^ed, and of relief exiendod 
to the indi^enr, frquently occur among thole pl.»ce»l in.the 
hMrobh r walks of lilc, which do honour to thcmlcivcs audi 
|o humanity. 

Fogrant Beggars.— Tho\3gh the town of Cupar may be 


.. *w^" ^h'^^^'l '782. the price of meal rpfc to an ennrmom 
fieight. 1 hat the poor i.^ighi be en.ibleJ to purch^fc their ufn il 
ftpply, the (effion add d to their ordinary dillnbntim.s the fiini 
of 50 1 the favmgs of former yea^s. They dividi-d alio 10 the 
ncccffitous 25 I raifed for their ufe b> the humane and henrvo. 
lent, by the landahle and efficient frheme of a /u!^/.riptton hulL 
Qwmg to thcfe and fomc other donations of |cf& coniidtr^tion; 
tfcc p.'.or m Cupar wtrc happily prcfcrved from the preiiue of 
wnnr, during that year ot general diilrefs -In the roinfc ot ihe 
laft wmtncr, (1793). coals, all over the kinL-dom, w re extreme. 
ly i^arce and high pneed. That the poor m.ght not fuffer 
from the want of fuel, and that coals ni^ht b. fold to them at 
the ordinary rate, the town of Cupar gcner.nfly gavc 20 >tui. 
Ii«iS to affilt in reducing the pnce o» this nccertary ariicie. A 
BoMcm.m, who probably would not w (h hu namt to be moi. 
tinned, Ifcnt to the tovn if guneas to purch^fe o aU lor the 
P^^ ^ rcfidrng hcriiofs of the parfih df. |,.c. .Ily coitr,. 
bwed to iht fame bcnevoltnt purpofe. Que ccuticoiAa xavc c 
eaiAe4s^ amoiher 3, &c. © 6 ^ 

^ Cupar of fife. t^f 

fidd to liaw almoft no begging poor belonging to It^yct thcrd 
k no town perhaps in Scotland, of the fame txfcht, whcrff 
ai greater number arc daily fcen infei>ing the ftrcets. Cipar 
being the principal thoroughfare, on the great tun pike road 
leading through the county of Fife, and no plan being ftea* 
tf Jy foHowed, to prevent the numerous vagrants p^ifing froni 
aorth to fouth, and from fouth to north, to beg the whole 
round of the town, the inhabitants are daily fubjc^led to their 
importunities and extortions. To the difgracc of the police Afo^ 
£sveral hoafes are Aift-to be found in Cupar, that harbour the 
idle and the profli^afce, from whdtever quarter they come« 
In the day they prowl in the netghbourir g cotmtry, giving 
0tttv that they are poorfrona the panih of Cupar, and beg 
eir plunder by turnt^ as ^ opportunities offer. At ii^ht, 
they return to the in&cnous receptacles which they had left 
in the morning, difpofe there.of their ipoiU, and riot and ca^ 
roufe, at the expcoce of the fimple, the fobcr, and the \x^ 
% lluOrious.- In truth a fum of money' could not 'ber laid out 
by the community (b frugally, or lb much to the advantage 
of the town and of the neighbourhood, as in hiring a pcr« 
Ion, whofe fole bufmefs it ihould be to prevent foreign poor 
£>om begging in Cupar, and to apprehend all vagrant firaa^ 
gers, who cannot give a proper account of t,hemfelvcs. 

It is hoped, that it will not be deemed improper, or in any 
degree difi-efpejtlul to the laws and conlUtutioo dk the cdoa* 
txy, to conclude this article with obferving, that the afts of 
the Parliament of Scotland, Intended to operate for.tUero* 
gtilation and maintenarce of the poor, are maoy oi them be* 
come of little ufe, and inapplicaMe to the prcfeot (late of To^^ 
ciety. Whoever has lived in Edgland ; whoever has paid 
attention to the legal proviiion made in that country, for the 
maintenance of the poor; whoever has witneffed the for- 
jDidable axaouat to irhich tbe tajL \a foxne diftii<^ jriieay how 


S5i Stati/Hcal Jkcmut 

jbtaHy it ronMimes operates, as an encourageinattt to \IM4 
Hefty and check to tnduftrj \ whoever has paid attention Itf 
thefe circomftaoccs, wocdd never wi(h to fee/oor^/ r^Ou eAn« 
bliibed in Scotland. Yct» every one who has been, dnring 
any confidcrable length of time, concerned in the mamgft* 
ment of a parifli fond lA this country, muft frequently, ifom 
the iinperfefkion and inconfifteacy of our aAs of ParliamenC 
lelating to this bufineft, have fielt himfelf difficulted, and 
muft have wiOied for a new law, containing proper rqpiUf 
tiont on this fubje^ fo very important and interefti^g to S^ 
ciety — particularly for si ftatutc, defifung aecw^t^ thde 
two points ; 

i/. Who are the poor, or who are they who hav« ^^.hi 
gal claim to maintenance in a parifli i . 
. 2d/y, Who are the fole and leg^ tdminiftrators (^ thp 
funds belonging to the poor * i 

ScbooU.^Tht firhooU of Cupar meet In a convenient ^kd 


"* The argnmeats againft the eftabliQiment of poor^s rate% 
have often been ftated to the public. It is unneceflkrj hereto 
repeat them* From what has been teprefeniedf with reipcA t# 
the maintenance of the poor of Copar^ it is evident that a,^« 
cent provifion may be made for. the indigent, without adopting 
a pradice, that has been attended with fuch pernicious dkSm 
wherever it has been eftabliiked. If the landholdeis of $<otr 
land underiland their own interell i if they entertain a deep and 
grateful fenfe of the prudence, and purity, and difintereftedndfk 
of minifiers and kirbfeffionst in the management of the fuodk 
belongmg to the poor intrufted to their care ; if they are inic* 
relied in the comfort of thofe with wbofe welfare their •wn 
profperity is intimately conneAcd— while they reprobate paro^ 
chial afleiTmenUy and all their baleful^ confequences to foetet|% 
they will chearfoUy folbw the only plaUft which, in many pa« 
rilhest can prevent their eftablifhment — they will regularly con. 
tribute, on the Lord's Day, to the relief of the poor in thofe 
(arifhes where their property lies, whether they refide or not, 
>9knd whether or not ibey attend public worlhip. 

tf Cupar cf Fife. %^% 

.Jkaodfaae-Mldingi ereAed in th£ y^r 17271 by the Magi» 
.ftratct and Councilj who are patrons, in a very pleaianc aa4 
airy ikoation, on the Gadle-hiii. The houfe is divided into 
two apu-tmpotft, which have'feparate entries^and which have 
BO eemmuBicafrion with each other. In the one are txngbc 
Latiiii French, Geography, &]c. ; in the other, £ngli(h, writ-| book-keeping, nienfiiration^ 8cc. The rec'- 
I6ir of the granfmar Ichool has a falary of 30 1. ^ the mafter 
^•fhe Englllh fchool, a falary of 17 1. Both are paid by 
tbetowni The fees paid by the fcholars, as regulated by 
die Town Council,, are js. per quarter for Latin, is. 6i. 
§ot Englifli, 2 s. for writiog and arithmetic, beiides dues paid 
m^ the new year^nd Candlemu. The fchool of Cupar has^ 
in difierent periods, been in high repute; and, from the ae- 
tMtion, ardour^ and' abilities bf the prefent teachers, bids 
£ur to attain its antient celebrity. 

CJtmatf, Btfecfei^ tt'r.— The inhabitants of Cupar juttly 
bbaft of the falubrity of the air in which they breathe. Si- 
tuated ia the dry bottom of a delightful vale, biefTed with many 
abundant fpriogs of the pureft water, waOied by the rivef 
Bdti> OD the ibnthi and the ftream of St. Mary on the 
iit^h,. fenced from the violence of every temped, by the 
greoi and fertile hills which almoft encircle the town, and 
botmd 'the plain of Eden, they oflen enjoy a happy exemfp- 
tioa from thofe difeales which Ijirk in matflby diftrifls, and 
ntUch frequently viSt and a^A tra£b of country, at no 
very confiderable diftance. The rtmi^ing waters, whidi ne- 
ver ceafe to fill the channels of the Eden, no doubt, in a 
particular manner, contribute to the health of the inhabi- 
tants, and to the beauty of the finroundlng region. The pla- 
cid ftream of thq river, and the fccncry, which divcrfifies 
Vol. XVII. U and 

§54 Staii/Hcal AcwUfi 

end adorns ks banks, long fince toi]|€hed th« imagifiatiofi f| 
the Poet % and found a place iorhit fong. ' 

<• Lem JIuenst v^ft$s% MUur Ept|i» aqms.^ 

The view from the Caftle^hilU fhotigh it €Mifiot baoiftof }» 
ing exteofive» yet* in pofkir of ^ichnefB, beautj:, ttd varieiyv 
yields perhaps co few profpefte^ which arc purely iolaiid. Ote 
«U fidesi the chearfak afpeft of a cultivated and thriymg 
dMmry: meets the eye. NumeroiM ^m hottfb fl«d m4 
^faHveb" the furrotinding %^f;H actlmtietf. ' At yario^ diA 
tatftes/huHdings of a ^ore magnHicent {bm, ekgatit m4 
Jhttely'^iUiis, tower on the rrfing gi[:ciimds ^. It maywMI 
\tuxh be affirmed, that diTeafes hifve ftl^om proved efMB^ 
mic in Ciipar. Few infants now die of the rmall^pox. ai U^ 
culation, under the direAion of cxc^knt praj^tiotiert, 
daffy gatns ground* Many of thofe. who are cut off ib the 
early period o£ life, feem to fall i|iAipis tO''a em^ aQd<fat4 
dHeafe, till of iaie but r^doa notiood by {Ayficiatn, the 
troup, or inflammation of the wind-pipe; It bekngdiito, 
others to attempt to account for •^efira|dcnqr«ftfaa!iidi& 
temper^-^Tbe vak in which Citpar is. fituated,thau^ipo(i 
fefiing many advanuges^ is fometimea yifited bjr:drea4U 


• JOHirSTOVS* .f . i , ^* / ^ 

f : Attraatd by the ple^/OrnVfaakd Jiealthfol Gtnatioa of the 
irale in which the town Aandsi^orkmgm.wheo they itved4ntha 
iwighbouring palace of Falkland; placed (ftys the current tm- 
'dition) the Tamily nurfery at Cupar; and the royal children 
had apartments fitted up for them, in '^the reKdons hoaie bo^^ 
longmg to the Beaedidines, adjoining to the caftle, now the »- 
£dence of the Hon. Lady Elizabeth AnRiuther* 

4 Cnpar cf Rfi. i^^ 

tkoAdar ftoTAf. Fatal iccidcott from ligh'tniog have fre^ 
cpiently been aqpcricnccd *• 

XmkvW^.— Ifaoy in the poriih of Copar have attained, if 
not to the ntiDoft period of human life, yet to m very great 
iDagevity. It ii not to be doobred, that in every place, and 
in every wgtf perlbttt have At^quently reached a length of 
days far beyond the period allotted to the ordtoary race of 
mortals. Bot wt are diipoled to give too eafy faith to the 
viany infiaoees which are pnbiiflmd to the world, from every 
^porter, of pcrfons having attained to extreme old age, from 
that lave of the nurveUons which is natural to man, and 
fiEom that fond dcfire of protra^ng life to the utmoft fpan» 
whicht in defiance of the fober di^tcs of reaibn, and the 
impient checks of eaqperience, we foolilhly and obftinately 
eheiifli. Whoever will take the troid>le to ioquire minute* 
ly into the hiftory of thofe, within the circle of his own ac« 
qtaintance, who have died in advanced age, and who have 
been reported, m every publication of the day, to have 
veached their hundredth, or hundred and tenth year, wHl 
find^ that in truti^, in afanofi everj inftanccy confiderable de- 
^hiflions mnil be made from the exaggerated account. Who« 
ever attends to the numerous infiances of longevity, colleop 
ted by the late Dr FothergiU, muft be fenfible, that the evi- 


* On the jothof April 1735, a black>fmith, while employed 
in (hoting a horie before the door of his work fiiop, wa^ Rnick 
down in the drect, and tnflantly expired. On the acth cf Sep*. 
eembcr I7&7* the inhabitants were alarmed by a tremendius 
-peal. Every pcrfon trembled, while he inquired after the iate 
of hit children and his domeftics. The melancholy tidings were 
mftantly fprcad over the town, that four men had been killed 
in the eld corredion^houfe, atthai time uied as a Wright's ihop. 
Two of the four, though feverely ftunned and wounded^ gra< 
dually recovered* The Other two were found without anj re- 
mains of life. 

y^ Siatl/iical Acccmt 

dentes oa wliicb they .are made to reft, new^pert. atuL 
other periodical publications, are by no means entitled to the 
attention and belief of a fincere inquirer after truth. £irea 
the great Lord Verulam^ wbeo writing on this fubjeft^ lofes 
tliat acutenefiy fagacity, and (Irength of mind^ which he 
ufuaily difplays, and defcends to the level of the weakeft, 
(he r}\oh fangoine and crednkniS) of the fpecnlating philofo- 
phic tribe. He feems to give credit to the aceoonts record- 
ed by Pliny, in his natural hiftory, of 124 perfonsi who» in 
the reign of Vefpafiani were found in that diAriA of luly* 
lying between the Appenine mountains and the river Po, 
whb had all lived beyond the age of ioo» aad ma^ of them 
to their hundred and thirtieth^ or hundred and fortiali year. 
Notwithftanding the many amuiing hiftories, whtch have 
been given to the public, of the vigour and.feats of jriiofe 
who are now aliv^e in this couhtry, and who have paflU the 
hundredth year of their age, yet (hould any one undertake 
to produce fatisfying evidence, that there are two perfoos 
only in the c6unty in which he refides, who have reached 
this extreme age, he Would find himfelf engaged in a diffi- 
trult, and probably fruitlefs^ attempt *• The annexed to- 


* In the.regifter of burials belonging to the parifh of Capart 
the following entry is made : " Buried, aifl. December 1757* 
•' Lady D£NBRAB»tiged 107 years.*' It was the general belief 
of the town and neighbourhood, that this lady, whofe maiden 
name was Fletcher, and who had been miirtied to -— ^^ Prefton, 
Efq; of Denbraet was, at tlic time of bet death, 106 or 107 
years old. Her friends, when talking of the length of days to 
which (he had attaioedj never failed to boaA» that fhe was one 
of the celebrated beauties who graced the Court of the Duke 
of York, when he refided in the palace of Holjrood-houie, in 
th^ re<gn of his'brother Charles. II. Upon the moft accurate 
invedigat'ton, however, of every circomdance that could be tra- 
ced, relating to the age of this female, who b^d long furvivtd 
uli her cotemporartes, it has been found, ihut ihe had but julk 
completed her 99th year. 

AoMs of loogevliy, however^ In the piurifli of .Copari naf 
be relkdM as pcrfeftlj aothcatic *• 


. * Jamis WiMTf t, Efq; of Winthank, who was born in the' 
beginnnig of 1696, died in the noomh of March laft^ (179S) ^ 
his 98ih jcar. This geaUemani whole (lature did not exceed 
the common fize, but who was handfome and well madcT, (ofTeC* 
fed ia very uncommon degree both of bodily and mental vU 
gonr. Through the whole of life, he never failed to rife in the 
xnorntng at an early hour % was frequently on horfe-back 1 was 
no enemy to the free circulation of the giafs, thoughi upon the 
whole* he might juftly be faid io be regular and ttmpMrate* 
He poflefled, in an eminent degree, the politeaefs peculiar to tj^e 
lafi age, and long remained, a venerable fpecimen of the antient 
fchool of manners. He was the only perfon, the writer of thefe 
Ratements ever kntw, who retaiiledi in extreme old 'age, the 
fame nfe of all the nci^ntal facoltiesa which bad been the poffef* 
ipA s^id epjoyment of youth and manhood. When &e was up- 
wards of 90, he not only regularly amufed himfelf,feveral hdurs 
every day, with reading, particularly hiftory, but could give 
a difiind account of the fubjeA to which he was directing his 
attention. He ^ad never, in the courfe of his long life, oeen 
confinecf to his bed a (ingle'day by ficknefs. And even when 
%e began to feel the gradual approaches of age, and decays of 
naturi^, he was in a great meafure exempted from the weak- 
nefles and fufierings incidental to this mournful period. Though 
he was bom in one century, and lived to fee almoft the conclu- 
iion of the next, and thus ought to have paffed through the fe« 
▼en ages of human life marked by the Poet, yet the defcrip- ^ 
tfon of the laft (lage, given by the bard of nature, was by no 
means applicable to the concluding period of his exifteuce. He 
never, indeed, reached the •* laft fcene of all, that ends the 
*' ^ange, eventful hiftory 0^ man, fecond childifhnefs, and mere 
«« oblivion.'' Attacked at laft by the reflftlefs power of itvtr^ 
\ he retired to his apartment, ^and, after a confinement of 4 days» 

yielded to the univer&I law of nature* 

The venerable Sir Robert PassroN, late minifter in the firft 
charge at Cup^, died in September 1791, having nearly com- 
pleted the fixty.firft year of his miniftry. He w,as firft admit* 
led a miiiifter of the church at Arbirlot, in the county of Aa- 
gusj and out-lived, duriog the courfe of fev era Ljjr ears, all tbe 

^\ members 

'f5» Suti/He^I Aamtk 

Ami^d^^Thit pirilb «f Oipar afibrdiliftls to iateMft 
or to gratify the antiquariaa ^.^--Cajnn of ftooa, or t$mmS, 
containiD^ the remains of human bodies, are frequent in this 


members of the IVno^t of Angus and Meams* though thef 
amounted to no lefs a number than 80 — Mr William Miller 
of Star, and Mr Alexander Melyil of KHmaron« were born in 
Copar in the courfe of the fame jear, and lately died in it, at 
90 great diftanee of time from each other, about the age of 99. 
The union of the laft of thefe two with his wife had fubfifteii 
Vpwardt of 60 years -^David Brown weaver, and his wife, who 
both lately died, had lived in the married ftate during the fame 
uncommon length of time — There were living, about 10 years 
ago, 5 men in the town of Cupar, all confiJerabty upwards of 
00, and who all died nearly about the (ame time, viz Walter 
Douglas, mufician, 96 years old \ David Brugh, gardner, 95 % 
John Lorimer, weaver, 94.; James Andenon, vh-ight, 911 
and ' Lumifdain, duy. labourer, 9a. The ilrft of laeCby 

Walter Douglas, who died in his 97th year, was town-dmm« 
mer, had ferved the corporation in that capacity 74 years, 
and, at the time of his death, might perhaps have been juUly 
accounted the oldell office-bearer in the kingdom. He was 
of low fiature, but broad chefted and well built. Through th6 
whole of life, he could only command coarfe and fcanty fare« 
and knew none of the advantages of warm and comfortable 
lodging. Angling was his favourite amutement, and he con- 
tinued to fi(h on the river till \vithin a little of his death* He 
was of a family in the town, who had long been noted for their 
longevity. His brother John died nearly of the iame age with 
himfelf, after having buried a Ion upwards of 72, Some of the 
fame name dill refide in the town» who preferve a Qriking like* 
nefs to the family, who poffefs the fame robu(l appearance and 
vigorous frame, and who bid fsur to equal the age of their fa* 

* In levelling a piece of ground, in order to form the turn- 
pike road that leads from Cupar to the eaft, there were lately 
found, in the vicinity of the Qilf le-hill, feveral ftone coffins eon- 
taiuing human ikeletons. The coffins were adbrned with the 
figures of warriors, rudely Iculptured, and covered with on- 
known charaAers. EngUih and French coins, of confiderable 
antiquity, have been dug up, in removing the xUbbifli from the 
ground where the Caille once ftood. 

Afti^>€fldbrto€liofefbaiidba»By4tfS!rM the 

count ty*« 

CarJIogju Hlnifi.^Tht houfe of Otf flogie, diftant about a 
lirik GroQ^ -Oapar» on the road tint leads to tlie neft, it the 
ittoft afltient family feat in the jariAi. It had been originaU 
3f iotewkd for » ^ce of iccuhtf and ftreag^h. Cdlood 
C3ephai«vtbe pfcfcot proprietor of Ctrflogie, is the aorii of 
that nmaitf ivho^ hi regular d«4ccnt. has pcrflcfled the 
cftate t' lo A field ftd^ofainig to «hs houfe of Cai^ogie, and 
neirto the public road which leads from Cupar to the weft, 


^ One of shde was fet«ly opeord on ilie Iteights of M'M^ : ^ 
field, abont an knglMi mile Xo die4iotTh-eaf^ of Cupjrr ^ ^ i* : 
^ST^dtQand fosend orns. ut bahed clay, inclofim^ the aitirs oi 
thvi^s^cion of a diftant age. That the orns were mx Roni^n, 
mppeared from thaaatore of the inftfumenrs of war, placed by 
the fide of efacm. The heads of the battte-aices vcre formed c^ 
a prary hard Acme, of a white coloar, neatly (k<<ped, nnci nfcelf 
called and poliihed. i hc& arms moft have been eni|rfoyed by 
a ntde people* ftrangtia to Che nfe of irqn. Two of thttt hat- 
. d&4iaet are in she poflefikm of a gentleman in Copan "^"ha 
ipot where tbefetaflMifi had been formed, from the rem)«ins 
cxf eaaoparti that had furromided it* feems to have been, hi 
Some remcae period^ a military lUtion of eonfiderable n|iporA 
taoce ; and to iiave been a height well adapted for that pnr* 
polby commanding a very eitenfivc profpcd to the ocean on tha 
eaft, aad cotheOchO htfis on the weft. 

t The O^ai^aviSy who for inany ages Junre been propria^ 
tors of the Caftle aad the furroonding grQonds, m times of bar« 
barifm, oonfofion, and diforder, often leagued with the neigfh* 
bouitag ancient family of the Scots of 8cotftanret,-who ii^ha* 
bkad a ftroag tower, (Scotftarvet Tower), which is iUIl enth^, 
ficvated dboiit two Es^ifli sniles ibnth from Carflogrt. On the 
appcaiaaee of aa enemy, iotw, from the battkments of rhe 
caftk from whkh ihe hoftSe Ibree was ^ft deferred, antfon&4 
ccdttsapproaekiaai'theqaartet from whence It was adran^ 
^ipg I and bpth finHics^ widi fhefa-^de^deatft trtre inftantly 

^ u&dq| 

k6o StaiJHcal Accoum 

Ibe ftttely and venerable remaiiiB of an afh» wliicfa fe^ icve* 
ral centuries hat retained the naito of the Jug Tra^, firikes 
the eye of the traveller, 

GarBe Bani.—Tht GadSe Bank^ the property of James 
Wemyfs, Efq; of Winthanki fitaated to the foQth of Capar^ 
Md the higheft ground in the parUfa» has been rendered £i» 
moos by the treaty figned there, on the 13th of June 15591 
betwixt the Duke of Chatteh^ult, and Monfieur I^O^el, 
commanding the army of the Queen regenti and the Earl of 

* Argylc, 

tinder arms. There is a charter belonging to the family, bear- 
ing that ** DuiicAMuSt Coma de Fyfs» caujirmat Joravvi de 
« Clbphan E» et iaeriMhmst Mam Urram di Qfe/cUgU^ et de ErU 
*< tierregentfoltf (Uthrogyle), adeo lihere^ ficut Datid de Cli* 
*^ ?HAnu,faier ejuif 4( ,predeeeJ/orejf eas Umurunt,. Teftibtu Demi* 
^* no Alexandre di Abermthy^ Micbae/ et David de Fitmyu Hugem 
*< de Lochor% J^baane de Ramfey^ cum muith aliis** From the 
sera at which thefe witnefles lived, the charter mofl have been 
given, at the lateft, in the beginning of the reign of Robert L 
The family have been in poffeffion, time immemonal, of a hand 
snade in exaft imitation of that of a many and corioufly formed 
of fteeU This is (aid to have been conferred by one of the 
Lings of Scotland, along with other more valuable marks of 
liis favour, on^the Laird of Carflogie, who bad loft his hand in 
|he fervice of his country. 

^ The iron jugs, in which the offenders on the domains of 
Carflogie fuffered the punifliments, to which they were doomed 
by their lords, iell from the hollow body of this tree, in which 
they had been infixed, only about 3 years ago. During the 
conrfe of the greater part of this century, fufpended in the view 
of every paiUnger, they filently^ but imprefljvely, reminded 
him, to rejoice that he lived in a happy and meliorated period, 
in which the oppreflive jurifdidlions, and capricious and cruel 
punifhments, to which his fathers were long fubjeded, are en^ 
tirelv apnjhilated, and mild, equal, and powerful law, hath ec* 
tencled its protedling acm to the meaneft individual^ in the moA 
^jllfmt (;ot| in this tree imd favoured h^d^ « • 

At^lt and Iprd ]m^ prior of St Andrew, leading tbt 
forces of»the Coogregatioif *• » > 

MUt-billf Tmple Ttmnufas^ {9V.-^A motind of earth 

rifiDg confideraUy above the adjoining grounds, extends to 

' a great length on the north fide of Gupar, called the M&Ug 

m'> aa fome write itj the Mnst^Ull \.^T)^ Koighu Tern* 


* The liotlile camps were only fcparatcd by the river idea. 
The morning of the da)r had been eteployed by the generals of 
both armies, in making the neceflary arrangements for a decin 
five engagement. The advanced parties were now at>oat to 
dofey iraen the Dnke fent a mefTenger to the Lords of the Con. 
^gattoh, to demand a confei^nce. They, equally unwtittg 
to riik a general adioni' eoaaplied with the requeft. The (^tt» 
elpal meif in both armief f epaired te the liigheft eminence of 
the Garlft Bank, a {pot known by. the name of the Ho^ht, or 
Q^ Hiily and which commanded a fnl) view of the whole plain 
wherein the troops were now drawn up in order of battlci and 
there adjufted and flgned that truce, in confeque^ice of which 
the forces of the Qveen retired to Falkhind, from whence they 
had that morning a^ranccd ) and thofeof the Congregation to 
Cu^r^t, AndreVs, and Dundee^ The violent reformer, 
KMox^avtng completely deftroyed the religious houfes ac 
P^rth^ Cnpar, Crail, and St'. Andrew's, had repaired to the 
eamp at Capar Moifi and by his rode^ hot impreiBve eloquence, 
inflamed the zeal of the Lords of the Congregation. He details^ 
in his HiAory, (pages 141. \\2*)y the events of the morarng of 
the 13th of June» with all the minutenefs and ardour natural to 
.one liho had fo ,deep an totereft in every important public cranf* 
anion, and who had ftaked his reputation and his fbrtnnes on 
Che fnccefr of Argyll^ and the party who adhered to him. 

t They who vfe ihe latter orthography contend, that thFs 
nmpart is formed of artificial earth ; that it originally ex(en- 
ded as far as the Caille; dind was conftruAed to defend the 
town from any fndden atuck from the notthi as the river: in 
fome meafure, ftcured it on the fouth. There is no doubt, 
however, that it ought to be ftiled the Mote Hiti^ as it was pro- 
bably the place where, in early times, the Judiciary of Fife held 
his courts, and publiihcd his enaamentSi for the re^ulution of 

V0L.XVII. % the 

itz Statifiical AccmM 

plars had eonfiienbfe pofleffions in land adjoinihg toXkipir 
on the fouth. There are Aill two houfesi in different parts 
of the town, called Temple Tenements^ which belonged to 
that order. They now hold of the Earl of Hadington, and 
enjoy all the priviiegea and exemptions uRially attached to 
the poiTeflipns of the Templars. — ^The only religioot houfe 
which exifted in Cupar, at the time of the Reformation, w«s 
a convent of Doininicani or Black Friars. It was fituatcd 
at the foot of the Caftlehill, and connefled with the Caftle *• 
A confiderable part of the chapel, built of cut firee-ftonc^ 
fiiU ftands. 


the eonntry. The Latin name, by which this bill is fometimea 
Aientioned, maft decide the controirerfy, if with any piaofibility 
it could ever have been maintained ;*-<< Mom fUdti^'* which 
Aiay be tranilated <* Statute^tiUJ^ 

* No part of the Caftle now remains. Thoagh long the re- 
fidence of the Earls of Fife, it had at lad become a national 
fortrefs. It had been a place of coafiderable ftrengtiw Ba« 
chanan ftiles it Arx munitiffima Cuprenfis, The Eoglifh^ere ia 
pofleffion of it anno 1997. In the coorfe of that year, it was 
recovered by the bravery of Wallace. {Bucban, Hifi. hook viii. J 
-^Robert Wiflurt, biihup of Glafgow, who had joined the par^ 
ty of Bruce, after the murder of Comyn, held the Caftle of Cn* 
par againft the Englifh. He was made prifoner there, arrayed 
in armour, and* in that nncanonical garb» was conduded to the 
Caftle of Nottingham. This happened anno 1306. \^Dmhym» 
pie's Annah^ vol. ILJ— ^ward Baliol, aOifted by Edward III. of 
JElnglandy reviving his pretenfions to the crown of Scotland, 
defeated the Scotch at Halidon, anm Dom^ ^333» during the 
minority of David II. f upon which the -greater part of the 
kingdom fiibmltted to him. Upon this occafion, we find the 
C'tltie of Cupar entrufted to Wiiham Bullock, an ecclefiaftic of 
eminent abilities, chamberlain of Scotland, in whom Baliol pla^ 
ccd his chief confidence. [i)fl/r>w/»/^.]— The king was again 
pat in poffsflion of this forircfj*, by the i'uccefsfui valour of Wii- 
liiir. Douglas, and foon after he caukd it to be emirely demo*, 

^ Cupar of F^i 163 

PAiX^/d;.Wf.— Durinj the da* ages, theatrical rcprcrca* 
lations, called miseries or nmn^iks^ (the perfons allegorical, 
fuch as Sio, Death, &c.) were fteqoentljr exhibited. The 
place, where thefe entertainmeDts were preienred, was called 
ihePyjfitld^. «< Few towns of note," fays Amot, ia hia 


• The pieces prefcntcd in the Playfield of Cupar, however, 
leem not, at the aeraoCthe Reformarion, to have had any con* 
nedion with religious fubje<5tSy but were caicuiated to intered 
and amule, by exhibiting every variety of charaAer, and every^ 
ipecies of humour. To ill u (Irate the mannert which prevailed 
in. Scotland in the 1 6th century, and as a fpt^cimen of the dra- 
matic coni portions which pieafed our fathers, Arnot, in the 
appendix to his Hiftory, gives a curious excerpt from a manu. 
fcript comedy, which bears to have been exhibited in the Play« 
£eld at Cupar, and which had been in the polTef&on of the late 
JMr Garrick 

That part of the excerpt only, which relates to the place 
where the p^ay was prefented, is here tranfcribed. 

•' Here begins the proclamation of the play, made by DaviIi 
XiHDsar of the Mount}, Kotght. in the Piaydeld» in the mont]^ 
cf , the year ot God i555 years." ^ 

'• Proclamation made in Cupar of Fife. 

•• Our pnrpofe is on the feventh day of June, 
^ If weather lerve, and we have reft and peace, 
** We Ihall be f^cn into our playing place» 

'• In good array about the hour of feven 
" Of thriftincfs that day, I pray you c^afe ; 

«< But ordain us good drink agatnft allevin $• 
<« Fail not to l^ upon the Caitlehilly 

«< Befide the p'lace where we purpofe to play ; 
« With gode (lark wine your Waggons fee you fil]» 

^ And had yoarfelvcs the merrieft that yon may. 

«* Ccttageri I fhall be there, with God's grace, 

*• Tho* there were never £0 great a pricci 

«« And foremoft in the fair : 
** And drink a quart in Cupar town, 
•• With my goffip John Williamfon, 

«< Tho' all tilt nolt Ihould rair,^ Sec. 

J TAe Mount, formerly the ifiate of Sir David LiMn|f Ti l^^ 
im the immgdiate nesgbhwbood rf Cupar ^ 

§ I. i. J^lcven^ 

ij54 Statyiical Ju$unf.. 

Hiftofy df Edinburgh, « were without one.' That of 
•( Edinbnrgh was at the Oreeafide*wcll i that of Copar ift 
«' Fife was on their Cq/He'biU^ 

jtgricu/ture.—Yik^ though poficffing natural advantages 
fuperior to thofe enjoyed by many neighbouring counties, 
was, till of late, far behind them in the impoWant knowr 
ledge, and valuable improvements of s|griculture-r-rhc h^^ 
ring fifhcry, the malting of fait, the burning of lime, md 
working of coal mines, circumft^pces whif h might naturally 
have been expedled to accelerate a meliorated buibandry, 
contributed long to retard its progrefs. Occupied entirely 
in the purfuit of thcfe ot^jcfts, the great landholders itt Rfc 
were unhappily diycrted from paying that attention to cbe 
furface of the ground, which would not )iave failed to have 
made a more certain and valuable return for the ezpeace 
which they often incurred, and the a^ivity and induflry 
they exerted. During the laft 15 years, however, in many 
diftrifts of th^ county, the landholders and farmers have 
adopted and profccuted every plan of modern improyemcot. 
With a degree of eagemefs, perfeverance, and fuccefs, not 
furpaflcd in any corner of the ifland. That part of the coon* 
ty, in particular, which lies between the Eden and the Tay, 
natfirally fertile, has been fubjeftcd to a n?w and better* mode 
of cultivation. The farmers in this diflrift, with a liberali- 
ty which does them honour, readily acknowledge, that they 
are indebted for many eflential improvements, ifbich are 
now general among them, to the example of thqfe ifho have 
fiome to fettle in Fife, fropa the oppofite country of the Carfc 
of Gowrie. 

Imprwementi.—Tht grounds adjoining to Cupar, on th^ 


aortb» luviog latdy pafled into the handi of ntw unftofi^ 
who have fpared no espeoce to dfain and bclofe thaoit who 
have enriched them with abandance of maoure^ and en^ 
ployed them in a proper rotation of cropi, have entirely 
changed their appearanee, and now afford a pleafing proof 
of the power of cuitivafion. From the improvementa which 
have been mentioned, the er^Aion of handibme hoofes bf 
.^e different proprietors, and the planutions which have 
been formedi the whole prefents to the eye the appearance 
of what the French call fcrme omi. 

HiUsp PUmUgkfu^ &V.«f-The country around Copar can^ 
not be laid to be levrl, as the grounds, in general, rife to a 
confideraUe height on both fides of the Eden ) yet there 
are no hills in the parilh, except thofe of Wemyla»hall and 
KUmaron, both of which are cultivated to the top. Theao 
arc cottenfive and thriving plantations on Cupar Muir, but 
DO trees of age or.fize, except at Carflogie and Tarvet, the 
£uDjly feat of Patrick Rigg, £lq; of Morton* At the hft 
mentioned place, the pleafiire grounds, hid out with tafte» 
around the fpecions and elegant houfc lately built there, de- 
]dw mucluof their beauty from the appearance of the an* 
lien94ai4 lofty trees Icattered through the lawn, 

&#.-^^S3ie Toil, on the north fide of the Eden, is in geii»i 
ral of an excellent qualhy, bbck and deep, on a dry whia- 
fione bottom. The foil on the footh fide of Eden, as loon 
as yon leave the valley, is cold and thin, "and, ip general, on 
a bottom of tilU - 

Farms^ Creps^ C9V«— The £urms contain from lOo to 300 
;^cre8. The rotation of crops, on the beft black land, is the 


%S6 Sfati/lkai Accwm 

ifellowiog: I. Clover and Tftrff9&\ 2. Wheat with Arog^i 
3. Barlcj i 4. Drilled beaDS» with dung \ 5. Wheat $ 6. Tiw- 
nips or potatoes; 7. Barlryi 8. Oata^ with grafs feeds. 
Thas, in the courfe of the 8 years, we have one eighth ckn 
▼er, two eighths wheat, two eighths barley^ one eighth dril- 
led beans, one eighth turnips or potatoes, and one eighth oats» 
r--The following rotation is obierved m chy knd : i. Smu- 
Aef fallow; a. Wheat, with line. ard dnng ; 3. Pcafe and 
beans; 4. Barley, with grafs feeds; 5. Hay, cut green; 
6. Wheats with dung; 7, Barley; 8. OaU; 9. Suoimer 
fallow, &c.— The rotation followed in grounds chiefly eo^ 
ployed for pafture; 1. Oats; 2. Barley or flax; 3. Oats^ 
with grafs feeds ; 4, Hay ; 5. Pafturc-^Artifidal gtafiea^ 
chiefly rye-grafs, aiid red and white clover, are cohivated to 
a great extent, and with abundant fuccefs*. Turnips have 
only been introduced of late years, and as yet a fmaller xmxx^ 
ber of acres, in proportion to the extent of the parifli, are 
occupied with this crop, than in the eoftern parts of the 
county-— The feed time extends from the middle of March 
to Uie middle of May. Harveft begins in the middle of 
^uguit, and commonly ends about the middle of OClober* . 

Patdtoes.'^Uo fpecies of culture has fo amply rewarded the 
labour bellowed on it, by the inhabitants of Cupar, as that of 
the potatoe* They have good reafon to join with thofe who 
affirmi that the potatoe is the richeft prcfent, which the new 
world ever made to Europe. The produce of an acre is from 
40 to 100 bolls. The average crop, on good ground, 60 
bolls. The difeafe peculiar to this plant, known by the 
name of tht curL has not yet materially afiefted the crops ia 
the neighbourhood of Cupar. The kinds commonly plan* 
ted arei for the table, the long kidney^ and the Lo^idm drcpper. 
for cattle, a large red potatoe, known tqr the ntime of tbe 


Tnrfar^ and cxtremelj prolific The aioft focceisful fm 
viers plant them in drill«^ ^it the diftance of 50 inches fa^ia 
each other. They dean them chiefly with drill harrovf 
and ploughs. 

IforySr, Black Cattk^ Utc. *— Horfes are principally empIoy4 
cd in every fpecies of iabour. The breed has been greatly tin* 
proved within the laft 1 5 years. 1 he fanner feldom yoktes a 
pair in his pionght or in his cart, (or which he could not 
draw, in the market, 50 1. This diftriA ok the country^ am) 
indeed the whole of what is commonly called tbi Laigb cf 
S^^ has long been famons for its excellent breed of bbck 
cattle f.— The inftnunents of huibandry, ufed in the pariib^ 
are all of the newcft and bcft conftmdion ; and the fiwmera 
begin to build^ at their own cKpence^ mills for threlhing out 
ttior corns* 

bidrfuns^ Mimcrolif {fV.—- There is not an acre of com* 
mon or wafte ground in the parifli, the whole being either 
planted: or employed in tiibge» ezcq)t one large £el4, the 
property of the town, kept for the purpofe of paftoring the 
cows belonging to the inhabitants. A coofiderable propor* ^ 
tion of the grounds are inclofed. As there are inexbauftiUe 


* For the number of cattle^ &c. fee the Table. About 99 
years ago, there were 12 or 13 flocks of fheep in the parifii ; for 
feveral years patl, there has not been 00 e. 

f Jahss Wsmyss, £fq; of Winthank, a few years ago* fold^ 
to an Engiiih dn>ver» two bullocks, bred on his farm of 
Wcmyfs.hal), amcnig the largeft which the county of Fife haS 
ever produced, I'hey were exhibited on account of their ftu- 
pendous lize, during m^^y months, m di£ferent parts of iLng<« 
lajid, to the eye of public curiofuy ; and wht-n killed at Smith* 
field, were fouad to be ^unoug the hearieft ever bi ought to that 

^ StstjftkiU J^icim 

quarri^ of oureUeot free-ftooe in the.parUb> tfie ittdofariS 
are chiefly formed by ftone djkesi the cxpeneeof btiUkig'* 
which h from 308. to 40 s* per rood of 36 jwds*^ 

• - ♦• t/tt. 

^#^1/ 4ImJ Afi7//.— The groundSj to the diftaoceof an Eag* 
Ufli mile round the town, Idt at an average of 3 L pcraiMi 
Fields under fown graf 3j let for 6 U per acre» fiiinetimet if 
high a$ 8 L There are no left ihao 1 1,000 kolk Of graic 
annuallj made into meal,« at the 4 difi&reot .ftatioM in Hm 
pari{b> where mills are erefied. . f« 

. • ."' . . ». 11 

Saads, (s^c. — ^Turninke roads began tp ho ^med in tbt 
parifli of Cupar, onij within thcfe few |^airs4 The t 
inet, at firft^ with almoft,oiii¥ei;fal oppoSti9n.icgin tir 
tent country* The farmersj h<ywevci^iha^e'^alread|f 1 
changed their opinion with re^peft to turnpikes,! jtbqhpail 
chearfully at the tolUbars, and fe^m^ in general^ lo bo cqb» 
Tinced of the vail importance and -utilUy of the ttrnda^ that 
have been foroied. The tumj^kesy in. lhe:fieigUx>iirhoM| 
of Cupar, are made .oaaa excellent plan, are.formtd'«f &« 
beft materials, and contain a hard and foft, of iummm ao4 
Winter road. — ^The crofs roads in the pari/h arer" i»!g40cinit» 
exceedingly ill kept i nor is it likely^ thftt by..the^fit«to>lK 
bour, as at prefent applied, they wiU ever be in bettor order*; 
As improvements of every, kind have advanced fd jupidtf y 
^nii^ the laft 7 years, it muft appear an unaccoiHitabbtk«i 
KCt, that' fo very commop^ and fq yp*jr uCeful a machio*^ a# 
- ^Y^\ °f *->?ff'">'^r^ for weighing, hay, coals, <tc; baft iieV# 
fet^bceii crcftcd in th^ tpwn of Qupar, nor »n any of the 
«6ads leading to it. , . ;: 

Wages and Prices of Provtfions — A labourct earns per day, 
pk fumme/, from i s, to i s. 6 d.^ In winter, from 10 d. to 1 s. 

• The 

4 C^tjiar rf Fift^ iff) 

llic ^ptkes cf pifovifioas vafj Uttlci in the cdoxiina adjoining 
ID Edinbm^h, Perthi Daodee, &c. The vicinity of thefc 
great towns did not coDtribiite^ in any great degreei to raife 
the price of protiiionsi till within the laft 30 years. An in* 
fsealed pc^lation, and new modes of life, have of late oc^ 
cafioned an Immenfe additional cenfamption of fiih, poultry^ 
gcc. — In the Cupar market, beef, matton, pork^ and veal, 
iell at an average at 4 d. per lib. Dutch vreight *, hens, 13 d. 
each I geefe^ 3 s. each} rabbits, 6 d. per pair ; pigeons, 3 d. 
per pair I butter, pd. per lib.) beft cbeefei 5d,; coarfe 
eheeA;^ 3di tron weight; oatmeal, 13 d. per peck; pota« 
teesi 4i d. s eggs, 4 d. per doflBeo 1 lalmon, 5 d. per Ub---i 
Though the price of provifiom is thus high, and though 
there has been alfo a great rife on the neceflary articles o£ 
leathery ibap, fait, candles, 8cc« yet the labourer at prelent is 
better lodged, better fed and clothed, and can give a more de^ 
cent education to his children, thstn his father, who paid only 
6d. or 7 d. fiu* a peck of oat meal $ i^d. for beef and mut- 
ton per lib. ; who bought eggs at i d. pex* dozen ; butter at 
5 dL per lib.; cheefe at i|[d. ; and haddbcU in abundance 
stt I d. or 3 d. per dozen. This imprbvefnent in the ficua^ 
titm 6f the kboiner is owing chiefly to thefe caufes : i^. 
The propoi'tibii of the price of his oWn labofor, and thatt of 
hl^ hJnilf, to the p^ice of provifions, is more in his favour 
thfli set ally preceding period. 2i^, The introduAion of the 
potai6e, winch has been long in general cultivation, affords 
z vaft additional fupply of food to the labourer and his fa« 
sntly, and enables him, at the fame time, to rear pigs and 
poultry. 3^/^, He can depend on being employed during 
the courfe of the whole year, an advantage which his father, 
who received only 5 d. or 6 d. for his day's work, could not 
always command. 

▼oL. XVII. t CharafffT 

ij9 ' SialijfiicaU€m^\ 

CbaraSer of the Peapk.^^^The UxMirer and flie niecfajaire 
are in general abTe, hf the ezerciong 4f their itabArji te 
bake a decent Kyelibood for ^emret'res and their families % 
they pofTers more forefight and economj than thofe of iht 
fame rank in the neighbouring kingdom. They therifii thfe 
laudable pride of not being indebted for their fnpport to th4 
parochial fiond, or to the humanity of the charitable. They 
^ett in general contented with their hmnUe fituation \ friends 
Id that government whifJi extends proteAion and fecnrtty 
to their dwellings ; and have had the good fcnfe to refift 
tad to defpife the attempts of thoft, who have etadeavoncd 
to make them believe^ in opp<>fi[tion to their own hsp^j t^ 
|>erienGe| that they are bnrd^nedy opprefled, a»d wretch^. ^ 

Manmrt.'^Ttxt manners of the inhabitant^ of Coptf^ <«f 
Abetter rank, are, in general, correft and polite. (Scttdemctt 
t)f the military pfofeffioo^ having fpent their youth in (be ftK 
vice of thdr country, frequen tly-fiz their refiddace htrti \A tite 
decline of life. Formed in that fchool, which harlbng bete 
diftiogniihed by the eafe and politenefs whick It connhUni^ 
cates, they have contributed to dlffiife an elegance of itiA^ 
tiers. To this circumftance alib, periiaps, it is in fotaK^Mk- 
^ure owing, that feniilies refidiog in Cupar, and eofo^ngfok* 
ly a limited and narrow income, make a decent and rei|ifco- 
tabfc appearancfti and arc enabled^ by habits of atttntion 
tod economy, frcqjicnUy tp e^ercife an elegant ho^italitj. 



Statistical Table of the Parish o? Cwpar op 
Conditions anp Professions, &c. 

Prindpal rcfidirig hcritort 


Mafouii * • = 

- -21 

JJittO non-rcfiding f 



. 48 

Attorneys or writers 




Clerks ami apprentices to 

Sho<«nakers •• 

- W 

" ditto 


Glovers' - 

- 5 

14edicai praaitioncrs 


Hatters ' - 

- ' '. » 

CS^ymen - 


Barbers ' . 

' - ' '7 





I^riYate teachers 



« 2 

lOa^luarmakers #- 



- 6 





Hppie painters 








Bakers aod fervaots 


Fxclfe officers 


^Botchers and ditto 




S^esw^ft . ^ 



- 3 

l^Hprn.., - 




J^S - f 

i ( 



• Viz.' Patrick Rigg, Efq; of Morton, James Wcmyfi, Efq; 
«f Wemyfsball, Henry Stark, Efq; of Teaffcs. Charles BelU £fq; 
of Pitbladdo, Wiltiam Robertfon, Efq; of Middlefield, Peter 
Walker, Efq; of Kingaflc^ and John Swan^ Efq; of Prefton- 

t Viz. the Earl of Crawford} Colonel Clephane of Carflogie* 
James Robertfon, jElfq; of Balgarvie, Oliver Gourlay, Efq; of 
Kilmoran, George M<Gil1, Efq; of Kemback, Charles Mait* 
land, Efq; of Rankeillor, Henry Weft, Efq; of Foxtown» Mifl 
Bell of Hiilton^ and Alexander Low, Efq; of FlttencricfF. 


i. StoR^cai Aeemm 

Valued rent in Scotch money 


Bank offices « . •< 

r a 

Tan-works - . - 


Weaver's looms - 


Licenfcd ale-houfes 

- . 43 

Jlitto in the ci>untjF (rf Fife ^ 

r \H 

Cattle, &c. 

Horfes* - - 33^ Coach - i. i 

Cows and young cattle 722 C|iaifes - . 8 

Ploughs . . - 68 Pack of fpx hounds i 

Carts * , • 137 Pjtto of hsirriers - i 


N U M B E R Xn. 


(CovNTT OF Roxburgh— PRBSBTT^AT op SstKiai^ 
— Synod of Mersb and Tiviotdale). 

JBy thi Rev. Mr WlLLiAM CampbblLi Minifter^ 

Name^ Efetent^ and River* 

THE origin of the name is uncertain. It has beez^ 
wrote LUiieS'life and Liliies»citffe. — It rifes from the 
c»ft, where the breadth is only half a mile, with a gradu4 
a/cent to the weft^ where it is a mile broad from north, to 
ibuth. It is broadeft at the middle^ being, upon a medium, % 
iniles and one fixth* It is five miles and a half in lengthy 
and contains between 7000 and 8opo acres.-— At the head of 
tjie parifh, the river Ale^ remarkable for the quality of its 
ttOUtB, divides it for a mile| and then becomes t^e boundary 
to the north and eaft. 

Soil^ Farm Rents^ Cubivaticn^ and Produce. — ^The foil tm 
ries, being partly clay, rich ioam« and partly gravelly light 
land. The crofts adjoining the village let at 35 s. and 40 s. 
per acre.— The rents in general, for feveral years paft, have 
been rifing, and are fiill on the increafei owing, in a great 
meafure, to the improvements and mode of management. 
Xhe outfield ground is light, part dry, and part fwampy. 
The Englilh pIougb| after the model of Small of Rof}ine, 

is tifed b genera!. Farmefs are not fo food of <b«Uig 
vrheae as formerly.. The cidtuce Qf tof^ips is judged' ^ 
Hiore confequeoce, and keeps the land in good heart. A 
.rotation of cropSj^ as fbllpws^ ha^ been, adopted i £dlpw. inr- 
nipSi oatSj peafe, barley with grals j(eeds» hay, pafture fbr 2' 
yq|rS|^ p^s, «ad then a fallow. X^pon lighter ground^ ijf, cro^' 
oats; 2^/^j TurnipSj, peafe, or potatoes^) S^'^i Barley*; 4^h^ 
Hay ; then oats, &c. as before. After this' rmtion, tfaeie 
is no need of a fallow. — ^The diftance from, lime is 25* cniles. 
—There is a marl mofs at the eaft en^ of the parifli,'and 
another at the weft. — The manure in both is of an ezcdldbt 
<^uality. Its effcAs are more difcemlble on grafs, than on 
land in tillage. There are other two moflcs b the ndgh* 
B6urhood| at 4 railes' diftance, from wEith con&dera&le 
<|uantities of marl are brought. The' old maxim, ^ The 
*^ fodder is beft which carries corii ori its top,** "is entirely 
exploded. Sir John Buchanan Riddell, proprietor of a great 
part of the pariOii and who propofe^ ftaying hefe^ at leaft 
occafionally, is rapidly carrying on improvements. He'hs^ 
marl on his cftatc/yet the expence muftbe cbnfidcratolc." K 
is not to be doubled but they will turn out to good acc6tiMi 
ahd his plantations add to the bcadty of the ptaie. ' Swift 
obferves, « whoever could make two ears of com, tir tWa 
*' blades of grafs to grow, upon a fpot of ground where only 
** one grew before, would dcfcrve better of mankind, ^d 
«'do more eflcntial fcrvlce to his^ country, than* the ^#btHc 
f<^ face of poUticians put together ♦.*• Oxen are" not' afed i& 

, , ' labouring 

■ ' • ■• -» - - • . .. * f • • . ' . 

if'ilx place of. ptmmg. mttfibu^ wbjch femttimesvapi attended 

witft a confidcrablc degree of confufion, and fome difagrccablc 
jonrcquenccs among, the fcrvants. might it not anfvr^r better, if, 
torinftance, the proprietor of tei| ploughs were to coHeft cos.#- 
Ac marfcd before (bwii^, add thfe whole work during 
the fcafon reviewed 5 a prcaBum of i \. 5 s. to the beft upon the 


Ubm0J»fir«6flfNt^. Tilt ii»2r had ti k^ ibr ^afto^ 
9mgt^ ■:■■■'. 

.^JOuyr ff Pmnfions imd Labour.^fto^\SM% are lugti 

prkM* , AHchtf meat is often Told at a <karer rate than in 

adU«S|bvrgh I but^ at lo d. per lib, (24 02.) a pair of fewig 

4it r 9. 84* /qrn^lj oqIj i 9. i eheefe <! d^ {ier lib. ibriiierl7 

344U i aiid.ot)l)er articles hi proportioe. . The manner qC 

Uving if gi^tlj cfaang.ed» b^ngwuch moc^ espeofive | yet 

tbc, fioi^Kis aise in. be^er circumfiaaces^ and moch b^tcr 

l«i^ed ^9fa^ tliflj: if^. 3p J.«r8j«g. . Th« wagc> of a maa 

iarraot are from 6 1. to 8 1. Sterling % .and thofe of a maid 

fenrant from 3 !• 4 1» to 3 1, i; s. per annum^ A day-Uboorer 

fata J0d» iiidbi4i9iLlBeittJt>r iu ^d. withontk $ a ta^or» 

tdf Vitl^ 9f ^ %;witJ^t iti a Wright^ 1 s. tfd. 1 a mafini^ 

Xf«.)(S 4* ^/iJOaA for weeding pbtats^ei olr twaipf^ 8 d« Iii 

iiaryeft^ a aUii. gets i s. 4d. a womaB^ 1 9. adi! . For 20 

yeta paft^, work of evei^ kind hai rifeii in iopence one third. 

&>.«9iore .tban.pCoMrie^he rife will fttil be higfaer.. .Tbc 

UhMl^i^ ^]oac jxt afioderaie* .Sofloe farmers have their 

cqi^u^ ^^[itic^ for, 4 d^ p^, bpll| with.n^aintahiBiice^ a ditck 

% ^ do^^dngr ^^ ^^ tbor^ fet^ at 8 d. per rotfd^ and a 

49})blMitf4» ?t*x s. 4d. . 

.,,iec«i^ bad fl^ 

1)^ ifilLl^ put in good repair^ at money for the .ftatntc lai% 
tfott^ fa tp be ex^ed^ as far as law allows* Ooegreat ipcoo* 
%tnicnct^he people labours undcr^ la the diftance from coals, 
which is nOt lefs than jo atfd 3a milCs. Some peats may be 
procured h^ iMt tb fajgh priced^ t^^ rjs. fUe*ia 

whole, 15 s. tj> the fecoac(^ ail^ los. to the third. The plough* 
men voold thus be atteatlyc xtQtfk fizit tolaft^ and jufticc would 
ba4oni tfaeinaftcr, - 

tj^ Statifiiial AcMUl 

cwt. are b7 far the cbeslpeft. In the article bf firiQgi tU 
inhabitants muft be at a greater expeoce than any paiiih in 
the foath of Scotland. Agues^ 20 years agOj were very fire* 
quent in the village, the road bdrig almoft impaflabie on ac- 
count of putrid ftagnated water. This being itmoved, and the 
road formed and fini(hed| aguifli complainu have almoft totally 
difappeared. It is unfortunate that this comer (hoold be fe 
bare of trees, there being plenty of ground well adiq>ted 
for large plantations, particularly of firs. . The weeding! 
would be ufefiil as fuel j the body of the tree profitable, iik 
a parifh fo remote from the fea coaftj and the ground en- 
riched by the leaves. 

Pcpulation.'^t Is generally believedi that the popshtkifi h 
greatly diminiflied, there being veftiges of coi^eraUe vil- 
lages, where now there ftand only one or two hoi^cs. Sinde 
the year 1760, 9 fiinns have been added to foch as lay adja- 
cent ; and though the rent of each was not very confideiv 
able, yet the honeft tackfman cleared with the proprietor, 
wad brought up and educated his children, who proved ufe- 
lul members of ibciety* But whatever diminution may havt 
iately takeft jdace in the population of the pori/h, bxm thefe 
and fimilar caufes, it is certain, that there has been an id- 
creafe upon the whole, within thefe 40 years^ as appears from 
the following comparative flatemeiit : 

Statistical Table of the Parish of LiLLfEs-JLEAiu 
Number of males in the parifh, at Whitfunday 1793 ^4% 
Ditto of fiemales - - . • 28S 

Total nfimbei> of fouls 630 

Ditto ia I J55, as returned to Dr Wcbfler 5a i 



^ tilHeS'teaf^ i^j 

ftimilics id tBe village - . ' ^ «' 

Ditto in the country - * i ' . 

^ " ^ * Total "t]Jtf 

Perfons under I ©years of age • , * ^ i^g 

't between lo and 20 . -. ^ , . . ^ox. 

"20 and 30 .^ • . j^-, 

-——30 and 60 - , i 23^ 

' *■'" ■ -'*^'— 60 and 80 ♦ - • .. 5q 

COMDITlONfl, Propb8Sioh$,.&c. ;• r . 

Proprietor t - -17 Coopers - . ^ 

Minillcr . - • t Tailors - «• 

oeccdcrs of Tanous dcnomi- Bakers -• .- 2, 

We^ivers W. . 14 , Licenfed.a4?^lw)uj5>it , ^^. 

Wrights * ^ ,3 SchopUmaftp . ^ ^ , .-, . ^., 

afafons » - 9 Scholars in minut^ about 50 

SfSiiths . .- , ^3. J>itt.o.iAfumj|pei: .> • 3(5 

Annual average of births - « . , . 

' /.. 7— maiTij^es ' - - : - • a* 

*' "^''' '; *-^— — burials . . i ' ^ (j 

^VV-** Rbi*t, Stqck, &c/ .. . 

vdMRMl ItW. to Seotch money - - L. 8^c 

Real rent io Sterling, about - . i 3Q00 

Horfes * * 175 Swine . . • ..'20 

Black catfle * ^^o PlQH^hs . - : .. w ^g,. 

Sheep ih * i-iQA ' 

• A few of tWs ciafs ar« botdetlilg tipoft 80. 
feoehT^''" '*'^'^«^«» M«% '•-a «mfider»We frtUhberof 

J Atthongh this TiJlage is a thorongWare, between the 
*«wn and eaaem parts of the country, there is no occafioa 
rorfc mutf ale and Ipirit houfes. 

Vol. XVU. 2! 

i;8 Statj/lical Jaotuit 

ManufaBures.^Mwj packs of lint, till of btei wert Cent . 
frbm OarlingtODy by Newcaftte» to be fpon. The yarn was 
returned by the fame conveyance. At prefent the fplnners 
are employed by the manufacturers in Hawick. The qoan- 
tity 0^ cloth woven for fale is not great. 

JExdeJtafiical State.^^This parifli belonged formerly to the 
diocefe of the Archblfhop of Glafgdw, who biiilt the kirk 
betwixt the pth and loth century. There is paid to that 
uhivcriity, the yeartjfwfiAn of 5 1. 7 s. 6\ d. called the Bijbo^s 
Ceai^ The kirk was rebuilt in the year 1 77 1» and b commo- 
dious and well &ated« The Duke of Rozbwgh is patroo. 
The ftipend, at the conveffion of grain^ is aboot io<>oL 
Scotch, find 50 1. ditto for ^bmmunion efements. ' Themanfe 
was built in the year l^62^ vety (uperficiaDy and conined. 
An addition was made to il( 15 years after, and t^ houle is 
this fealoh to get foine neccflary repairs. The glebe hot ^ 
tdleraUe good qualhy^ meafuring near 1 1 EaglUh acrtls *• 

S^Aofl/.— The heritors, a few ytars ago, jr^ontarily raifed 
the fchool^mafter's falary from too merka^to ioo 1. Scot^. 
They are contraAibg for a new fcho<d and fcJUotil-houie. 
His eiholumenfs^ as teacher, precentor, and feflioni^grki i^ 
not exceed itL per annum. "^ cio 

Pfwr.— .The poor are fupported by the intcre(i ot 105X 
Sterling funk money, and an afleflment on the land, the one 
half paid by the proprietor, and the otl^cr half by the te« 
Banc. The weekly coUeAionsfupplyffuch as occaConalfy 

'- ' '-' ■' need 

' "^^^r It might be tept entire, Sir Walter Riddell, in the. 
Y ':/poned half an acre of land to the then miniftery 

^ jrs in offit;C; upon which the manfc, &ۥ are 

9f tillieuLeaf. '179 

need affiftance. , When a perfon is admitted a pauper, a 
bond is figoed^ conveying a right to the heritors of what 
cfieAs they have. This prevents impofition. If in value 
the cfiefU exceed the expenditure, the furplus is given to 
the neareft relations of the deceafed. 

Anttqtatus *•— In thit parifli lies the feat of the ancient 


* Upon incloGng the gronnds of BewliehiJI, the workmen 
came to loofe earth, (oft and black, and found a great nunibcr 
of human bones, feembgly burnt to a certain degree. The 
fpace was upwards of 20 feet diameter, being of a circuiar form, 
and feems to have been an oiytpoft of a ^oman camp, the vef- 
tiges of >;^hich are to be feen in a neighbounqg pariAi, at 3 miles 
didance. The rage of conqueft knows no bounds, but the Al- 
mighty brinffe good oat of evil 1 for, by the invafion of the Ro- 
joans, and uc (uccds attending their arms. Providence paved 
the way for publHhing and introducing Chrtdlanity into this 
ifland. Military weapons have been found, and {pears Iharp od 
both fides $ large quantities of human bones, fon^e with ribs 
t adhering to the back bone$ heads, in feme th« t^ethaimoft freih. 
One body was pretty entire ; contiguous to it were the remains 
of a horfe. Frequent ikirmiflies had occurred in that corner of 
the pari(h, with the foldiers of Charles II. A numerous party 
of Pre(bytCTtans, who were marching to join their brethren ac 
Bothwell Bridee« being attacked by fome troops of dragoons, 
fled to Bewlte Mofs for refuge ; unable to extricate themfeUesj 
snany perillied in the mud. When the old church of I«Ulie»^ 
I«eaf was taken down» in 1771, there was found, below one of 
the ieats, a coffin containing fev^ral huipan heads. We may 
foppofe that they had been cut off by friends, that they might 
act be fixed upon the ports of any of the neighbouring bo- 
roughs, as it was not podible to drag out the bodies without be-*. 
ing difcovered. What a bieffed toleration do we now live un- 
der? And if the conftitution under which w.e live, in the courfe 
of time, needs repairs, tender and delicate Ihould the hand be 
that touches it. Our fathers told us of frequent meetings la 
X«illies-]>af muir, for the worihip of God. The devout ailem* 
bled at the hazard of their lives; the place they chofe was retir* 
ed ; and one of their number was placed on a riling ground, to 
giye the alarm on the appearance of danger.-*ALBXANDCR 


1 8.0 Statijlical Account 

family of RiDDEt» of that ilk, one of the molt smdeat, if 
not the very oldeft In Scotland ^. 

CharaBer and Manners, — ^Thc pcqplc in general, a very 
few excepted fi are fober and atteotive to hulinefs, there be- 
ing plenty of work for fuch as chufe not to he idle, or half 
employed. They are regular in attending the ord'nances of 
religion, and many haye made no fmall degree of improve* 
mcnt in • Chriftian knowledge. They adhere ftridtly to the 


Home, great.grand -father of the wife of the prcfent minifter; 
H man eminent for his piety, and fimplicrty of manners, came 
from the Merfe to join with his foiFcring brethren in Divine 
fcrvice. Under the influence of that principle which •• think-^ 
•* eth no evii^^ he informed a gentleman, on his returning home» 
where he had been, who *^vit information to the fervants of 
jjovernroent, whereupon h. \v<\s apprehended, condemned, and 
hanged at the Crofs of Edinburghi 

• Tradition fays, this family fixed itfelf betwixt the feventk 
and eighth century. A late well informed and elegant hifto- 
rian was of this opinion. As pofitive proofs, Walter Riddelt 
of Riddell married Violet Douglas in 936* About and after 
that period, grants of land were made by th^ kings of Scot- 
land, and by fome of the Popes, particularly by Pope Alexan-' 
dcr IL A place of worfliip was ere<5led near the houfe of Rid- 
dell, which had a burying ground, called Chapel Park. When 
in tillage, human bones occaiiohally have been plowed up. 
This burymg place was transferred' to the prcfent church-yard. 
Upon the outfide of Riddell ayte, there is infcribed H. R. 11 10. 

^ Previous to the rupture with America, a woman guihy of 
child-murder petitioned for baniihment, which was granted. 
She denied to the father her being with child, and would not 
hearken to his propofals for marriage ; yer, fo violent was his 
atfachment to this monfter of depravity, tliat he accompanied 
her to America, in the hope fhe would relent, and at laft give 
him her hand — .A well difpofed woman, upwards of 70 years 
of age, at times fubje<^ to religious melancholy, aikrd of a 
neighbour a good book to read ; Amhrofe's War <with Devih was 
put into her hands, the reading of which entirely deranged bet. 
mind, and led her to co;nmic the fatal afl of fuicidc. 

fiandards of the Church of Scotland, and are well acquain. 
ted with her dofbrines. The^ are g^erally firangers to the 
negleA of family worlhip } and wifh to give their childrea 
a deccpt education* The fchool fees, for the children of 
juch as are not in gopd circu9iftancet| are paid iirom the 
weekly coUeAions. The Seceders of different denoniinationa 
are obliging in their manners \ far from a narrow contraftet 
fpjrity no cler|yman could with for better neighbours.-* 
There are two political focieties a few miles diftant, who call 
themfelves the Friends of the People; but| though they are 
anxious to add to their numbers^ not a fingle perfon - in this 
parifb has joined them.*— The dreis both of the men and 
the woaien has undergone a mod furprifing change, within 
thefe 40 years. Thirty-two years ago, there were only 7 
hats in the churchy but at prefent there are not sis vq^hj 



(County amd Presbttert of Peebles.— Stnod ob 


^) the Rev. Mr Patrick RoriksoMi Minifter^ 

Name^ Situation^ and Extent* 

THE village of Edlbstown, from which thtspariih 
takes Its namei is fituated 17 miles fouth from Ediii> 
burgh, and 4 niiles N. from PeebteSi on the poft road from 
Edinburgh.— The length of the parifh, from M. to S. is 10 
inilesj and its ^reatcft breadth, from £. to W. 7 milei^ 

JTtll, ProJ^a^ Lake^ River, isfc^-XtWDROiGH^ or Druid's 
Jffi//, which is fituated two miles eaft from the church, is 
2100 feet above the level of the fea, from which, in a clear 
day, can be feen the Cheviot Hills, with part of Tiviotdale, 
Annandale, Clydefdale, PerthOiire, Fifcfliire, the Frith of 
Forth, the city of Edmburgh, and the counties of Eaft, Weft, 
and Mid Lothians,— There is a lake about 2 miles to the N. 
E. of the village of Edieftown, nearly of a circular form, and 
about 2 miles in circumference. The only fpecies of fifh 
which it contains, are pikes and eels* This lake gives rife to 
the water of South Eik, which empties itfelf into the fca at 
Muffclburgh. Edieftown Water, which paftes this village, 
and runs into the river Tweed at Peebles, takes its rife from 


▼ailious fpriiigs on the north and nortlMreft boHndtries of 
the parifh, and at Cowey'sLbn has a fall of 35 feet-' « There 
are no difeafes peculiar to this panfh. The ague is not known 
in it. In the year 1783, the poor were liberally fuppUed^ 
and the inhabitants of the parifh^ during that year, were 
floore free from ficknels than ufual. 


Surfaei^ Culthaticn, Pro4uci^ Exports^ {^V.— Though the 
greateft part of the parifh confifts of hill groundj and is de- 
moted to the pafhurage of iheep and black cattle^ yet every 
fiore faroi^ one excepted^ and on which aihepherd only re- 
fides, contains as much arable land as occupies from .one to 
three ploughs.*— The crops confifl of bcansi ibwn grais, oais^ 
peafei potatoes^ and turnips. The culture of turnips and 
fown grafi hay» becomes every year more extenfive; and at 
it is found profitable to the farmer, as well as ornamental ta 
tfie country, there is little doubt that it will foon be general. 
—The produce, afler fopplyiog the demands of the pariih^ 
enables the fitfmer to export annually from 1100 to 1200 
bolls of bear ; and their exports of oats and peafe, taken to- 
gether, may amount nearly to the fame number of boIb» 
The grob rent of the parifh is dptibled within the hft 20 
years. AU the tenants are in a thriving fbitc, and many of 
them are opulent. 

PrUis rf Prwijtonj 4ml LaSwr.^^The neareft market §oa 
provifions is Peebles, which is well- fupplied with meat of all 
kinds, the prices of which are nearly the fame as at Fdia 
burgh. The wages of fervants and labourers have increaf(Kl 
lately, and have been nearly doubled within the laft 20 years^ 
which is owing, in a great meafure, to the decreaied popuI»> 
tloD, not only of this pariibf but generally throughout the 
caunry of Tweeddale. A good ploughman receives g gui« 


l1Bf> Stal^fcal Account 

ifcu pir annum^'^'iHilk vifloals; IF' marridl, he has alfo i 
hbtife and garden, 'vnth as moch land as fe Tufeetcnt for 
fowihg'two pecks of bear;'tw6 pecks of potatoes, and a Uppy 
of llhtTeed. The wages of maid Cbrvntit^ ai^/ iit~f&!ntfier» 
from 1 1. 15 s. to a 1. los. Sterling, and, in*wintcr,Trom i L 
5$. to 1 1. 15 s. Sterling/' Day-labbiirers rcccivc"£roni is. 
2 d. to 1 s. 6 d. without vifVuals ; and carpenters, mafons^ 
tailors, and weavers^ 'have lately increafed'Hi'elr 'wages about 
one third. 

P(^i^/J9».— Theniunberof inhahitasts^^K thfe parifli has 
varied dt dj^ent thnes, but has greatly decreafed .of lat^ as 
will appear from inipeAiftg th* follpwmg' table | although 
there is a fmallincreafe upon the whole, witfiio' thefe 40 years. 


Nuniber of fouls, in 1755, as returned ^to Dr ' ! 

Webfter - - ,^ - 679 

Ditto in 1775 - - - 810 Incrcafe.^ -131 

Ditto in 1793 - - . ^ 7.10 Decrease too 

Total Incn^fe In '3f8 years " 31 

Acfis AKD Sexes MaUs. Females.^ Total. 

Perfons under 10 years of age 57 74 . 131 

« between 10 and 20 84 62 145 

20 and ^o ^54 69 123 

30 and 40 46 39 8; 

40 and 50 36 28 64 

50 and do 35 26 61 

60 and 70 3a 27 59 

70 and 80 25 12 37 

80 and 90 2 2 4 

In all 371 339 ' 710 

Rbli6ioh> Hbeitors, &cr 

Kuxaber of Seceders, of all deooihinatidof 90 

u Members of the Eftabliihed Church 620 

> ' Ph>prietOirs - - - 13 

— T^baats ^ - . - 23 

' Itikabitants in the village ^ . 1 80 

■ Pcnfioners on the roll, from 8 to 10 
' PliUichoufe - * *• 1 


Nomber of (heep ,m . ^ ^ 8400 

■ Black cattle m - ». 6io 
' " ' Hories ^ ' m • « 103 
* ^ Ploughs^ Scotch and Englifli 4 48 

Lands an^ Rbkts* 

t<lumber of acres in the parifix - • 21,250 

— — *— ditto aonually' under crops - i>40'o 
Valued rent in Scotch money 1^392$ 13 o 

Real ditto in Sterling - - 2550 o o 

Of this fum^ ] 2 fiu*mers pa^ - 1300 o o 

Two pay about - « 250. o o 

" ' ■ Other two ■ • 200 o o 

Other two - 150 o o 

And £ve who have fapilies pay - 650 o o 

Loweft yearly rent of any farm - 20 o o 

Highefi ditto • « . 250 p b 

Vol. XVIL A a ^4 



thePar'tJh of Edleftonunt/rom \fi JoH. 174a, U \fi ^jpi^ i^^ 

Eatriet madts 

witbih the fear 1742" 

-*-*—= — »744 





— ' '749 

— »75o 


Total from ift Jao. 
174a, to ift Jan.. 

within the year 1751 

^ >753 

" ■ " 1754 

-— «755 



^ t:75« 


■ 1760 

— — — 1761 

Total from lAJan. 

1752^ to I (I Jan. 


witbih the year \ 762 


— r — ^764 


.—- , 1766 



t , „ ■ 1769 


— 1771 

lota! from ift Jan. 
1762, to ift Jan. 











MiiesI Pem 


























68| 94 87 








. 7 







10 14 






tfakf Fen. 
























9 13 


Carried over 


































233I 57« 6«5 



rf EtBe/hiwH. 


iht^ttifhtfSS^cnm^fiom ifi Jan. 1748, to \ft Jan. 179a. 

£ntffes made 

Kmigkt forward 
withib the yean 77s 


DtaJ i 

Total from liijan. 

177a, c6 ift Jan. 

178? • ' 

within the jfcar i7Sa 


Total from jfi.Jan. 
1781, tp jft Jan< 

Total number of cntms for 50 years , ^^ 

The AiixntH:r of thofe boned here, who were not iahabitants 
of the parifhy from ift Jan. i772»to iftjan* 1782^ ^^57? 
And from ift Jan. 1781^ to ditto 1792 - - •463 

Which make in all, daring the laft aojearg - • 1034 



. Caufei of, J^tf^uh^^-^The ibovp eztraft ctuotafcoclifal 
the number of marriages ^hich have aQually ti|pai phoe 
within the parifh, as proclamation of banns is made whea 
mtf'Ooe of the parties refides in it ; but the re^fter of kapr 
tifflis appiiea^ftrifttyftD the flate ^f the parifh, from which 
it atppearsy that its population has decreafed graduallj fince 
the year 1762^ which may be itctounted fyt fropi tho fo^ow^ 
ing caufes : Firft^ 14 cottages, fbrmtrly occupied fay marxied 
fovants, have becci allowed to fall into difrepair. Tdfy^ 
Twelve of the fiu^mers are batchelors. 31//^! TVaofthefe^fhoi 
are^toarried have no childrea. 4iM^, -Other twodoiiotrdfidc« 
gib^i Two are widowers^ tSthffj Of the 13 heritors, 8 wm 
21011^ reiident, in which ouffiber. arr iof ludcd aUthe granJiii^ 
il«UsE8$ "and, laftly, of the remaiiung.5^ irho «re fte&^ii^ 
jHkiy^one if .married, whofe lasded property do<a w^ C9C^ 
^fU Sterling per- rmnm/u Ic is tbccofore prcfiim»ble, .^hat 
fcme of die above caides of thf depopulation of diis pariib 
nay wt be pe^rmaQent) aod that at. fome fti^utfl .pcriod» k 
faay be rcftored nearly to the p^pi^l^tiQa of the yefir:i775* 

Horfes and Blach Cattle.^^AM, the above mentioned fiock of 
borfes, black cattle, and ihcep, are reared within the pa^iOi. 
The horfes are of the fame bre^ w^h thofe ufed for drangltt 
all over the fouth of Scotland* A few horfes aie occafio- 
.mUy bred for fate, atid bring, from 10 to 2o*giifBeas, aecqr- 
^Ag to. their age or figure. . Jitay black cattk are fold, aa- 
mu^i -Tome in miUc, aod ibme iean to graziers and feeders ; 
\t\xX more generally* fuic^ th< i&troduAion of nirnipihufbaii- 
.^nrt.they are fold fat to d^e butcher in February and Marcli. 
^aoy of Dhem are fold at the fair, wjtiich is held annually for 
that purpofc, on the a5th of September. The average 
weighs of «ows bred t«r?, is 30 ttone, and of full aged bol- 

• ^' 

rfBdkJhni \i§ 

iMksi 40 Aiae s but fome of both kiiKk cottfidecably e$eeed 

Mfit&iy aim/ jrfftf.-^The ih^ are all of tlie Tweeddaie 
teM. 'The ftore^maften fell their dmght ewes with lamb 
Sa AfA^ at from 10 L to iiLSlerlbg per fcoaer.* Fit 
lamttff are fidd from^the ifrof Jolj to the ft5th of &ptem^ 
ber^ and bring, at an average 6L the ibovr. Wedder and 
ewe hogs are Md in Jane* the fbnaer-firom 8 L tb i^L tfafe 
favci and the latter from 4IL<ta 8L per ditto; bdtthebeft 
Af afae ewe hogs are reTerved as ftbck. Ewes^ which ha^w 
«Bt had iambs, axe ibldtto d|e butcher in Jvly and Angofi^ 
«t Avm IIS. to^ 13s. each } and old ewet, which ha«6 nmu 
Mi Ismbs, bring from <>1. to 10 1. the (core, in HwemSaet 
an^ 'Dosembcr. - Tbfr ;^/V ^ewes wei|[h, at an average, 10 lib^ 
Diitchypet4)«arteiv>^'^beoId ewes S lib. per dkto, and 
€Mtf fntia 3 lib; to 5 libL tron ctf tallow. The fheep are aV 
fiueared' with tar afld biittelr Ia Moveifiber* Ihef are <hom 
in June and Jvdf 1 and th^ wo^ is^AU from ;s. to 7 s« 'per 
fione tron, according to its quality and cleannefs. 

Chunhj ScM, amf Poor.-^Tht chqrch is fuppofed to be 
above 200 years old. Some of the feats in it bear date 
i6om0 The money ftipead, inclnding 100 merks for com« 
muaion elements, is 66 L 13 s. 4d. Sterling, with* 53 boUs 
1 firlot I peck 9 llppies of meal, and ai bolb 1 6rlot i peck 
and 2 lippics of bear. Lord EUbank is patron.r-The fcbo^ 
xnafter'a falary is 8 1. 6%: 8 d. Sterling, befides 16 s. 8d. as 
&Aoo.clerk» and 1 1. 6 s. 8 d. Sterling, as coIleAor of the 
poor^s rate, which was eftaUifhcd here in 1 752«^-«The annual 
afieflment on the heritors and tenants^ by equal proportions, 
for 20 years paft, has been only 5 1. Sterling. The heritors 
lind the minifter have a meeting on thefirft Monday of Mayj 


9§i Siatj/fiaaAnmi, 

Hod iQOther m Om firft MMiity of Nioytmlfer aaiiBaUy» Sw 
fixing the quantum of the pooi^s ratet» admittipg peafioqtrip 
and granting them annuities^ according to their neceiSties. 
There lurve Imr pa beggim ill t|i€ pvifli filKf liM 
inent of a poor's rate. The pet^fiooery 9n the ii^itor^s Jift 
fm aUJioi|fe4w)ldcrs, $^ i^lQpivQ firpm aL t9 ^L 3ti9*u»g 
ftr umnm. They hs^TT a food of. a^S 1* S(^rUng at intereft^ 
vhjcli 1$ siniiiially increafing; and it ii probable^ thai, a Sam 
ye«ri hm^ it fUI not be nflceflaiytofaBlioiie the fvochial 
afleffinent. The one half of the weekly odleQioos in the 
churchy after paying the falaries of thefeffion-derk and kick 
officer^ is appropriated to the fupply of thepoor who are nat 

' - ■ * '^ ' 
^Jtll^^ inliabitants of Ais parSSa 

sre genprallf oecooomicali indoftrious, and regular in tlmf 
n^endance d& the ordinances of celi^p**— Thei^ are noi\np 
nialnt of antiquity in the pariih^ e^eptbg the vcftigpt nf 
t^9 circular CQcampmenifl^ n^gp^ 


^jSkM^mbi Iff 


ito'lJJi^t bi PfiRTH.<^t*RB8BTTE&TOF MfiXGLB.--^ ] 

8tiidl> 6f Angus amo MiAiNS.) * ' " 

l^r i§< *^. JMV JirfE* JbKN^f ON, 'i^i/?.rr* "^ ; ' 

Onr^m gf the NAme. ' ' '-^*''^ 

TH£ name of the pariih is Blair-Oowris^ fo qfkd 
' irbm ' the' Village near Whic^ tfie church ftands," la 
olit^^Mit'isTometiaies Witter ^lair*in^Gowrie. Various 
ttfijaSS6^ and interpretations bf it have been fu|rge^* 
tSkt inany odier names of pti'ces ih tl&e parifli, it is mbably ^ 
Gaelic. In thai langtidge ilaar is faii to be defcriptiveo^ a 
place where muir and miofs abound. Thus Ariblair is the 
heig)ht in the muir or mofs* The muir of Blair-GoWrie^ a^ 
bounding with mofs^ is in the near neighbourhood of the viU 
lage. ^be WaltciHvn of Blair^ tht Locbeni of Blcir, LittU 
B/air^ and JtrHlair^ are names of places on tbe borders of the 

3Sicff«/, Situati$n^ Surface^ 8oU, fsV.— The extent of it ii 
confidrrable, being about 1 1 Englilh miles long from S. to 
N. and in fome places not lefs than 8 miles broad ; but, (as 
may be feenfrom Mr Stobic^s map of Perthfhirej, the figure 
is irregular, tieing frequently iaterfefled l^ the pariihcs of 
Kinloch, Bendochy, and Rattray. The conncAcd part of it 


)9^ Siatljlical JiaMU 

is oolj about 9 nules loDg» and from one to two miles broad i 
The periih is dbi9ed' into tiro £ftrt£b 67 a branch of the 
Grampian mountains, ^priiich is the northern boundary of 
this |iart of the^beaaiiftil ▼alley of Strathmore. Thefon* 
thera diftrift^ which -lies in the ftrath, is about 4 milet* loiig, 
and from one to two miles broad. In genend it is Bkt^ The 
Northern diftriAy which includes the detached parts of the 
pariflii is high ground, rery uneren in the furface. Tlie w^ 
rable land in it is in general floping, mnd. In many places 
veryfteep» The hills are moftly covered irith heath. Some 
<tf them may be about tfoo feet above the level of die iai» 
The foil in both diftri£b, as may be fuppofed, is various. A- 
long the fide of the lUa, it is a deepoHeh loam, free from 
figaca. Immcsdiatdy north iroei ^hat, it it a BX loam tipoa 
ti iaU bottom, wet and fpouty. This Utt in « prevsifiiig ibil 
iU'the parifli, add alfo a light dry eatth full of flbnes, on a 
•gravel bottom. Li many plaoei these Is a thin (batdoi t>f a 
iUght Uack earth, either upon gravel or oold tiO. TheM'are 
ctafide#able tracks of hill, mair 'and mofi, and more* than 
looc ^cres are covered with wood. Not above a thiM part 
of the pariCb oonfifis of arable ground. 

Clhfmie imd Difea/a^^^t climate varies in different park 
of the pari0i» It is often nuld and temperate hi the feti* 
them diftriA, while it is iharp and cold in the northern. A 
remarkable diffinreace is felt, on leaving the former to go to 
the latter. In both, however, the air on the whole Is very 
(alubrious, and the inbabitanta.are not fabjeft to any pecn- 
liar diftempers. Formerly, ixidred, the lower part of the pa* 
rifli was much diilrefli:d with tl^e ague, but fioce fome of the 
lakes have been drained, that direafe has totally difappearcd. 
The rheumatifm is the mofi common diforder^ particularly 
*»ong the poorer clab of the peofiU, when well advanced 

iff Slair^Gcnvrie^ , 193 

^ U^4 , Xap^ulation for tbe fmaH-pox is now a good dtal 
prafl^A*'^4 Is almoft always fijccefsful ia prcYeoiiBg the 
^Kta)[ irftAs of that dKcaie* There arc bo niftaftcca of extra- 
ordpoairy .loog^ity io the ppirifli at prefeat, y«c there are maoy 
perfooi living >Pd vigorouS| who are above fo^aad fome above 
So* . There is 00I7 one p^rioo gbove $)io. It may be here 
infiplionc4j that the Udy of a:CpajSder9^«pr0pr4et!pr . in tljs 
parUh €Ue4;nP( long ago, irho faw. in her cffn hqufc. eighty 
fopr retf^roaof Chriftpoas, , The maz^^qi^bQufe is.d^Tc net* 
joining to fevqral laken,^,. * . . i ..- 

..... - •- :^ 

Jj^ivm, (U^^^^Sj/bf ^jr4f»4i^^nyi$ faV— The#ij^i)?lil6h 
iraihi» tbeMr4ifri|ii»r^.o£r.thisiiMdib« b die»4iioa con&dd^ 
. a^cpf. one rivers^ Ipk^ btfn frrqusntlynaeBikvicd w^oMer 
fc^rts. ^M iu»I«nb.MK>loit in!t|isa pariOi, it Qfie» Aidiknljr 
oicrftoiridien^twl ocerfbnajooiifi^eiablelofs and diappofeo^ 
I9iail4^the hqfband—nuf. This waajDeaaarJnUy thetsifc' M 
Ii4n»<l i}89<n-Tbe.iiextin fiaei^ the v6m&r^ whichi lirdtaa 
itar4pi#Fy^ h» neq^iiml the appellation of -the Jrj^/ iSiiMA. 
It is formed by the JmAwof the jtrdk md Ont^ SM^ 
Water. Jt runs aloog the eaft fide of the pariih . for about 
9;BB»lns«^ltSGhannd ingeneval is very rocky and uneven^ 
aa4 it ^en wuies in its depth aad breadth. The hanks in 
snany places are fa loW| that it frequently overflows them^ 
»id does Qonfiderable damageverpeeially in harvefti It other 
parts they rife to a great Mlgfat^^are very mggedi ahd %fi€A 
covered with wtod. About two miles n6rth from the vflldgii 
of Blalr*Gowrie» they rife at teafr 2ob feet above the \St& of 
the river; and on the weft 41de are formed, for about 'jc6 
§cti ia length^ and 220 feet in height, of perpendiciilar rock, 
as fmooth as if formed by the tool of the workman. The 
place where this phenomcDOU is to be feed h cair^t^ Craig* 
Ij^hy where the traveller may be furnlfbed with one of the 

VoL^XVIL Bb moft 

1^4 Statijlkat Accomi 

moft romantic fcenes in North Britain. Here hawksr neAICj 
and their young ones have been fireqaently carried awaj hf 
falconers from different parts of the kingdom. Here^ adiby 
the natural philoTopher and botanift may find ample aniufe- 
ment. Two miles^farther down this river is the Keitby a na- 
tural cafcade, confiderably improved by art It is ib c«m- 
ftruAed that the falmoni which repair in great nnrabcrs to it^ 
cannot get over it, unlets when the river is very much fWek 
led. I'he manner of fifliiog here is probably peculiar to this 
place. The fifliers during the day dig coofiderabic quanta 
ties of clay, and wheel it to the river fide Immediately above 
She falL About fiin*&t the clay is turned into- morpur* and 
hurled into the water* T;he fiihers. ihpi ply , their nets 91 
diffinrent ftations below, while tho water oominqes muddy, 
TM» is repeated, two \or three tiop^es in the fpacc of a hm 
hout^ It is a kind of pot net, fift^mcd to a long.pole, that 
is ufed here. The river is very narrow^ confined by vaqks 
compofed of fand and fmall ftones. The. fcenery^. efpcciatty 
an the weft fide, is very romantia and beautiful. Many gen- 
tlemen from all quarters repair to this river for amufenacnt. 
Trom the Keith for.abaut two mUes dqwn the rivei;, there Is 
the beft rod filhing to be foumi in Scotland, efpeciallyrfcMr^- 
inon. The filhing continues .£rom the. beipmuagnf Ajfil 
(CI the a6tk of Auguf^ The filhing with the pot qpt is coo- 
£ned. to- a fmall part of the rivef « near, the Keith. Wlxeu the 
wat^r is.very fmaU, which is often the caie ia ft^mei;,. the 
fiftkare^apght in great trnmbers, in the differeqt ppois^with 
a common |i^t *• They are neither fp large nor fo rich as 
Ihofe of the Tay. The filhing on this fide of the river wac 


^ Formerly tbefifli inere almoft alL hnngfat up for the Lon- 
don marker, at 6 d, the lib. till Whttfiinday, g&d at 4d. during 
the re(i of tlie feafon. Laft year they were moftly fold in the 

9f BUAr^owrUm 195 

loag kt il 100 merks ; it now gives 30 1. Sterling. Plenty 
of tronts are foand in the Ericht. The Ardle alfo wafhes 
this parifh for a Ihort way on the north. Sometimes falmoa 
are taught in it, and it abounds with tronts. Like the Ifla 
and the Ericht^ it frequently overflows its banks. There arc 
two bumsy or rivulets, remarkable only for their excellent 
trootSi and for driving fome com and lint m31s. 

Ldus^ yianis^ C^r.— The parifh abounds with lakes of 
different fiies. Till lately there were more, but fome have 
iNren drained, and now fupply the neighbourhood with peats 
and marl *• In the hkes which fiill remain, great quantities 
of lukes and perches are caught, partly with the rod, and 
panly with nets. They are much frequented by wild fowls 
of different khids. ' In the middle of one of them are the 
remains of an old building on a fmall iiland in it, in which 
tradition (ays treaiures were concealed in perilous times* A 
difiriA in this county is fa{d to have aicquired the appdla* 
tion of Zi^inumnt from this circumftance. Curling is an 
eierciie at which the inhabitants of this diftriA ciiceU 

Minerals and Mineral Spnngs.^-^There 14 no lime-ftone in 
the pariih^ neither is it «reU fupi^ied with free-i^one, though 
Acre are two quarries of this kind. Some whin-ftone qua- 
ries havfe been wrought, and muir-fione is found in great 
l^enty. There is one chalybeate fpring in the Cloves oJF 
Mawes, which was formerly much refbrted to by perfons in 
its neighbourhood. It has been ufed, it is faid, with fuccefs 
in fcorbutic diforders. Tbcrc 20:9 appeaftmces of feveral 


• In digging marl out of one of thcfe, the fkdcton of a large 
jmimal was oncovered, at leaft ja feet bdaw the furface. The 
jiorns reff mble t|io& ^ a deeri and are of 9 very large iCze, 

igS StatlJHcat Accoura ' 

more fpings'fllftHe fame kind in difereiit plac«^^*^ 

Woods.—^Thttt arc two oak woods in die parllh i 

long the weftern bank of the Ericht, which is now cutting. 

Tlus cutting fold at 320 1. There is a fipaUer wood of the 

fame kind on the property of ArdHair, and there 'are fcvcral 

birch woods in the head of the parifli. There arc only a 

few afli, elm, an^ plane trees •• There are at kaft 900 

:icres planted partly v^ith larch, and partly with firs. It is to 

be regretted, that fimiUr plantations have not been made, on 

the mooriOi grounds in the |»qrthem diftrlft. Thcrtfate- 

vaft trafts of mqir, which tupi to little account in thetf prt<- 

fcnt ftate. Shelter is much needed where they abooaA 

The nmflcs, the grcatcft fources oif fuel, are nearly exhabfti 

ed, and every year become more difficutt of accefs. Coal Is 

at a very confiderable diftance, and there is no water «?- 


Pe/«Arf»«.— No dependence can be had on the 'i>af*°»" *** 
gifter, for the number or proportion of births and burials. 
This may in fomc mcafore be accounted for, %>m the great 
influx of emigrants from o;hcr parllhes, efpeclally from the 
Highlands, who fettle hcr.f as fcrvants, gtc. By cotop-nng 
the report wade to Dr Webfter. however, with t^^'f"'^ 
^n accurate enqmeratipn made in Oftober, NoVMitter, ipjd 
■ December 1793, we are enabled to ftate the txA lncr«4fe, 
which is but fmall in proportion to the influx of ftrangen 
within thefe 40 years, - «„. 

•'In the year 1774, the muir of • Blair-Gowrie, then a«ona. 
won of 500 acres, was divided, and »oa of it, 'o »775. f^* 
planted with §cotch firs ; the reft of it has been f «*«?^»y-I*W- 
ied fmcc that time, partly viih laicb, and parJy with Scolds 

' SrATfsfi^ Tabu ob the Paeisb of Blaie-Gcwrib. 

FanulUs. Males. Fitn. SouUi 

Refideot in the country 261 containing 590 636 ia2<^ 

I. ,., ■■■p VL the village 1 33 — --»- — 1 83 242 42 J 

Tnall . 393 773 ^7^ »^S^ 

Majority of females 105 

|Ittndwoffiyolsini955 •> - 159^ 

bcrcaie 55 

CoMPiTio«rs AND Peovessioks. 

F|!oprietors - - 22 Mafons - - 13 

Glcfeyin^iii • « i Flaz-dreflers «. 8 

S^geoa - - I Dnt-n^Ulers . ^ 7 

"VttVi^m ' r r ^OO Corn ditto ' ^ •* 7 

liai^pra - . - - lo Dyer . ' - * li 

Cjupenter^ . - - 14 Carrier t to Perth and Dut^ ^ ' 

Wheel wrighti - 3 dee - -^ 4 

Cooper - • - 1 Butchers - - ^ '3 

Shot^tnaloert * • 8 Baker - • - i 

Shop*keeper5 - 18 Ale attd fpirit fellers . 23 

S#ths. - - 7 

. . Religious Persuasions, Births, &c. 

Jdm^m^ of i the ERabliihed Romatt CathoUei • a 

,<0bfii^ -. 1507 Annual average of Wrtha ' 

^p^e^^yjb^ of Relief 30 fo*' 7 y«« P"* ' 3< 

Aniibiirgher Seceders ioo Ditto of deaths for ditto 27 

]gnijfeffpaHg|tif • 12 

Stock, Rent, 8u. 
Hqo^ - . Ill Sheep • ^ ««» 

Pairs of cart wheels 233 Valued rent in Scotch 
Horfes - - S" montf UsS^Sl^o^ 

'MachGBttte t t^^jf ' 


MMfrnfi^SmWi MiUs% Isfc ^^ThM principal brtackes «f a»« 
liufaAure carried on ia the parUh are fpinning and weaving. 
The women fpin with both handa.*— Befides the flax ratfed 
in the pariih, confiderable quantities of foreign flax are fyoxii 
nnd the yam is Mth« wove in the parifli and neighbourhood, 
kx ftnt to Buikdoe. ConfideraUe quantities M hou^oU 
doth are wove here, and about 50^000 yards of yard*wideS| 
prt of which b bleached in the neighbouring parifli of Rat* 
tray I but a greater proportion is'feld in the village of Blair- 
Gowrie, and fent greeta to London. There are 7 meal mills, 
2 lint mills, and t fulling aaill in the parifli* The rate of 
snulture paid at the meal millSi is, in generali about a twelfth 
part of what is ground* 

Cattte. — A good number of horfes are reared in the parifii; 
They are of very different iizes and value. A conGderabk 
proportion of them are very gobd draught horfes, but a fiiS 
greater proportion are fmalland ill kept. The fbrmer kind 
Hre worth from 15 1. to 25 1* each ; the latter, irom 8 L t# 
1 2 1. Many black cattle are alfo reared in the parifli* Thofe 
IS the northern diftrift arc veiy fmall,- but they are corf* 
derably larger in the other. Great numbers are fold 6Ut tf 
the parifli, when 3 6r 4 years old, particularly of the ftots. 
The flock of flieep is much dlminiibed4 They an moftly 
I of the whhe-faced kind, of a very fmali fize, and are fold at 
from 6 s. to 9 s« a*piece. Their wool fells at about 14 s. par 
fione. From 8 to < o fleeces go to a ftone. Too little atcen* 
tion is paid to this valuable animal in this parifli» 

Prices of Previfions and Uabour.^-^k boll of oat meal, weigh- 
iBg 8 ftones, lells, at an averagCj at from 14 s. 8d. to i6s.; 
a boll of wheat at aos.> barley at 15 s. j oate at 13 s. ; and 
peafc at 13 s. 4 d. Beef| mutton, and porl^i are^fold at from 


3 di to 4 ^ P^ fi^. Dotch wei^t. Little j^ood Tod is fold 
ta tbe ptsiih. A hen fHIs at from lo d. to s t. ; a chicken 
»t 4d.; egg$ at 3 d per dMcn $ butter from 8 d. to 9 d. per 
Uh. s aod- cbeefe accordiikg to its quality and age. A dajpw 
labonrtr receiTes^ during three months in the year, 6d. per 
Av^'fUsd 8 d. during the other months, with his maiatenaoeeL 
Mafons and wrights, when theyfriraift their own pfovlfioas, * 
reaeiTc i a* 8 d. A good plough^man reeeives ftom 8 L to 
loL i a maid-fervant j L with the crop of 2 tippies of Unt^ 
feed Ibvrn in htr mailer's groundj c^ an equivalent fov It, if 
he be not a fiurmer. 

Bcekfaftical Siate, Schols^ drr.— The ftipend, as fixed bj a 
decreet of the Court of Tetnds^ in 179I) is 5 chfJders of 
grain, two thirds meal and one third* besf^ with 45 1 Stc^ 
ling of money, and 5L for commumon elements. The 
g^be contains 9; acres, of which 4i are good foil j the other 
51 lately obrained in lieu of grafs ground, are of an ^iferior 
^oality, and at a confiderable diftance from the WfStSt^ The 
rigjbkt of patronage is vefted in Colonel AQaa Macpharfon of 
-Blair-Gowrie, and Colonel. WUliam Lindfay of Spynie, in 
confequence of his marriage with one of the co>heireflb of 
ArdWair— The church ftands on high ground^ about aoo 
yards north from the Tillage of Blair*Gowrie, hating a deep 
den, planted with diflerent kinds of trees, immediately be- 
hind it. It was built in 1767, and is a plain fiibftantial edi- 
fice, at prefcnt in good repair, but cold in winter. It would 
be much improved with being ceiled, and having porches at 
the doors, which are in the ends of it. The manfe and a 
iet of o£3ces were built in 1771 ;. but the offices were fo ill 
executed, that, after the prefcnt incumbent was fettled, it waa 
found more expedient to rebuild than repair the greater part 
of them, which was accordingly done. Sotb manfe and 


tSjfiU are now ia good order, at are alfii tlie fddool and 
fidiootlioufe. There h one eftaUiflied fchool in the parHht 
)Q which reading Englilht writing, aritbmetiei book-boeping, 
And feme branches of mathcmatici are tanght. Urom 30 16 
50 icholars auend, according to the leafon of the year. The 
prefent teacher, who hat long tanght fuccefifblly, lately oh. 
tained a finaU auigmenCation of fahry \ hot even with this 
additkm, it it only s^oq n>erkt. The fdiool fcet we, per 
^nartei; 1 1. ftr reading Englifli \ 1% 64. for writing, aritlv- 
jnetic> and L»in. The whole cmolymentt, exdn£?e of a 
free honfe, do not exceed aaL a year, a reward by no meant 
adequate to the abilitiet and ap^ication of ib important an officer 
Tliere it one charity ichooL occaionaUy tanght in the head 
ofitheparifli.. In the inoterfiafimi' there are two or three 
•primte ^Jioolt kept np by the tenants, \tk comers remote 
from the parochii4 ichooL . . 

Por. Wlhere are no begging poor belonging to theparifiu 
For many yean paft, the average nnmber on the poor's roO hat 
been 14. The heritort and kirk-icffioD meet twice a year to^fet* 
tle^he roll. From at. to j t. are given to each monthly, accoa^ 
ding to their refpcaive clrcnmftances. They aUb receive occafl* 
tuiat donations, efpedally in winter. Occafional charitlei ai« 
likewife given to individuals, and families not on the roll, 
wjbi^h It attended with good eflfeat, and often prcvenu them 
ftqip coming on it. The fund for the fupporc of the poor 
arifc) from the interefl of a fmali ftock, from the colle6lions at 
the church doors, from the duet of the mort-cIotht,and from 
the rent of the featt in the galleries of the church, amount- 
ittg-inaH to about 35 1. Sterling. The fum expended hat 
not varied very much for thefc 16 years paft, except in 1783, 
when it wat much greater, than in any other year of the pe- 
riod mentioned. The members of the kirtfcffion are veij 


4 Blalh^&wrU. iot 

^eful in'guard'ingt on tlie one hand, againft nn^fitlc^r itn(i» 
pti the others that no nei:dlitoti» ]^erA>n be neglededf^. 
Thoi^ thei% are n6«begging poor belonging td the parifb^ 
fit the pft#i(bioQers are much oppreded with beggars and Va« 
grants firom other diftri^s, mahj o^ whom are very wortii^ 
kfc. ' • • 

P'ilkge^ Markiis^ Isfc 4^he village oF fllaif-Gowrfe is 

pleafaotJy fituatcd en xht sorth fide of ^trathmCftr, almoff clore 

vpon the rivkr hntViU It wa» tftade a bbrongh of barony, hj 

achartet fromObarks L kn i<^34. The whole of it be* 

lQ«lg»» m p wjp m y or foperi0alty,4o Golonel Allan M^Pher- 

fqn» wbs) ia profifattorrdhokDait afoorth part of 4he pairfA. 

TJbe fitoatkui of 4h0>Uh#rk laery healthy, and k la vMi 

fiq^pUfdiritk waMr.^Th0re^re 3 fairs held in ft tfmiaalljc, 

and fome attempts have been made to have a wedtly thsMtet- 

in it, but With little fuccefs. The village is well fupplicd 

uritb hui;<hter ooeat and^ othcf jvtidet. It *ha5 increaied itrj 

muoh wkhio tbefe few yeai^s. As it ir fitnatcd on a miFieary 

roa4i,aqsoC the tntebkams tfraycttali ate and fpirits, on pay« 

ifg j^.s, aimiviaUy. There ai^tio iefs than 19 dram«(hops in 

ill wl^icb.aattft be. atitfuded witli bad confequences to the mo- 

aais affile people. 

*• . . ' \ . . . 

* f *■ 

£tk(Kh fields Cldh, Stmnp^cgk^ dr^^^There fs a bleacK-ficld 
ii». .t|i« ,papiih of jtattirayy ^boot n mile frofh Blahr^Gowrie. 
'I'hc clc^h is whitened as Ic k lent from difitrcnt quatcers. A* 

VoL.J^VII. Cc bout 

* In i7^2» (he liarveft was late* anci the crop was much tnj.a- 
rid. Ip 17^3» the meal was (carce and high-priced. The kiik- 
ffifion employed the poot's ftock in purchadng moal at a diftance, 
which wafc fold at prime cod. A froat] proportion of the bsMrley 
mea), voted by Parliament for the relief of the Highlands, was 
ffnt tp this parilh. Many of the heritors provided good fsed 
corn for their tenants, where it wa? ncccir<uy. 

it^ Statijlicd Aumta 

boat 50^000 may be tbe average number of jards aooaaDy 
^oye in the part(h. The cloth felb at about Sj. (L per yard. 
CooGderable quantities of houfehold cloth, and fbme Heffian 
ftttffs are alfo wove in the diftrift. — ^There was formerly a 
ftamp-office for ftamping cloth in the village. This was difcoo- 
tinued for fome years, but was again eftablifbed in 1 7 85. The 
following abftra£l was taken from the books, containing the 
i)umber of yards ftamped for the laft 8 years ', and refers not 
only to the cloth wove in the parifh of Blair-Gowrie, but aL 
fo to what comes from the neighbouring pari(heS| as well as 
to what is whitened at the bleach-field. 

Anno. Num^oJTardt^ Anffo. Num.tfTards* 

1785 — 


Brought over 


J786 — 


1790 — 


1787 — 


1791 — 


1788 — 


»792 — 


1789 — 

Carried over 

» 65.3^4 



Siati rf Property^ huhfures^ drr.— There arc 22 heritors^ 
ind a great many fcuers in the village of Bbur-Gowrie. Only 
one of the greater heritors refides in the parifli. Many of 
them are pofieflcd of confiderable eftates in other pariflies. 
Moft of the-fmaller proprietors refide upon, and farm part of 
their own property. The real rent cannot, therefore, be eafily 
afccrtained. Good ground, tn farms, gives from 15 s. to ai s. 
and fome of it 30 s. per acre. The land around the village 
^s at from 30 s. to 43 s. The number of acres in the parifh 
is not known, as part of it has not been mcafured. Some 
p^grefs has been made in indofiog, within thefe 6 years, but 
ilUl at lead three fourths of the parifh lie open, and very 
few jEarms have been fubdiyided. The inflofures are cither 

^ tf Blair*<iovme. ^03 

' Hone dykes, or hedge and ditch. Probably fufficlent atten- 
tion is not paid to this laft kind of fence $ the young thorns 
fhodd be more cherifhed and better defended, in order to 
fecnre good fences. Out property in the northern di(lri£l is 
almoft completely inclofed and fubdivided, and let^j from 
year to year, confiderably higher for pafture than it would 
do opon an ordinary leafe for tillage. About 4 years ago, 
aboTe a fourth part of the parifli was fold at 36 years pur* 
ifhaft, and is likely to turn oat a good bargain. The rent of 
land continues to rife in this parifli* 

JgricuUurt^ Product^ &V« — ^The ploughs are of the Scotch 
makc^ coniideraUy improved. Within tbefe 1 2 years, there has 
been a very coofiderable alteration in the mode of plowing. 
In general the plough is now drawn by two horfes, and driven 
fay the man who holds it. In. breaking up old ley, or in 
giving the 6r& ^owmg to fliff ground, 3 horfes are fome* 
tiraei yoked; and, in one or two corners, the plough is drawa 
^j 4 horfes yoked a-breaft, and driven by a man who holds 
the horfes by the halters, and walks backwards. In general 
the farmers in the northern diftriA are very induftrious ; buc 
they are only emerging out of the old method of culture. 
The diftiaAion of out-Juli and infield ftill takes place in fome 
degree. Turnips and fown grafs are only beginning to find 
their way into this dillriA. The want of ihclofures, and 
^mnnUr SerJing^ are great obRacles to their progrefs, particu- 
larly in thpfe comers where (heep are kept. The tenantry 
here labour und^r many difadvantages. Much of their time 
in liimmer id cdiifemed in procuring fuel ; they are far from 
momire i tbe grou^ Yit9 open, is full of baulks and large 
ftones, and in Tome places it is very wet and fpouty. This 
Daft circnmftance, "with the coldnefs of the climate, many 
^Icad iia an apology, for Aot having more of their farms in 


994 Siatifikal Accmiti^ 

fofrn grafi for fummer feeding sn^ liay. They allow th^t 
white clover and rye grafs facceed with them, but complain 
that the roots of the red clqver are iireqqently th|t)wn out io 
fpring. InclofiDg, draining, and flearipg the ground . of 
ftones, are much wanted io this diftrif).— The. crqps raif^ 
in it are b^ley, oatSj potatoes, a fmall proportion of peaif, 
turnips, Town grafs, and fome fla^. All the fi[ax raifed in tl^ 
pariih is fpun in it ; and the rents of mzxij of ti^ fmaller farms 
are moftly paid, with tlie money got for the yarn^ fpun in the 
winter months. 

ImprovemfnfjS^ Farm Rents s £5*^.— Greater progress in im- 
provement has beein made in the fouthern diftri^ than in 
the other. Here the new method of hufbandry is more ge« 
nerally pra^lifed, and excellent ^rpps arc railed of «heat> 
peafe, barley, oats, potatoes, turnips, grafs, apd alfa fome 
flax. But even here fufHcient attention is not paid to a prop^ 
rotation of cropping. The following rotations jafc moll unj- 
Tcrfally obfcrved. Where wheat is raifed, the rotation is thjs| 
after grafs comes oats, then fummer fallowing ; then wheals 
peafe, barley, oats with grafs feeds. The dung is ghrcn 19 
the wheat. Ip the diviilon for peafe, potatoes and turnips 
are raifed along with the p^fe, anc) get a little dung. Sojoe- 
times the grafs is kept 2 or 3 years, but morci frequently 
only one year. On the farms whcfe wheat Is not fown, thf 
following rotation takes place; Af(er } crops of grais, the 
ground is broken up for oats, pf which one crop is taken. 
The oats are followed ^ith t^mipst potatoes, and peafe in 
one dlyilion. Barley, with grais i^eds, fpccx^ds the green 
crop. The dung is given to the green crop. In the divi. 
fion for oats, a proportion of flax is fown, and not mifre* 
quently a crop both of barley and oats is taken after the 
^reen crop, and the graft feeds iq that cafe are fo^ witU 
. .. the 

ef Blair^Gtwriei 80$ 

die oats. The farms in both diftnAs are of difierent fiztis, 
from 'lol. to 130 L Part of the parifh Is let in fmalt pofie& 
fiofis of a few acres to trades people^ and this is one reafoa 
for the grea^ number of ploughs and horfes ; as there are 
pftcn a plough and two horfes, where the pofleffion does 
not exceed twelve acres. Where the fermet does not 
carrj on his work with iht ai&ftance of his children » it 
is generallj done by (ervants who live in the family, except 
in harveft, for which additional aiOAance is fecured fome 
. months before. Sometimes a houfci kail-yard, and an acre 
of land, are given to trades peoplci who pay their rent hf 
affifting in harveft, and at turoip cleaning. Oats are fown 
from the middle of March to the middle of April ; then 
pede and lint-feed. Bear is fown in May, and turnips in 
June. The harveft generally begins in the end of Auguft : 
It is fomewhat later in the northern diftriA. The parifli 
more than fuppiies itfelf with grain ; confiderable quantities 
of it, particularly of barley, are fold out of it. 

Xoadf and Bridges. ^^Tht great road, from Ooupar of Angus 
to Fort George, pafles through this parifh. It was made at 
the expence of Government, and is kept in good repair bf 
the ftatute labour of the country, with the occafional aifift* 
anoe <ii military parties. It is regretted, that a different di« 
region was not given it, after it reached Blair-Govirrie. Had 
it been made to crofs the Ericht at Blair-Gowria, run a^ 
long the eaft fide of chat river, re-crofs it near Graig-hall^ 
and keep lower down in its courle through Mawes^ the high 
ground, over whidi it now pafles, would have been avoided, " 
and the traveller would have b^en faved many a long and 
fleepa&ent. , The great road from Dunkeld to Kirriemuir 
alio pafles through the pari(h, and cuts the military road at 
right angles : It is kept in tolerable repair. The crofs roads 
lire many. Till lately, the ftatute labour was exacted it^ 


46^ SlSt0ical Jteeowa 

lBiAd$ it It xioir coomittted, ^t the rate of teotb tutn tlis. 
ftr evieiy plough-gate, or ids. for eviery rool. Scotch of vi- 
loed rent. There are no tompiket. Bcfides many fintU 
Itfches over fmall ftretoiSi there are 4 bridges, two on the 
siilitory road, one over the Blade- Water, and one over the 
Ericfat. The two laft were built by fabf<Tiption. 

GinOimiffi SnaHs, — NfiwTOM*HoirsB^ onee the leat of 
the proprietors of the Barony of Blair-Gowrie, and lately 
pofiefled by the prefent proprietor, is an old baildiag,* fimie* 
dung m^ the ftUe of a caftle *• It ftands about the middle 
of the fonth flope of the range of high ground, whkh boiwds 
Strathmore on the north, and has a sioft comm^diag vjew^, 
not only of Strathmore, but alfo of part of difoeot eouBtief. 
^--Aboot half a mile farther weft, lies the man&M^hottle of 
the old family of the Blairs of ArdUair. That fiuntty were 
long the proprietors of a moft exteafive prc^perty in the pa» 
rifli, and are ftill poflefled of a fifth part of it. The niao6e»- 
Iioufe fecms evidently to have been furrounded with water 
on three fides. The lake hss been drained, and a (Miser- 
able treafure of moTs and marl has been thus diftovered.'-* 
The proprietor of BlaiTi^Gowrie and Mawcs lately bliiit-a 
moft ibbftaatial and eommodious houfe, with ^rfices, about a 
qoarter of a mile fouth from the ^ill^ge of Blair-Crowtje* on 
1^ beautiful flat near the banks of the Ericht. Wheanlic 
plantiog has got upi it will be a moft delightlut hiMtation; 

Eminent Men. — Geo&ge Drummond, Efq; who long 

dtftfnguiflked himfelf as a public-fpirlted magiftrate in £diu« 

burgh, who was 5 or 6 times de^ed (.ord Provoft of that 

* * metro- 

♦ Thlsboure was relniilt on the foundation of the old boufc, 
(aid U) belnmt ^oyn^ by OGver Cromwell. ^ Many gemlemeh 
vttxt miraculouilj faved in a vanU orif the dd houfc^ vhilc it 
was burnt down. 

metropoSiSp and who lud fo lOivc a hand, in promoliiig dm 
ereCUon of the Royal lofirmaiy, Royal EzcbangPa flee waa 
bom in NewtOQ-Hoaie, in this parifli. 

jtfiiiqmtuSm^^TheTt are the remaint of ferend Dniidical 
temples in the parifb. Immediately behind the maofe theie 
is a drcnlar monnd. or mote-hillf where, it is (aid| Earl Cow- 
rie held his regality courts* It confifts of firata of earth 
snd grfvelf and is furfouoded on the top with a dyke of tho 
fame materials* There are fome large cairns *• BeGdea 
thele, there are manyfmaller tumuli rumiing through the 
parifb in diffiarent direAionSf from an encampment in the 
aei^ibooring parilh of Kinloch f. 

DiJadwmU^s.^^Tht time confomed in providing feed 
com and tnr^ and in bringing coab from Perth and Dundee^ 
is a great bar to improvement. The diftance from theft 
towns js a great dilad vantage* This will| in Ibme meafore, 
be removed by the propofied bridge over the lila, near ita 
junAion with the Tay, and the road leadmg from the bridge 
to Pertht which will ihonen the diftance from this pari(h to 
that town about 4 miles. The tenants are beginning to bribg 
lime from Perth i they vrill do it more eafily^ when the road 
is made and the bridge built. Converting into money the 
fervices performed by the tenants^ indofing and fubdividing 
their farms, and making plantations of larches and Scoteh 


^ Ooe of thtle was lately laid openi and a finall ftone coffin 
was found in the bottom of it. 

f An opinion is entertained bf many gentlemen, that the 
battle between Agricola and Galgacus was fought in the Store, 
znount, and that the Caledonians, virhen forced to give way» fled 
in diibrder. hiany of them ivere lulled in their fiighc through 
ihis parifli. This opinion feems well founded, and is probably 
wtD fiipported, by thofe who are more concerned to defend it« 

96< Statifikal Accowa 

firs id the hiHj and moorifli gronnds, would doiibdefs tend 
much to the cukitration and improvement of this country; 

CharoBer^ isfc. — ^The inhabitants of this partfh are, in ge« 
X Tierali iober, induArious, attentive to their refpe^tive calliogS, 
and exemplar ily regular in their attendance On divine ordi- 
nances. They are charitably difpofedi and feem contented 
with their condition. They ehjoy, in a reafonable degree, 
the benefits and comforts of fociety. Their honfes, drefsj 
and manner of living, are confiderably improved. 


♦ 9f Cardrrfs. 2i>9 

N U M B E R XV- 


(County ahd Presbytert of Dombarton— Stnod 
OF Glasgow and Ayr.) 

Sjthi Rtv. Mr Alexander M'Aulat, Mihj/Ier. 

SUuatiofi, Extent^ Rivers, Surface, and Soil. 

C ARDR0S5 is wafbed on the eaft border by the river I^e- 
vcn, and on the fbuth by the Frith of Qyde. Its 
length, from Dumbarton Bridge to its boundary with the pa- 
ri(b of RoW| is about 7 miles \ its breadth* from the conflux 
of the Leven and Clyde to its junflion with the pariih of 
BonhilL, is 3 miles. The fituation of the pariih is peculiarly 
beautiful : The Clyde runs fpir 7 miles along it& coaft, and» 
being partly oppofite to the flourilhing towns of Fort-GIai- 
gow and Greenock^ it commands a profpe£t of the whole 
ibippingy th^t great fourcc of indufiry and wealth to the 
weftern part of Scotland. The ground along the Frith has % 
gradual afcent from the ihore, for upwards of (wq ihilesi till 
it terminates in a ridge of hillsi which feparate it from the 
lands in the neigbbourhood of Leven and Loch*Lomond. The 
foil contiguous to the fliore is of a light gravelly nature 5 bur, 
at a (hort diftancej it contains a confiderable mixture of clay. 
The lands adjacent to the Leven partake foinething of the 
njitare of carfe. 

Vol. XVII^ D d J^ricuUure^ 

di« Statifiifoi Jhcowa 

Agricalture. — Farming has not fct made that progfeQ^ 
which, from the advantageous fifuatioa of the parUhp onqjlii 
have been expelled* It has, howeTer» for thefe lo yean 
pafty been rpaking rapid adyapcet. In order to promote thiSi 
the proprietors have contributed much. Befides their own 
example, which feidom fails to pisoduce in the end the beft 
tStfXSf they have inclofed alnioft the whole- ground% and 
laid them out, in many pbces, in fuch divifions an<l iiibdivU 
fions, as are be(l fuited to their refpeQive farms. Farmeffi 
and| indeed, men of every defcriptiooi overcome with difi« 
culty prejudices which they have early imbibed. Thefe pre-f 
judices operate as a fecond nature^ and^ for a long time, bvd 
defiance to the foundeft arguments^ It b a pradice in thiy 
pari(h with manyj of never beginning te; (dough till the ioc|i 
day of Inarch. However inviting the feafon may be prior to 
this period, it matters nothing j they adhere to the cuftoth^oi 
their fathers. To begin foonerj it is thoughti woald prdve 
detrimental to the foili and i|ijuriou$ to the eiifuiog crcp. 
This late plowing occaHpns a late feed^ime^ and of conrfe a 
]ate harveft^ a circumdance which is, for the moft. pare, ac» 
companied with .many difad vantages. This prcj(idice» how- 
ever, is beginning gradually to lofe its influence, and in a 
fliort time, it is hoped, it will be cffeftually removed. 

Produce. — The common prpdppe of the parilb is oats and 
bear ; and, of late, where the foil is of a Aronger qvaliiy^^ 
confiderablc crops of wheat, peafc, and beans are raxfcd* P«v 
tatocs are every where cultivated. The farmers, within thcfe 
few years, have begyn to fee the advantage of green crop* ; 
accordingly a number of fields are laid down in clover and 
ijrc-'grafs, but the culture of turnips is only in its infancy. 


. xf Cardrofu flir 

jififSfiir^«r^Thcre it plenty of lime-ftone on the laiids of 
€tm»i'£il»ii| the property df the family of Colgrain : Large 
I^UBUdtiHes ttt regulai-ly biirnti whh which the neighbourhood 
ix jfapfHed. The expence of burning is confideraUei is the 
coal is %K>is^t by water from Glafgow, at the rate of be- 
tween 5 s. and 6 s. the 1 1 ctn. On the fliore there it a good 
de»2 of <rea ware driven jh^ duying the winter and fpring^ 
whidi is carefnlly coUeAed, and when laid upon lee ground 
proves an excellent manure. Befides this, which is called 
ji!mi/r «ofy,'hrge'^oantit1ei*of it are cut every third year* 
ThJs^ addhetlhg'tD the ftdnes tind rocks within water»Qiark» 
grcHTs in three years to a>toiffidenlbIe length, and contains a 
greater abtuulance of thofc'fiiltto and juicds which promote 
Tcg^tion.' As GardiDft lies <^ofite to Pdrt-Clafgow and 
Greenbck, and as th<i Frfth is only from a to 4 miles in 
bseadth^ there IS Ikn ea(y aceeft by water to thefe towns. la 
toaftquelice of this, it has become an obje£t of great impor- 
tance to the farmer to' itnpovt from them Areet dung \ and» 
although this is doite at great expence, each fall cart, includ- 
ing every charge^ amounting at leaft to lis. Stdrtingi yet the 
returns subjply compenfate the whole trouble* and outlay. 

Dratmngf (sfr.'^Few of the farpiers in this parilh are poH* 
(efled of a capital, fufiicfent for carrying on cxtenfive iin- 
provemeatis. They with difficulty (lock their farms, which 
are rented in general from 20 1. to 50 1. Sterling. They em- 
brace the readieft methods in their power, of rttififag arrJcIeti 
to pay their rents, and cannot afford to wait thofe didant, 
thoi^hfurc, returns, with which the improving farmer n.uft 
lay his account* Before this pariOi can be improved, a large 
capital muft be employed in dfalhing. The climate, like that 
of every other parifh near the mouth of the Clyde, is wet. 
In confequence of the bcavy^ and almoft incciTant rains, 


ai% Statijlical Account 

which fall in the harvcft and winter mdnths, the lands are 
far a long time drenched in water, and, of courfe^ Mndcved 
much lefs valuable both to the proprietor and tetUMtt*- Wo- 
thipg but draining can remove thi«' inconvenience, atfd-^ fiw- 
-litate improvement; and as the proprietors are d«e0y kttc- 
rcfted in this, their exertions, it is hoped, will cvory day be 
. more and more employed to promote lo important aa end. 

C/i///^.— Formerly almoft every farmer kept a few Iheep ; 

.but now, excepting on three farms, this prafticc K .eptifcly 
given over. Too little attention, ki general, is given to the 
breed of mUk cows. It is alfo a praftice too miich foUpw- 
cd, to overftock the ground } in confequence of which, the 
growth of the cows is injured, and the produce of riie dairy 
diminilhcd. The breed of horfes is greatly improved. Their 

.price, in the Glafgow market, is from 15 1. to 30 1. Sierjing. 

Farm Hou/fs.— It muff afford great pleafure to the ti^Tcller 
to obferve the neat farm houfes, which are inw^fcd 
through this country. In this parifli they are every year in- 
creafing in number, a circumftance which doea^no fmatt cre- 
dit to the proprietors. Sir Archibald Edmon»ton of 
Duntreath, Bart, mcmbv of Parliament for Dunbart^pjbiw, 
in this, and, indeed, in every other parilh wheie l^a^tcn. 
five property lies, has f'arnifhcd an example, whidi, it ij^hop- 
cd, will foon be generally followed* His tenants are ^U well 
lodged, and, cofnparativcly fpcaking, elegantly. Inftead of 
the old low-built and confined houfes, which their fathers In- 
habited, Sir Archibald has given them faoUfcs and offices 
fuited to their rcfpcftive farms, upon a plan, Which conveys 
fiQ idea of neatpefs and improvement that is bigh^ pleafing* 


(f.Caritofsi »if 

y 9^M(b.W.JW.— The natvnd wood is cedfi^enblet k 
jviUt Wni* at a cutting, betif ixt aooo 1. and 3000 L Sterliag. 
Befidos this, there are nearly 200 acres planted tnth Scotch 
.firs, krixe»,&c. Thefe plantations are all fncceedbg wdl, and 
beiDg laid out with judgment and tafte, give an appearance 
of hnptwcment to the country, which cannot fail to pkaft. 
CJoal » the principal fud, \^ cwt. of which, brooght by w». 
ter, coftt in the Cardrofs Bay, where it is unloaded, 5 s. Ster- 
ling. Many of the. farmer* bring their eoals ftpm Kilpatrick, 
and pay at the pit a «. per cart. Attempts have been made 
t<y find coal ui thia parifli, but as yet they have proved ttn* 

Hmttt ft*tn«ort* &»•*.— The valued rent is 3000I. Scotch." 
It is da&Mlt to fty what Jhc real rent amounts to, as many 
<rf the i«oj«ietor« «etain cpnfiderablc farms in their own 
hands. The value of land, however, muft be on the rife. 
The great influx of fttangers. in confequence of the mann- 
ft&XMtm upon the J-even, o«cafiqn> an increafing demand for 
whatewr the i^rifh produi^. Thus the fanners find a rea- 
dy and eoavenieot market at home, a circumftance wliich 
cannot «lt* accelerate the improvement of the country, and 
]a«f«afethc real rent of the proF'Cto"- ^ *^« neighbour- 
hood Of the Leven, many inclofures are let Upon lcafe«, for 
•betwe«iaU and 4I. Sterling per acre. There arc 13 hcri- 
' tor**-5 tf whom poffcfemipre than two thirds of the whole. 

JtMJr.— The two great roads through the parKh, thfe one 
leading to Loch-I<omond, the other running along the Dyde, 
are kepi in the bcftpoffible repair. To thefe the ftatute 
labour, nov commuted, is annuaffy applied. Greaf praife, 
howeve;.'cannot'bebcftowedon the croft of parifh roads. 

.But as the commiffioncrs muft be fcnfible of the neccffity of 

* crow 

)n4 Sia4fii^al Jceguni 

crofi FOids for the iAprovemeot of the eoontiy^ no ezertiooj 
ire «ire coovinced^ will be wainlog on thdt* pat tp pi^aiols 
<b laudable an efid. . 

'jPtfuliaion.^*^b€ popolaUmi has of late greatly iocreafed« 
A70ina.]ift takcnkiNoiremhei^ 1793, it ;q>pealr$ there wete 
wi'ftwerthaa • - - *• • • ^ 2194 (bob* 

Hie recusn Co Dt Webfier^ ia 1755, ^^ ^f ^ 79S 

Increafe within thcfc j8 years X399 

Of the aboiMf autiber there an 

Children under 10 years of age ^ . • ^14 
3Xtto above that age - • - • 482 
Heads of famSie^i including both bufbaads and ' 

wi^es -* ■ '• *-*'**• 847 

Hired fcnrants - . •* .251 

In the village of Rentbn, about • - 1 200 
In the reft of the pirifli '- - * 994 

ai94 - 

Regifiere^in 1791 75. 17 j. 

■■ L in 179a 60 %i 

Prmt*Jii/di.^Thc priritlficias of Ddlquhurn\ and CorHale 
»xt by far the moft confidcraWc and extenllveof any in Scot- 

^\)a difficult «c<nirat(rfy u^ «&eitatn the Mmber of diit. 
dren Om a^e ajmunUy b»w# at.many, who are not of the cfta- 
blift^ciit,.wg!t<fl their rcglftration. There is no i^egiftcr of 

t The ground, now occbpred by the former, was early in this, 
ceatuiy fct apart chiefly for a Wcach-ficld. A few coarfc hand- 


tf Cardrofs. %i^ 

land* Mdirs Stbrlingii who purcbai^d this field from th^ 

original proprietors, are well known. At firft tkey bad » 

field at Dafbolmj io the neighbourhood of Glafgow, whem 

they carried on the bufinefs of priotbig to a confideraUe ex* 

tepti Upwards of 20 ycara agf^i tbejr lemoved from that fi* 

tuacioo to the river JLeres m this pariib. To. this they 

z»al^t have been ledb]i a farietj of ^ttwotdniQt^ but i^ 

nothiog Aore than by the foftncfs and trtafparenej of tho 

"water of the Leven, fo peculiarly fitted for the purpofe of 

bleaching. A neck of landj 10 the form of a peainiiita^ Oc« 

cafioned, H would appear, fagr. the river iorfaking its foriner 

^hannel^ was the place oiarked ont as the moft proper to an« 

fwer the end which they propafed. Accordingly^ ja 17729 

3 purchase was made of this fpotj called C^fJUU^ ^nd .ixpoq 

it houfes have been bnilti and maehiaerj confirnfted, to an 

CQcteott and upon a pbn, which muft have coft the eoopaoj 

an amazing finn.— Act thefe fields, the property of this conii* 

paoj, there were employed, in finnn^cc 1792^ 876 perfoas* 

Df thefe 300 were girls {^neellers)^ and aboot 130 were 

boys, from 75 years of age. It may be proper to ob> 

ferve, that the boys are in general healthy, active, and livdy, 

having nothing of that pale and fictly look, which too oftcoi 

marks thofe boys wbo are employed in the cotton (pinning* 

The wages for ohe month, Jnly 1792, amdttnted to within ai 

trifie of loop I. Sterling. It would be to no purpofe to eff« 

ter here into a minute detail \ the Sutiftical Account ot the 


kerchiefs, it is, true, were then printed ; but nothing fine or va- 
luabk in the piiacing line wiu caivted c^, till €bo«l so years 
ago, whoa it was purchaied by a company in 6Ia%ow,' under 
the firm of M' Alpine, Flecming, and Co. BuiMings were rain. 
ed, and machinery conftru^ed, by this company, at great ek-' 
peace; an extenfive capital wasjemployed,andexeryjyipea£%nciB 
promifed foccefs. This flattering profpc^Sf, however, ^yrat foon 
clouded. Difputes arifmg among the partners prodTuced a fale 
cf the property, and a diifoluiion-Qf U^c company. 

jli 6 Sfatijiical AccotM 

parilh of BonhiU, already publiOicd, contMns all the neccf- 
fery iftformation : To k the reader is referred *. Suffice it to 
ebfervc, that every divifion of labowr takes place at thefe two 
fields, which is known to facilitate the w<M:k, and to carry 
the art to a high degree of pcrfcftion* The goods maou- 
fa£tured arc faid to rival, in the London market, to which 
TOoft of them are fent, even thofc of the fineft quality that 
jire the manofeaure of the firft print-fields in England. 

rUlagis.— In the year 1 78^, the hands employed at the 
above fields had become fo numerous, that it was extremely 
difficult to accommodate them, in houfes and lodging In tbe 
»eighbourhood. Mrs Smollett of BonhiU, whoSJ land's 
Jay moft contiguous, readily enibraccd this opportunity of ' 
improving her family cftatc, and of »:commodating the pub* 
lie. Accordingly, a village was planned by the advice, and 
under the direftion of her fon, now her fuccefibr. No foooer 
was this plan adjuftcd, and the terms of building fixed upoo, 
which are from 9 d. to 14 d. the fall, upon transferable Ifcafcs 
of 99 years, than a great numb^ of fteadings were purcha^ 
fed,. and houfes immediately built. The firft flone was laid 
in 1782, and the village was called Rentmn by the/cucrs, in 
compliment to the prefent Mrs Smollet, who had been active 
in, encouraging an undertaking of fuch iinportance^ both to 
her family and to t]ie public. Since the above period, the 
village has rapidly xncreafcd. It confifis of three principal 
flreets, which run in a dircAion from north to fouth, paral- 
lel to one another. Thefe again are interfered by a number 
of other ftreets, all laid off at regular diftances. The de- 
mand for houfes, every where upon the Leven, has, within 
thefe few years paft, been very great. In conre(]^uencc of* 
this, befides the village of Rentoun, a number of houfes have 


f gcc voluine III. No. LXV, 

^ Carirofs* a 17 

fcccn built 10 this parifli, op. bfire to Dumbarton, upon feus 
from Mr D<!nninon of Colgrain s and. a village is juO now 
begun upon the property of Mr Graham of Gortnorct 
which, ft IS probable, when the pr«rfcnt ft agnation of buiinefi 
is over, will faft increafe in population. 

DtftUlery, Mills y Ferries. tTr,— There i? one diflillcry, 
which confumes of the produce of tiie parjih about ^oo boils 
of bear ;«nd bariey« I he number of public houies, or ratuer 
whi&j (hops, has of late been greatly dinuoilhcd. The 
Juitices have for this year giveo licence to only two in the 
Tillage cf Ker toun, to Icll ipirits of home produce. 1 here 
are three corn mills, at two of which the ii.ulture on the af« 
Irified lands, is nearly m the proportion of one peck and an 
iialf the boll, conlii\ing ol b Hones. This proves a great dif. 
£Ouragement to improvement. Ihcrc are 4 di&crcnt ferries, . 
two of thcie are of great antiquity, as appears from the char- 
ters of the propietors. Tbe prices of labour. v.ftuaU, &c. 
are ne^iriy the l<imc as in Giaigow and it^ neighbourhood. 

Pi/lfrjV/,— The Z(nr or tair Fijhings^ fo produftive in this 
parilh, Teem to be aiaiuil peculiar to it. A yare is built of 
ilones gathered from the tiae water- mark, about 4 feet in 
height, and of conlidcrable length, and itretches out into the 
river in the form of a crcfcent, or ol three iiUes of a fquard ; 
but to give it a probability uf iucce^ding, it mud proceed 
fxotsi a point of land, lo oS tp incluie a bay. Ihe dniaace 
.which it is extenocd from the (h( re is iuch, as to make it 
appear, or to crvwn^ as the falhcrs term it, about two hours 
before low water. Were it placed farther into the ica, or 
:bui]t higher, the furf would be contmualiy beating it down. 
In fpring tides, the water retiring quickly, great quantities 
of fifli, particularly herrings, are occafionally taken within 

Vofc.XVlL Ec thefc 

ai8 StaiiJlUal AccoM 

thcfe Inclbfures $ and falmoDi iti fmadl quantities^ during the 
fpring and fummer months. Along the Cardrofi fhore ther^ 
arc many fuch inclofures, but thofe moft happilj fituated idrc 
the properties of Mr Denniftoun of Colgratn, and Mr Noble 
of Noble-Farm. The rights to thefe jare fiOiings prove then| 
to be of very high antiquity, being granted by crown char- 
ters above 500 years ago, and confirmed by all fubfequent 
charters* By thefe, the proprietors of the foil have the right 
of cxercifing yare fifliings upon the (hore to low water-mark* 
Some of thefe rights extend as far as a man can ride beyond 
lew water, and from that throw a twelve-feet fpear. fhls 
extent of fhore, during the herring feafon, is attentively 
guarded, that the £(h which may entrap themfelves ia 
thefe yares, may neither be alarmed by, nor taken in the sett 
of the boat-fi(hers.— It is remarked, from the earlieft ac- 
counts of this kind of fiO\ing, that the herrings vifit the 
river Clyde, at nearly 3 equal periods in 100 years, eyh pe- 
riod confifting of feveral years fifliing. The mode of feccK 
ring what fifti may be in the yares, is with a hand-net. Bj 
ancient cuftom, two thirds belong to the yare proprietor, and 
one third to the filher, if a tenant upon the adjoining lands« 
But when ftrangers are permitted to fifh, they have only one 
fourth part of their fuccefs allowed them. 

Church, ifc. — ^The church of Cardrofs originally flood itk 
the eaftern extremity of the parilh, oppofite to Dumbarton, 
and feparatcd from it by the river Lcven. This fituatioa 
muft have been very inconvenient to the parifh, and there- 
fore, in 1643, ^ "^^ church was built in the place where it 
now (lands, the moft centrical, indeed, that could have been 
chofen, and the moft convenient to the parifh at large. The 
church is a neat building, well lighted and well feated. Ic 
underwent a complete repair in 17751 and| by the care and 


tf C^tdrofu S19 

:tttentioo of the heritors, it if kept in the beft poffible order* 
The maofe was built aboiit 60 jears ago \ fince that period 
it has undergone frequent repairs*. Upon the fucceffion of 
the prefent incumbent, in 1791, the heritors, with the great- 
eft franknefs, laid out 200 1. Sterling in repairing of ttie maofe 
and offices. The crown is patron, and the miniftcr titular* 
Cardrofi is one of the few parishes in Scotland, where the 
right of titular i* Tefted in the incumbent* From a late in« 
Yefiigation, in afeeruining the right of patronage, it appears, 
that it was neither a menial church, nor ever annexed to an^ 
religions houfe, and therelore^ as the Crown is patron^ it 
continues at this day precifely in the fame ftate as before the 
Reformation | with this difference only, that thei^ has been 
a dilapidation of 1 1 bolls of meal* Bcfide the parifli churchy 
there are other two houfes for public worlbipj the one of 
the Borgher perfuafion in the village of Rentoun \ the other 
of the Relief, lately built in the neighbourhood of Dumbar- 
ton* Tbefe diflenters confift chiefly of people conne£i;ed 
with the printfields* The farmers^ in general, are attached 
to the eftaUilhfxienti 

&W— The fchoolmaftet draws Do falary from the heri- 
tors. The emoluments of his oflBlce arife from his fchool, 
irhichy at an average, may be frequented by 40 or 50 fcho- 
lars, and from a donation of the famtljr of Kiimahcw. This 
donation confifts id the yearly payment of 5 1. being the in- 
tereft ti 100 1. Sterling funk for the behoof of the fchool- 
mafter, and placed under the management of the heritors. 
Befides this fum, whieh was bequeathed for the above pur- 
pole by a younger branch of the family, the proprietor him- 
felf executed a deed, dtfponing to the public teacher a right 
to an acre of land, a cow's paflure upon a fpecificd farm, End 
5 bolls I firlot of bear, payable from certain other farms up- 

fl^o Staiiflical Jccount 

on the eft ate of Kilmahew. Over and above the fees (<rt 
teaching, and the faid donation, the pcrquifites of feffion* 
clerk may be ecjual, communibus artnis, to 5 1. Sterling. 

Poor. — ^Thc poor are fupplicd from two fources— from the 
Weekly col!c£tion, which, with the proclamation money, may 
amount annually to upwards of 30 1 Sterling ; and from a 
legacy bequeathed a few years aher the Revolution, by a Mn 
IRuir, a native of this pari(h» and originally of the name of 
Watlon. This legacy coiifiiied of 500 I. Sterling, to be ap* 
plied under the diredlion of the ufual managers of the poor, 
for the behoof of the indigent living within a certain diflrift 
of the parifh, fpecially named in the deed of morrtficatioa* 
The above fum was, early in this century, laid out in the pur- 
chafe of land, which, bv the laft let, produces a'rcvenue upwarda 
of 70 1. Sterling per annum. ^Thfre arc no begging poor/and 
the heritors have never as yet been fubjrfted to any affcfll 
ment. The number upon th6 feflion roll varies, but, in ge- 
neral, there are a dozen and upwards, who receive quarterly 
a fmall contribution. The number entitled to the benefit of 
fArs Muir's mortification alfo varies according to circum- 

Emifient A/iffr.— Contiguous to the village of Rentoun, in 
the old houfe of DalquhurOi was born the celebrated Dr 
Tobias Smollett. He was the grandibn of Sir James 
-Smollett of Bonhill, Bart, a gentleman o\ confiderable pro* 
.perty in this county, a member of the laft Scotch Parlia* 
ment, and a commiffioner in framing the Union. The fa- 
ther of Tobias being a younger fon, received, according to 
the coftom of his country, only a fmall fharc of Sir James's 
fortune, and, dying at an early period of life, left his family, 
. confiftmg of two fon« and a daughter, in circumftanccs not 


cf Cardnfs, tit 


tbe tnoft affluent. The two brothers received the rudimenU 
of their education in the Ichool of Dumbarton. The elder» 
whofe name was James, was bred a ioldier, and amongO bit 
acquaintance was diftin^uiflied for his addrefs, and tho(<r ta^ 
lents'of wit and humour, which pftrrwards chart^^enfed 
Tobias. A premature death, (he having prrilhed at fca off 
the coaft of America), robbed the world of thofe talents^ 
'vhich, if ripened by time and l^udy, might hare (hone fortii 
with difiinguiOied luftre. Tobias, the younger, was edtieated 
in the medical line, Icrved an apprenticefhip to a (urgcon in 
' Giaigow; and loon after aded as mate aboard a man of war* 
In this capacity he was preient at the fiege of Carth/gen9^ 
the prticuiars of which he defcribes io HoderUk Random 
with fo much life. Tobias could not long continue in this 
fituation. * His afpiring genius difdaioed the drudgery to 
which his profeffional line expoicrd him. He was a man of 
the moft poiiflied manners, and fincft addrefs, talents which 
feldom fail to recommend the phylician. Bot with thelc be 
poflefled a pride which counteracted their iidJuence. He 
could not Aoop to that tnfinuating flattery fo prevalent ia 
the world, of which even the wile and knowmg have often 
become the dupes. His nund was chiefly turned to the ftudy 
of life and manntrs, in delineating which he is perhaps fur- 
pafied by few. In this particnLr, as a paintrr of life and 
character, he has rcflr^td the highrfl honotir upon the place 
of his nativity, and mult evtr be conlidered by hi.s country 
among the iirfV of her Tons m literary reputation A<« a hif^ 
torian, he may be inferior to Hume an J Robert f on m rcline- 
xnent of tiiooght, and political obkrvation \ but when the 
fubjeA leads tQ deicription, or to the delineation of charatter, 
his powers apf>ear unrivalled. To the greaceft genius, be 
joined the mofl unremitting application. One proof of this 
cannot fail to be noticed^ which is, that in Ids than 14 months 


|ft* Statlfiieat AccmM 

ht coDcAed tttterialij cooipo(ed» and prqnred fer the prefix 
}m whole Hiftory of Eogland : An effort to which Us nar* 
row and ftraitened circiunftanoes might hate direAed him, 
but to which nothbg bat the moft diftioguilbod abilities, and 
the moft vigorous application^ could have been equal. He 
snarried a Jamaica lady, and by her had an only dao^ter^ 
who was cut off in the bloom of youth. After a life che> 
quered by a variety of incidents^ he died at liCghoni, whither 
be had gone for the recovery of his health, in 1771^ io the 
51ft year of his age. Adjacent to the place of his nadvity, 
9l coltuim was lately raifcd to his memory by his coofin, with 
•Ihe following infcription : 

Sifte viator t 

Si leporesi ing^niique venajn benlgnam 1 

Si morum calidiffimum piftorem, 

Unquam cs miratus, 

Immorare paululum memoriae 

ToBijB Smollstt> M«D« 

Viri virtutibus hifce 

Quas in homine et dve^ 

£t laudes et imiterisi 

Hand mediocriter omati % 

Qui in literis variis verfatus^ 

Poftquami felicitate fibi propria^ 

Sefe pofteris couimcndavcrat^ 

Morte acerba raptus^ 

Anno aetatis 51. 

Eheu I quam procul a patria^ 

Prope liburni portem in Italia, 

Jacct fepultus: 

Tali tantoque viroj patrueli fuo, 

Ctti, in dccurfu, Lampada 


tfCarirofsm f^%^ 

Se potius tndidifle deciiit^ 

. Haoc colomnam. 

^imoTA eheu I inane monumentum^ 

In ipfis Lerimae ripis 

Quas, verficulis, iub exitu vicae, lUuilratas, 

Frimis^ infansj vagitibus perfbnuit^ 

Ponendani curavit 
Jacobus Smollett de Bonhill. 

jlntifMtus.'^A, Tittle weift of the Leven^ npo^ a ftnall emw 
neocc called Cafite^lMl^ flood, it is faid, a caftle^ at times the 
lefidcnce of King Robert Bruce. In this caftle, of which 
no veftigc is now dircemible, that favourite prince, as hiflorjr 
and tradition informs us, breathed his iaft. A farm in the 
neighbourhood ftiU pays to the fiiperior a feu-duty called 
Ag-meal. This tax is fuppofed to ha?e been originally ixnm 
pofed for the maintenance of his Majefty's hounds. 

Ci^jfvAr.— The people in general are fober and indufl 
triotts. The introduQion of oianuiGiAures has, no doubt, 
prodnced (bme change in their habits and manners) and 
Aether this change may operate more in the end to Uieir 
fdys|n|age or hiirtj time alone can determine. 


%s:i $tatt(lical Acamtt 



(County of Orkney and Zetland,— Prbsbtterv 
OF NoRiii IsL^s— Stnop of Orkney.) 

P} the Rev. Mr Gfto&GE BarrY» Minifier. 

Origin of thi Name. 

FROM whence the name of this parifli has been derived, 
cannot be determined with any degree of certainty* 
There w, howr vcr, no improbability in fuppofing it tp couie 
from the word ay or ey^ which, in the Norfe or Norwegian 
jbnguage. is faid to fignify an iflcmd, and the name of that 
animal lo which we are inucbted for 16 conliderable a part of 
our food and clothing The aninal here alluded to is the 
jbei^p, for the breeding and paOuriag of wh'cb the ifland 
has been reckoned r<i(hcr remarkable, and thertfore it has 
been, with (ome propriety, fUled Shapinjbay^ or the Sheep* 
Ifland. But with more probability ilill, it (i ay perhaps be 
derived from the Saxon language. If we may credit tht 
poet Chudian, the S.xons early inhabited this country, and 
had even the misfortune to bedew it with their blood. « Meim 
.f« duerutii Saxone fufo Orcades?* Among that people Jba or 
Jb vf (ignified a valley, and fuch an one too as lies near tht 
middle of the iflan J in queflion ; and from the combination 
of the name (heep with this word, the whole ptrifh may 
\Ayt ^ot the name of the Sheep Valleyi or Shapinihay. Bat 


if Sbapwjhay. %2$ 

waving any farther coniideration of this point, as it is a mat* 
ter of no great importance, we may obiervc, that It has been 
diftingnifiied by the name which it now bears for thefe feve- 
cal centuries. To fupport this obfervationi we have the au- 
thority of I'orfacusi and the authors ipecitied by him, and 
alfo of the celebrated Buchanan, who not only mentions the. 
name of this iiland, but defcribes its fituation and extent 
with confiderable accuracy. «* Litiori propior Siapinfa paulum 
**/e in orieniem infieBens^ ex adverfo Cracoviacaty (Kirkwall)^ 

♦* duo nuUia Jtta^ ipfa fex miilia longar 


Situaticnf Extent^ Form^ Divtfion^ iffc, — To the north of the 
eaft part of the main-land, frgm which it is diAant about 
one mile, and three from Kirkwall, this ifland extends al- 
moft in the form of a crofs, from Strom berry to Nefs, near 
7 mil^s, and from the Gait to the foot of Shapinfiiay, more 
than 5* The body of the crofs ftrctchcs from fouth-weft 
to north'^aft, and the arms from ibuth-eaft to north-weft, 
Almoft around the whole iiland, the fhores are low, pretty 
level, and, to a confiderable diftance inland, covered with 
rich fields of grafs and corn« Towards the middle, the land 
rifes confiderably higher ; and as the hand of induftry has 
never difiurbed its repofe fince the creation, it exhibits the 
appearance of a barren wafte, fit only for fheep pafture. 

Ancient CuJlGm. — As all the lands on the fliorc arc pro- 
perty, fo the whole of the hill ground is commonty,, and 
they are divided from each other by what is here called a 
hill'dyke^ a fpccies of fence, it is believed, almoft peculiar to 
this country. The period when this kind of fence was 
firft In ufc in thefe iflands is loft in the mift of antiquity. 
They arc common through moft of the iflands. They are 
built of turf. They crumble down in winter, are repaired 

Vol. XVII. F f again 

226 Siailjllcal Account 

again in the fpring when the corn begins to rife, and every 
proprietor, or his tenants^ arc coopeUcd not only by the 
ufagc of the place, but by bye-laws cnafted for the purpofc, 
to repair and keep up z part of the hill-dyke, proportioned 
to the extent of their farms, or his property. Thefc feeble 
fences, if they deferve the name of fences, are intended to fu- 
perfede the neceffity of herding domcftic animals. Early 
in the furomer, when the corn begins to fpring, the young 
cattle, and particularly all the fheep, arc inclofed within 
them, rather to wander about than to feed, till the end of au- 
tumn. So long as the nights arc Ihort, the weather mild, and 
the pafturc tolerable, they continue within thefc limits with- 
out much rcluaancc -, but when the feafon advances, hnngcf 
and cold impel them to leap the dykes in purfuit of better 
nourifhmcni, and more fticlter. Inftcad of their bcin^ di- 
tcftcd by the tender and attentive care of a fhepherd, they 
«rc then attacked with fticks and ftones,and hunted by dogs, 
^ith more fury than is commonly ufcd to ravenous bcafts in 
other countries. Hence thefc animals, which under j>roper 
management might be a fourcc of wealth to the proprietors, 
>and a benefit to the couhtry at Urge, are decreafing in num- 
•ber, and degenerating in quality fo faft, that in a fhort time, 
if the mode of treatment is not ahered, they will not be worth 
the raifing. To proteft thefc harmlefs, and very ufcful crca- 
turcs from their various enemies, to watch over the young 
and the old, and the difcafed ; and, upon occafion, to lead 
them to proper flielter and pafturc, fo as to render their fleece 
and their carcafe important objefts of rural oeconomy, herd- 
ing them is abfolutely neccflary. So blindly attached, how- 
ever, are the ordinary clafe of people here to anticht cuftoms, 
and fuch rooted averfion have they to difcover what (lore 
they have to their landlords and to their minifters, that no 
force of cxaKHplCi no influence of authority, no arguments 


of Sbapwjhay. 227 

drawn firom either humanity or from intcrcft. can prevail with 
thetn to adopt a meafure which in every refpcA appears 
fo reafonabie. A procefs is faid to be at prefent depending, 
which will in the ifliic certainly determine how far cuftom, in 
regard to hill dykes, is to be confidcrcd as the law of the 
country. But in whatever way the law ipay determine this 
point, we, from a fincere regard to the interelU of the coun- 
try, cannot help wifhing that the cudom of the diAridV, in 
regard to this matter, would yield to the ftatute for herding 
oi cattle. 

Formerly there are faid to have been near 3000 fheep ia 
the ifland, and now, owing to a variety of caufes, they dp 
not exceed the half of that number. The black cattle a.- 
niount to about 3oo, and the horfes only to 250, owing tp 
an infc^ious dilbrder having fome years ago entered the pa- 
riih, and in a few months carried off* great numbers of them» 
As there are fiew evils but what produce fome good, this 
difbrder, which the people at the time had good reafon to 
confider as a misfortune, may, it is likely, in the end, tura 
out to their advantage, in fo far as it has compelled them, in 
fpite of their averfion to novelties, to employ oxen indead of 
horfes. To the regret of all good farmers, fwine are raifed 
here in vaft numbers; and what adds much to the evil, they are 
under the very worft of management. In the fummer leafoa 
they are driven to the hill with the flieep and young cattle^ 
where they commit depredations without moledation \ and 
at the end of harveft, when the fruits of the earth are re- 
moved, they come down in legions, fierce and hungry, and 
are allowed to roam at large around the fliore^, to the almoft 
xitter deftru^on of fome of the beft land of the ifland. 

jfgriatIture.^^The foil, though in moft places thin and 
&aUowr, is naturally fertile^ otherwife, confidering the hurt it 

receives ' 

2 28 Staiifiical Account 

receives from thcfc dcftruftive animals, and the cTumfy awfo- 
ward way in which it is cultivatedi it would produce' no fort 
of crop whatever. Oats and bear alternately, however, it 
produces, as alfo pretty good potatoes, and formerly flax of a 
tolerable quality, was raifed^on it. To prepare the land for 
thefe crops, which are of the utmoft confcqucnce to the in- 
habitants, as they make the principal part of their food, far 
too little attention is paid. Unacquainted with the mode of 
farming in a more favoured climate, the farmers are at no 
pains to make the direction of the ridges anfwer to the nature 
of the foil and the fituation of the land ; they never (Vraight 
nor raifc them, nor water-furrow their ground, nor do they 
ever think of plowing it till within two or three weeks of fted 
time. The whole winter's induftry is thus in a great mca- 
furc loft i the land lofes the benefit which it might reccivo 
from the froft and fnow ; and, as the labour is not properly 
divided, but comes almoft all on at one feafon, this cir- 
cumftancc obliges them to purchafc more cattle, and main- 
tain more fervants than otherwife would be neceilary. /The 
plough which is in generstl ufed, is but ill calculated to obviate 
the difadvantages that arife from unfeafonable labouring* It 
has only one {lender ftilt, to which as flender a beam is fixed, 
and has neither reed nor mould-board; the ploughman holds 
it by this ftilr, and direfts it by a ftxort batton held loofc 
in his hand for that purpofe. Dcfeftivc as this inflrument 
muft appear, it has been honoured by a comparifon with the 
plough defcribed by Virgil and Columella, as ufed by the 
Romans, to which it no doubt bears fome refemblance, and 
the parallel has been drawn between them with all the pa« 
rade of pompous ignorance. But if the form of the plough 
be exceptionable, the mode of yoking the cattle is not lefs 
fo. Inftead of placing them in a line, or two and two toge- 
ther, as is common in the fouth of Scotland, four of them, 


tf Sbafinfiiajm 929 

whither horfb or oxen be employed, are yoked a-breaflp 
with a Araight pole fixed to all of their nofes* which the 
drtver holds ill the middle, and walks backwards before 
them. From the form of the plough, it is evident it can 
neither raife the furrow thoroughly, or what is called plow 
dear, nor turn it over perfcftly, but moft either iufper it to 
iland 00 the edge, or, what is much more common, |o £gdl 
-back with the furface uppermoft. Their way of yoking their 
cattle, too, IS fubjeA to inconveniencies, for it muft evident 
ly hamper their motions and exertions, and thus render 
their work of lefs confcquence ; the land muft be poached 
with their feet, efpecially near the furrows, and, as the 
driver is placed before them, and walks backwards, he can 
neither make them go faft nor flow, nor direft them to the 
right hand jior to the left with any degree of facility. 

To every intelligent farmer, it is an objcft of much impor- 
tance to clear his landof thofe weeds with which it is moft 
infefied, and the methods he makes ufe of for this purpofe^ 
are either to apply proper manure, to raife potatoes, turnip, 
and other green crops, or to exert himfelf in fummer fallow- 
ing. Though our lands be overrun with almoft every fpecies 
of plants that tend to ob(lru£t the growth of corn, our ordi- 
nary little farmers are either ignorant of, or dcfpife every one 
of thefe methods. They plow their little fields in fpring, co- 
ver them with fome fea-weed, fow them immediately, and as 
foon as the feed is committed to mother earth, they carelefsly 
fold their arms, fatisfied they have done their duty, and leave 
the event to divine providence. Neither are they more en- 
lightened or more induftrious in regard to the ufe or the appli- 
cation of manures. Some of them have excellent marl almoft 
for the lifting, and lime for the taking up and laying on their 
lands, at the fole expence of the proprietor, and yet they will 


a$o Statiflical Account 

not be at the trouble to emploj either the ooe oc the othert 
though they have been repeatedly told what wonderful ef- 
fefis they have produced in fertilizing the foil in other parts 
of the kingdom. Even the dung of their cattlci which ii at 
their hand» and wUch is fo getierally confidered as an excel- 
lent manure, rather than be at the pains to carry to their 
fields, they in fome places throw into the fea, by way of 
a peace offering to Neptune, in order to render him pro- 
pitious in cafiing a-Ihore for them plenty of fea-weed, 
which is the only fubftance they coniider as. a valuable ma^ 
pure. As they have been accuftomcd, time out of mind, to 
fow the grain they have raifed on their own farms, no ar- 
guments can prevail with them to change their feed ; and, 
what is hr worfe, they have conceived an opinion that fccd^ 
however ill ripened and ill dreffed, however light and bad it 
ipay be, will produce a crop in every refpeA as good as what 
would have been produced by the very beft feed of the couor 

Under all thefe, and fome other difadvantages, the Ork« 
ney Iflands, in ordinary years, produce as much grain as is 
fufficient to maintain aboiit 24,oocr inhabitants, after fetting 
afide near one third of the crop as feu-duty, which is fre- 
quently carried out of the kingdom. A more fubftantial 
proof cannot be brought of the fertility of any country, than 
its producing, at a moderate price, even under bad cultiva- 
tion, as much as is neceffary for its own confumption. This 
is certainly the cafe with ours, for we have, in ordinary years, 
malt at lo s. per boll, oat meal at half a guinea, and bear meal 
at 8 s. Sterling. 

From this general charge of bad farming, we muft exempt 
moft of our gentlemen, as well thofe that rent £irms from 
others, as thofc that are their own property. Some of them 
continue, in a great meafure, the old plan, intermixios it 


tf Sbaphjhay* 831 

novr and then with fuch alterations and improTements as 
arc fuggefled by reading, by experience^ and obfervation ; 
while others, unfhackled by prejudice, have adopted a 
mode which is in every refpeA rational as well as ufefiil, 
which in time muft have influence in the way of example, 
and which, coniidering the circumftances of the coun« 
try and climate, would do them no difcredit among the 
moft intelligent farmers. In this laft clais may jufily be ran. 
ked the only reading heritor of this parifhy who, in the 
fpace of 7 or 8 years that he has poiTefled the eftate, has to- 
tally changed the face of that part of the ifland. Previous 
to his purchafe, nothing was to be ieen over its whole ex- 
tent, but a dreary wafte, interfperfed with arable lands ill 
cultivated, a few miferable hovels thinly fcattered over its 
furface, under the name of farm houfes or cottages, which 
were not fit to fhelter from the rigours of the climate a few 
ragged inhabitants, dirty through indolence, lean with hunger, 
and torpid by defpair, Every thing on this eftate now happily 
wears a very different and more pleafant afpeA. An elegant 
houfe has been built, and an extenfive garden laid Out; the 
lands are fubftantially inclofed, and judicioufly cultivated with 
the Englifh plough ; many barren fields are, by cultivation^ 
made fertile \ fummer fallowing, with a change of feed and 
rotation of crops, is introduced with good effeA ; and the 
foil, which formerly bore with reludance coarfe grafs, and 
fcanty heather, and puny oats and bear, now chearfidly pro- 
duces oats, rye, barley, peafe, wheat, potatoes, clover, and 
turnips, in confiderable quantity and of a good quality. To- 
gether with thefe improvements, the fame gentleman has 
tTt(\eA a little village by the fide of the harbour of Elwick, 
in which he has placed joiners, carpenters, weavers, tailors, 
flioemakers, coopers, and labourers of ^various forts, fiirni- 
flied them with work fufficient to employ them % and thus 


^3^ Swyiical Account 

cpabled them from the fruits of their iodilftrj to maurry carljr, 
and to produce uumerous families. In ihorCt CUSdalc, 
which is the name of this gentleman's leat, taken m con- 
junAion with its appendages, exhibits to the eye of a ftranger 
coming from the fea, or from Kirkwall| rath«r the appear- 
ance of a neat little villa in the vicinity of fome opuleat city, 
than of a gentleman's houfe recently raifed in a remote fe* 
quef^ered part of the-kingdom. That the former proprietor 
did not make fome, or all of thcfe improvements upon the 
eftate, while it was in his hands, was neither owing to his 
want of (enfe nor of vu-tue, for he had a large (bare of 
both \ but to his being obliged to live at fome diftance^ in 
order Co difcharge the duties of a troublefomc office, wkkk 
required all his attention, and of his wanting the means 
of exciting and rewarding induftry, by the e3q>eaces*- 
curred in maintaining a numerous family. The heritors 
pf this parifh are, the Crown for the bilhops lands, of 
which Sir Thomas Dundas is tackfman ; Robert Laing, Zfq; 
of Strenzie. and Major Balfour of Elwick, who together 
poiTefs the whole ifland. This parifh formerly made part of 
the temporality of the bifhopic of Orkney. The efiates of 
Sound, and How, and Hammer, the former the property of 
Major Balfour, and the latter of Mr Laing, are feus from 
the bifhops of Orkney. How is the feat of Mr Laiog, where 
he has an old houfe pleafantly fituated amidft rich corn fields 
and fine grafs ; and which, were he to refide there, ftod 
turn his attention towards improvement, might foon be made 
one of the moft fertile and pleafant fpots in Shapinfliay. 
In the neighbourhood of this place he has had lime kUo$ 
for many ycm paft, by which he has put in motion a 
confiderablc quantity of induftry. The lime is prepared 
from ftones which contain about one half of calcareous mat- 
ter, and are blown by gun-powder from rocks nndkr. tlir 
high water mark, and the produce, amounting fome fcafons 


to 3000 baireb^ finds a retdj market and a good pricift 
through the ifland, particularly in Kirkwall. 

As DO meafnrement of this pariflx has ever been taken^ 
the proportion which the uncultivated lands bear to thofe 
that are cuitivatedi cannot be afcertained with anj degree of 
€za£bic£i \ but the latter, it is certain, hare been divided in* 
to penny lands, and the rental of the ifland is faid not to ex* 
<oed 600 1. Sterling. 

Churchy MsMtfier, dr^.— -The chorch was built in 1630, and 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and bears the name of Lady 
Kirk. The manfe was creAed in 1760. The ftipend, with 
the profits of the glebe, may amount to about 90 L Sterling ; 
and befides the prefent incumbent, who was fettled 12th 
September laft, there have only been two minlfters of 5ha** 
pinfhay, namely, Mefii-s Alexander Ni(bet, and Alexander 
Pitcairn, fiace the Revolution. In the new ere^ion and 
foundation of the chapter, made by Biihop Reed, no men- 
tk>n whatever is made of the minifter of this parilh, as a<* 
moog the icvcn dignitaries, or fevcn canons and prebends 
that compoTed this chapter. The minifter of South Ro^ 
naldfliay was provoft or dean i the minifter of Birfay arch- 
deacon ; the minifter of Orphir precentor 1 the minifter of 
Sanda chancellory the minifter of Stronfay treafurer^ the ^i* 
nifter of lilay fab^dean { and the minifter of Walls fub* 

^if%«lriSfx— The genius of foperftition has been as aAive 
here in antient times, as in moft other places; for we find 
it has been employed in raifing leveral little chapels in va^ 
rioua'parts of the parifli. What good purpole they could 
iei-ve, k is not very eafy to imagine, cfpecially when built, as 
ihcy ibflaetimes were, on holms or uninhabited iflands. In 

Vol,. V^h Q ( Elhard- 

with, and belonging tp tUa pvMh, thesq v one of tiie(b du- 
pcK that \jk e^fry ie%eft cefeaibles the other iafignificant 
bnildings of tbq £mic naliwc fii nuch, as not to d^fore a 
partto)^ (^ription« On the UgheA ground, aad near the 
center of thfi pvifh, these u^ as in moft of the oth^r iflandc, 
» wast OF: »Bacd*hill, vhioh commaixls an accurate an4 exten- 
iive view, not only of this, but of 15 furrounding parifhes. 
To me this appears plainly to be artificial, and though one 
of the largeft kind, is certainly one of tholp tumuli which 
are fe frequently to be met with hi thef^ ifknds. Thefe tu-< 
iDuH, er little moands of earth, ftem to have been raifed to 
cover thedetd bodies, and perpetuate the memories of dii^ 
tlnguifhed peribns \ for in aknoft every one of them that has 
been opened, there have been found bones, and (bmetimes 
burnt earth, and not unfrequenily urns containing half burnt 
bones and aihes. In fopportof this opinicm we may have 
recourfe to Tacitus and Vcrftiga?, who inform us that both 
the ancient Romans, and Germans, and Saizoas, obferved 
the cuftom of laying their dead bodies on the ground, and 
raifing over them heaps of earth, covered with turf, in the 
form of little hillocks. To the eaftward of this Httk wart 
or ward-h]lk>ck about an fi^gHih mile, is a high fione, called 
the Standmg Sione tf Shafinfiaj^ Above the level of the 
ground it is 12 feet high, and perhaps 5 or 6 .bek>w tt ; its 
breadth is between 4 and 5 feet ; its thicknefs a foot, and a^ 
half; and from its being clothed in mofs or fcruf, it has a ve- 
ry venecable majeftic afpcA, and feems to; h^Lse. weathered 
niany agcsi 1^ both its fiorm and* dimenfions, it very much 
refembles ftones that are foi^nd ftaoding in many of the other 
iflands, particularly, the circle and femiclrcle in the pari(b of 
Stenncs; and it has perhaps been erected either as a place 
of worlhip, or facrificc, or to be a monument of feme fignal 


9f ik^njhax^ 4^ 

\mt\e or viBrntf^ or to preftrVe the memory of fbme cele- 
brated hero who htd fiiHen in the fiild of balttle. To#lr(ds 
tlie north fide of the ifland, tnd by the ft» fid6> i^ ^oHi^r 
Urge flone, called the Biack Sfont df Odm. kftead 6f 
llandbg crcd, like the one above mentioned, it rcfts 'ni hn]^c 
fide on the fand, and raifes its back hfgh above the runboh* 
^ing ftones, from which it feems to be altogether dtfiereat 
in quality. How it has come there, lot whatpntpofc, and 
i»hat rehuion it has botne to th^ ScandinaVlail god with 
iR^hoft name it has been honoured, not only hiflrory 6t re- 
cord, but even tradition is totally (ilent. As fhe bay tea 
jietghbonrtng ifland is difiinguifhed by the name of Guudeo, 
or the Bay or Guo of Odm, in which there is found dulce 
That is fuppoftd to prevent difeare and prolong life^ fo 
this ftone might have h^d fanAity formerly which is now 
forgotten, when the only office that is aflign^d it is to 
ferve as a maJrch-ftone between the ware ftrands or kelp 
Aores of two conterminous heritors. On the weft fliori^ 
oppofite nearly to the rock or fkerry of Vafa, where the tides 
are rapid and the fea is Ifaallow, we meet with a place known 
by the name of Grncala or AgruoAi. Thither, tradition re- 
ports, dne of Agrtcola's ihips, hi his celebrated voyage a- 
romld the ifland of fid tain. Was driven by violence of wea- 
ther, and firanded i and what Cttms to evince that the tra- 
dition is founded on tnith is, that Roman coins are faid to have 
been found here, by the late Mr Fea of Cleftron. Though 
Agricola'a ibn*in-law, Tacitus, not only mentions his having 
been in thefe ifland^, but airo his having conquered them, 
and difcovered Thule, till then involved in darkneft, and cd» 
Tcred. With fnb^, no ftich difaftcr is defcrlbed by his ftrong 
and elegit pencil; From his filence, however, we cannot 
jdRIy into the event lievcr happened, clpecially as he men- 
d<»i«tfaeOrkfieyain fuch a rapid and fuperficlal manner. 

« Haw 

4^ Sm^UalAfCVtni 

<^ Ha»ccram mwjfime maris tunc primum JRpmanaifqffU dteum^ 
^* veBa^ infulam ifft Britaniam affirmant ^ Ji^f^l imogmtas 
^* adid tmftM infulas quas Orcadei voautt^ itnwtit^ domuUguig 
<< AfpeBa^ eft et TbuU quam haHenus nix tt hiems aUebat/* But 
tke moft remarkable pieces of antiquity in this, aod indeed 
in the other iflands^ are thofe large ruins commonly deno* 
sninated FiB-houfes. Here they are firequentij met with a* 
long the fea ihore^ two or three of them at no great diftance 
fromi and In general railing their conical heads in view of 
each other. They are fituated, for the moft parti oq the 
moft pleafant fpots % they are covered with g^eeo, and om»* 
mented with flowera and herbs of various forts \ and fnch of 
them as have been examined by the eye of curiofityi have 
dir<;overed confiderable varietj in both their form and di« 
menCons. Moft of them are circular \ fome of them verging 
towards an oval fhape \ fome of them are very Urge, otben 
of a fmaller fize ; in general they are built without cement^ 
in fome few inftances with it \ and, from the remains of the 
moft entire of them, it would appear that they are wide at 
the foundation, and are contraded as ihey advance upwards^ 
fomewhat in the form of a kiln, and that they were doied 
or covered at the top is probable. The infide of fucli of 
them as we have feen, however, is divided into a great nuov 
ber of apartments, many of which feem to b^ of a very 
whimfical and. inconvenient form, and all of them arc £^ 
fmall as to be unfit for any permanent accommodation for 
man. To what purpofe, therefore, has fuch a quantitj of 
labour been wafted, in ereAing fuch large and mafly pileit aod 
that at a period when induftry was certainly not ranked amoog^ 
the number of the virtues ? As there was a time, perh^tt^ 
when each of thefe iflands, efpecially of the larger kind, was 
a ftate within itfelf, governed by its own prince or its owia 
chieftain, thefe buildings might have been erected as forts to 


^ Sbaplnjhajl A^ 

defend the iBhabitants againft inraden. On thcfe the 
might have taken their ftations, and annojed the boats at- 
tempting to land with their arrows, or fink them with darts^ 
fiones, or diher miffile weapons ; and to (hew that this opi* 
aion is not entirely founded in bncj^ thele ruins are moft 
ifrequentlj to be met with near baysj beaches, or other land^ 
ing places. From their internal firuAurei confifting of a va. 
riety of little celb^ there u no abfurdity in fuppofing they 
have been mtended as places of fecurity for treafures^ for the 
moft valuable furniture, and for provifions. Thither they 
might faring thefe articles, and whatever elfe they put the 
greateft value on, depofit them irith care, and, colleAing 
their force around, defend them to the ntmofl extremity* 
In thofe that have been dug up, there have always been found 
half burnt flones and earth, together with a coofiderable; 
quantity of alhes, and many human bones, and the bones of 
various other animals. From this circumfbnce, we may be 
allowed to conje^re that they have in the early ages, long 
before the prafiice of burying in church-yards, ferved as fe* 
polchral monuments for princes, chieftains, heroes, and other 
difttngniihcd pcrfons. But whatever was the view, with 
which they were at firft erected, and to whatever purpofea 
they were afterwards applied, they are very numerous through 
the iflands in this country, and are fometimes to be met with 
on the coafi of Caithnefs. Of the fame nature with them, 
pcihaps, were the buildings named Danes Raths in Ireland* 
Ware, in his antiquities of that kingdom, informs us, that 
Tnrgoiius the Norwegian, in the year 835,raifed thefe roimd 
works or fortifications, which are yet to be feen in many 
parts of Ireland. The Cartilla Brigantum, mentioned l^ ; 
Joveoal in his fourteenth Satyr, were probably of the fame 
kind. Near Cliffdale, feme fhort time ago, when the work* 
iipea were digging for the fooodaticn of a houfe, they difco- 


vered a- flibtcfi'aliebu^ building 6f % fingtilar nattirlh It had 
been formed by digging the eartb abcHit 3 feet ifcepi Ind 
«rc£Hng piUars of ftotiis bdlt offic irpon ahoAir id Ac height 
of 4 feet, tofuppbrif i flat iwf of Broad ftbte Or flargs that 
covered the i^holc buJliaiflg, urtiich Was compoTcd of two 
hexagons eontigttbos^ to one ailOth^j and their, diameter abobt 
t feet, and of a reAangle it large as both. As the whole fa- 
bric was confidcrably below gVouhd, and fio vcfiige whatever 
to be f<^n on the fnrfaee, it ^(irhaps has beeii lifed as a place 
for concealing varions artiele^s of value, for which it feemed 
well calculated. However th^t may be, there was found in 
\i a gold ring of an uncomthon cohftruftion. The outfide 
of that ring Was bfoad ancf large, compofcd as it were of 
three cords twifted or plaited Together j the infide was mncli 
narrower, ahd |)fetty Well fitted for the ufo of the finger. 
No infcfiption Whatevef appeared on any part of It ; and at 
the joining, inttead of beirig foldered, it feemed to Kavc been 
beaten togethet with a hammfcf . Ne^' this place there were 
lead mines attempted tb be Wrought formd-ly ; and the firfl: 
fpccimert^ of the ttt were to promifing, that' a company 
in the fouth granted their obligation to the proprietor for 
500 1. a-year, Ih ordet tb ohtairi his permiffion to work them. 
The fum ftipulated procured his confcnt ; they began with 
fpirit, and advanced a cdnCderable length, when cither their 
affaifs went Into diforder, Or they found that the veins went 
too deep, oi' itt the direftiori of the fea, or that the ore dii 
not prove fo rich tH it promifed. Which coriftrairied them to 
relinquifh the undertaking. 

Harbour — ^The harboUf of Elwicfc, Wlxich is the only oilc 
that belongs to this ifland. Is ai eaecctlent for its extent as aV 
Tnoft atiy one Ih this cdtinti-y. tn ftiis harbour, as well as 
*rbutod all the coaft, it U higtt'W;ft«r at three qoarfcrs oT ah 


9f Sbafhj^ifM «^p 

.Bour alUr 9 o^locic^ when the nooA is ntyt and fiull. It ha9 
from 4 ^ <^ fitf hoDOL «ater» f^mr a bofttooi of bard chf co^ 
vored with (ui4« Oo tl^ ^eft fi^e^Qf it 19 a fioe bcacb, wkb 
abuaciaiKe of caxcUant ir%% ^^^ \ aod as it. ope^s to the 
ibutli-wcfty 1% is eatrt ntly Qon^ejiJont for fliipt bopnd to tho 
fouthwaid* la amieot tki^ it fguM 10 have bsea caUcd £« 
lidarwick } for we are iQibrined hy aa kelaa^ie nanuftript^ 
lately tfaoib^d* tb^i HacQ kin^ o£ Novway» iait^3» lay with 
his float \^ ? harhoiv of that 139^^ «e«ar S^irimalU iq hia 
way to the tfebride? or wa A oS S^f tl^od. iJb bad plawcd 
aa expediiHMi agmnft AlcKfadar UU kii^ of See^adj ^ad 
afUr he hMl laio in this hnhma lill 6tw Olpw^s W^kic, he 
failed foaah before the MuM of Roiiakifha^ witi^ att hi* Mvy. 

Induftry ani MSkt^aSwns. — The boats belonging to this 
phice are about So, moft of which are engaged in fiAtiog^ 
and in carrying the rents and fea<dtities, which are paid in 
kind, to Eirkwalt, except about 20, that are the property of 
Major Balfour, who .freifiieatly employa them otfaerwifir. 
The fame gentleman has 8 veflels, 4 brigs and 4 floops, that 
a^ alH|oft cenftantly omptoycd in the trade of this country, 
and reiiaire 50 faslora to work them. Befldes cultivating 
their Ultla favmsy and preparing the prodnce of them for 
their faodioids and for the market, the men are employed in * 
fifting what are alS^fthch for their daily fupporti and the 
woneo in fpinning tow and Knen yam for fale, and in work- 
ing up the woolr of their flieep, which is of an excellent qua* 
lily, for cfelhing to themfelves and their families. There are 
few tradefmen in the pariihi except thole in the village lately 
ere^d on the banks of the harbour of Elwick. Their in- 
daftry is not^ only beneficial to themfelves^ but to others in 
the way of examplci and to the public at largCi by enabling 
them to rear numerous families. Ti|ie fummer months aro 


|I4^ Stitifiicat AuMM 

occupied la burning kdpi iriiich is the great mimifiififaiit of 
diit country. The men almoft of the whole iflands^ and 
many of the women, alfo exert themfelves tn this fpecies of 
induftry; and their joint efibrtt fome leaTons produce up- 
wards of 30P0 tons, whichi at a moderate rate, brings near 
10,000 L to the inhabitants. As it occupies the indoftry, and 
conftittttea the principal put of the riches of the place, every 
attention ihould be given it by thofe that are friends to thdr 
country. The proprietors of lands, and their tenants and 
cottars, the tradefmen in the towns of Kirkwall and Strom* 
nefi, as well as in the country places, and mercbants or 
Ihopkeepers every where, derive from it much beaofit* To 
them only who have ftated falaries it is detrimental, bj in- 
creafing the quantity, and thereby diminifhing the value of 
money, and without adding to the ftock, Hiifiog thf price of 
provifions. Its being extremely ufeful, however, will fcrve 
as an apology fer our coniidering its nature, the piirpoies to 
which it is applied, the mode of manufad^uring k, and the- 
flieans by fMc}i th^^t mo^ may be improved* 

filp.^Kt\^ is campofed of the afliea of various fea plants, 
cut from the rocks, or collefbed on the beach, and burnt in 
kihis or pits made on the fliore for that purpofe. It confifis 
chiefly of the focei vfgetatU aUaii^ in a cooiiderably cauftk 
ftate, never altogether pwe, but intermixed with other falts, 
and particularly with QIauber's falts, and moriated and ritri- 
olated magnefiae. The fixed vegetable alkali is the only valu- 
able part of the kelp, and to it the other skinds of fait are found 
to bear but a fmall proportion 1 they do not hurt it materiallf 
in the manufa£hires m which it is u&d, and if they did htot 
it, a reparation from them could, with no great difficulty^ 
be obtained, If it is pure, or nearly fo, it«anfwers every 
purpoTe of the pureft pot-a£bes, which is 4 lixivia) fait, ob- 


of Sbapinjhay. 233 

tatned bjr the burning of wood, and which can be obtained 
only at a very high price» and from a foreign country. In 
that cafe it fupplies its place in bleaching, in the manufaAurc 
of fbap, of allami of glafs, and perhaps is neceflary in fome 
other of the moft important manufa&ures of Britain. The 
whok tribe of fea-weeds is capable, by burning, to produce 
k«Ip; but what are made ufe of here for that purpofe are the 
four following forts : \ft^ The tangle, (Fucus Digitatus^ Lin.), 
the top of which is here called red ware^ whofe roots are 
fixed in the rocksj and are very feldom left dry even at the 
loweft fpriog tides, idly^ The fea^oak, {^Fucus Feficubfus^ 
Lin.}, wiiich we denominate black tang, and which grows 
next tQ the former, nearly at the loweft ebb. ^^ly^ The knot- 
ted lea-weed, {Fucus Nodofits^ Lin.), or, as it is fometitnet 
called, the beU*wrack, and here the yellow tang, which in 
general occupies the middle fpace between the low and high 
water marks. 4tUyt The jagged or ferreted fea-weed, {Fucus 
Sarmitu, Lio.), commonly known by the name of prickly 
tang in this country. Thcfe four kinds of fub-marine plants^ 
with fome others of Icfs coofequence, are cut from the rocks 
in the femmer fealbo with hooks, carried up on barrows to 
the beach, where they are fpread to dry, and are afterwai'ds 
burnt into aflies. The kilns that are made ufe of for this 
purpofe, are either ercAed with ftones on the fand, or dug 
in the beach, of a circular fisfm, and about 1 2 inches deep 
and 4 Ceet broad. In thefe they make holes for the free cir* 
cukttioB of the air while they are burning, and after they 
have oonrioued to born till they imagine they have about one 
third of a tun of kelp, they begin to ftir it ftrongly, or to 
rake it with a dumfy inftrument of iron formed for the pur« 
pofe. Much of the excellence of the kelp depends on the 
perfe£Uon of this operation. Great care mud be taken to 
keep it free of fiind, of ftones, and of every fort of extra- 
Vol. XVil. H h neous 

2;j4 Siatijlical Account 

ncous matter. The contents of the kiln muft be made pcr- 
k&Xj liquid, and fomewhat refembliog the metal in a fur- 
nace \ and in this ftate it is fometimes very difficult to pre- 
fervc it of the requifite purity. The liquid requires to be 
left in the pit to cooU which it generally does in about two 
days, when it congeals and hardens into a folid ponderous 
xnafs, which is broken and pried up on the (hore, till an oc- 
cafion occurs to (hip it for the market. In a manufadure 
of fo great importance as that of kelp, every attempt ihould 
be made to meliorate its quality. This^ it is believed| may 
be done by cutting the fca^weeds fomewhat caHier in the 
feafon, and allowing them to lie as (hort time on the (bore 
to dry as poffible, making the kilns fo much larger as to 
burn a greater quantity of kelp at a time \ and of fiich a, 
conftrudlon as to prevent the intermixture of other matc* 
rials, by raking it thoroughly into a hquid ftate, and by 
conveying it from the kilns, as foon as it is cold, to a Aore-- 
houfe, to flielter it from the hurtful influence of the weather^ 
To increase its quantity is aHo an objeA of importancej and 
to do it in fome meafurc there is little difficulty. The plants 
on the rocks that affisrd this article, arc feldom tvX with fuf« 
fifcient care ; they are burnt only every two or three years, 
when they might be burnt annually \ too little attention has 
been beftowed on the cutting of tangle and red ware, and 
carrying it a-fhore in nets and boats conftrudled for the pur- 
pofe \ nor has almoft any perfon in this place attempted to 
extend the foil for thefe plants, by placing broad weighty 
Aones, or even wrecked wood, on the fhores, in convenient 
iituations. Were thefe circumftances attended to, and the 
pra<nice "hinted at followed, our kelp Ihorcs, which yield at 
prcfcnt fo confidcrable a trcafurc, might nearly double the 
quantity. This parifli produces every year about 120 tons, 


^f Shapinjhay. 235 

and, trifling «s this quantity vr.isf appear, it has a confider- 
able infiuence on the condition of the people. 

Populatkn. — ^Thc number of our people, in 17551 was only 
642, and aaH>unts now to 730, -coniiequcntly there is an in- 
creafe of 88. The caufe of this increaftd population, we 
arc able to trace to the refidence of a finglc proprietor. A- 
mong the people in a country parifli, whofe farms are fmall 
and whofe tacks are on)y verbal, the refidence of heritors, if 
they be men of fenfe and virtue, Is of the greateft advantage. 
They filencc diiputes, and terminate any differences that may 
arife, by their authority; they fet an example of induftry, 
and by their fmiies or their frowns,' not only diflinguifli the 
deferving from the worthlefs, but reward the one, while they 
punifli the other. Beyond aH difpute, whatever promotes induf- 
try alfo promotes virtue $ and whatever weakens vice and fbreng. 
tliens virtue, has an evident tendency to promote population, 
Befidcs thcfe means, the proprietor alluded to has made ufe 
of others ftill more cffeflual. Finding, on his entry, a pau- 
city of hands for executing his plans of improvement, he 
fbon ereAed between 20 and 30 new houfes, which are filled 
with young people that have married, and with families 
from other iflands. Thefe have almoft all of them nume* 
reus families of children ; and, what is a clear evidence of 
their vafl increafe is, that about 17 years ;2go the youngeft 
child in the fmall difirif): of Sound, was 13 years of age, and 
the fame di(iri£l contains now, at and below that age, about 
70 children. As there has been no rcgiftcr of deaths kept 
here, we cannot compare the births and deaths together, in 
order to afcertain the extent of the increafe j nor have the 
regifters of the marriages and baptifms, on account of the 
laft minister's infirm (late of health for fome time before bis 
deafh, been brought down to the prefent period, from the 


236 Stai(/ikal Account 

1 78 1 to the 1790^ both inclufiTei howeveri the lift of births 
and marriages is as follows : 




















3 ■ 




































As there is plenty of excellent peat In the pariih, as the 
air is wholefomc, and food is in tolerable abundance, the 
people live long \ and, i^hat is of far more confequence, they 
are, even at an advanced age, both vigorous and healthy. In 
proof of this| we may obfervci that there are feveral above 
90, fome of whom work every day in boats and otherways i 
smd that laft harveft, v/hich was no lefs long than rsuny^ 
fome that were between 80 and 90 years of age, were em- 
ployed conftantly in the laborious taik of {hearing. To the 
fame purpofe it may be obferved, that a gentleman of curio- 
fity^ fome ibort time ago, wrote to a woman in this pariih to 
know her age, as he had been informed it was uncommon | 
the woman was no lefs diftinguiihed for her good fenfe than 
her veracity, and wrote him for anfwer, that {he was born 
i688. She fpecified many remarkable events, which fhe 
diftin^Uy remembered ; and concluded her letter by inform* 
ing him^ that akhough 0ie was at that time 971 {he had writ- 

ten it without fpedades. To conclude, in order to give this 
parilh the degree pf profperitj of Which it is capable, the 
heritors (hould refide on their eftatesi and by the combined in« 
floence of their moneyi their authority, and example, point out 
to them the road to Iiappinefs. The farms, which at prefent 
are too fmall, fliould be 2 or 3 of them joined into one | tacks 
of confiderable length Ihould be granted \ the rents and feu- 
duties Ihould not be paid in kind, but in money ; and fer- 
vices of every fort Ihould be abolilhed, with a view to induce 
men of fubftance and induftry to becoone farmers. If, to 
thefe improvements, a better mode of agriculture were ad« 
ded, and were the people that could be fpared from the mak« 
ing of Icelp, and the cultivation of the ground, employed ia 
fi(hiog, and fome beneficial manufa£lure, Shapinlhay would 
foon raife her head high among her fifter ifles, and would 
not fuficr by a comparifon with almoft any other ifland be* 
longing to Scotland. 


1238 Statifikal Account 


(County and Presbytery of Dumbarton.— SynoI^ 
OP Glasgow and Ayr.) 

By the Rev^ Mr )ohn Stuart, Msntfter. 

' Situation^ Extent^ EreEiion^ and DisjunBlons. 

THE parifh of Luss is fituated in the county and prcf- 
bytcry of Dumbarton, and in the fynod of Gla/gow 
and Ayr It is about 8| Englifli. miles long from S. to N. 
and from 2 J to 5 miles broad. It is bounded on the fouth 
by the pariihes of Bonhill and Cardrofs ; on the north by the 
parifh of Arrochar \ on the eaft by Lochlomond ; and on the 
weft by the parifli of R-ovr. It was formerly of great extent, 
reaching, on the weft fide of Lochlomond, from the one end 
of that lake to the other, and comprehending fome of the 
lands on its eaft fide, together with moft of its iflands. 

By an a£b of the Privy Council, in the year 162 1, the 
lands of Buchanan were disjoined from this parifli, and an- 
nexed to that of Inchcalloch. About the year 1650, the 
lands of Auchindennan, Cameron, Stockrogert, and Tulli- 
chewen were disjoined from it, and annexed to the parifli of 
Bonhill. In 1658, the lands of Arrochar wefc disjoined 
from it^ and formed into a feparate parifli. But the lands 


rf Lufs. ft 39 

of Caldanach, PrefsCeUoch, and Coaglens, beloDging once to 
the parifli of Inchcallocby are now anne:(ed, ^1100^ ommaf and 
the* lands of Bannachrae, belonging propierlj to the pari(h 
of Row^ are confidered as annexed^ quoad faera^ to that of 

&f/, SurfaUi Climak^ Longevity, and Difeafes. — The foil b 
in general light and gravelly, but in (bme prts there is good 
loam. The principal level land lies near Lochlomond, and 
chiefl/ where the rivers difcharge themfelves into it, formed 
probably in the coorfe of ages^ by the fand and foil carried 
down from the higher grounds by the torrents. Scarcely one 
twelfth of th& for&ce is arable. The grcateit part is hilly 
and mountainous. The climate is mild and temperate. Snow 
ieldom lies many days on the low grounds. In fevere win- 
ters, the degree of cold has been found to be coniiderably 
greater near Glafgow and Edinburgh than in this country. 
Holiles, and other plants in the hedges and gardens, have 
there been killed by the froft, when here they remained un- 
hurt. The mountabs and woods break the force of the 
winds in every direction \ and the exhalations from that part 
of the lake which never freezes, may perhaps likewife ferve 
to temper the atmofphere. The air, though often moift, is 
remarkably healthful. Many of the people live to a great 
age. The venerable lift of old perfons, in the little village of 
Lufs, in 1 769, is well known *• A man who redded in it 
• many 

• Rev. Mr James Robertfon, minifter, aged 90 
Mrs Robertfon* his wife — -.86 

• Ann Sharp, their fcrvant — . — 94 
Niei M'Naughtan, kirk-officer — — 86 
ChriQian Gay, his wife — — -—94 
Walter Maclcllao — — — 90 

Pennant*! Tour in 1769, ^to, f* 22 S* 

i||4o Stati/lual Account 

many years, died ia Febniarjr i TpOj agM 9<S« Ii^ i.7ji3»/^e 
Ulowing were living ia M t . 

HeAor MacloMj aged , — — -* >' 

Mary Macfin-Iaoe . — ^ .-•. gg 

Janet Walker — — — — . a4 

Elizabeth Macwattie — ~ _ 8i 

Margaret Macgregor — -^ — •• 

Duncan Gray . — ~ — * *^ 7« 

There U one woman in the pariih aged -^ ^ 
fiome families in it feem to haivc a hareditary r^ht to lodg 
Jiit. There are two brothers and two fiAert gennan hi k^ 
whofib father f«s 96, and their mother 82 yeaN old il-'tiNir 
death> and whofe ages, in 17939 when added ttffAm^ mi4e 
.J 10 years. . The eldeft of the brother! is ftill id goodiA 
and has at prefent alive 3 fons and 4 daiightei% -p^ \ 
children^ and 10 great-grand-children* In 179 jfithcrt .%rtKe 
likewife 4 fifters german living in the pariih^ .whoftlisca to- 
gether made 312 years. The people arofidvofbfto&ir^jdfi^ 
eafes. Fevers and confumptions are the moftaoanaiMt. Tlae 
fermer of thefe are generally imported from o&er parts^ aoA 
fpread by infcAion. 

Lah and Pro^eSts.^LoMomondf either fbr^e»c»paftr 
variety and magriificfncc. offeenery, ia noeipBThapr ttf *» 
equalled by any. lai;e io Great' Br tiatai'> Iti 'teanties *lfret^fk 
i^dl known, and hava already btea f<k w«U darcrlbed*>ll!f 
pthexsj as to make: any new deicription of thAn ontieteflaiiy **i 
Tl^erc are fcvcral fine views of them to be feen firom ilxi 
high road on each fide of it, and from the adjacent heights/ 
each of which has its admirers. Tliofe which are common^ 
ly reckoned beft, are from the top of the higheft hills In' 


♦ .^ tf Pennant's Tours in 1769 and 1772, &c, - ^ ^j 

^ Lufs. S41 

fhe iOnds of Incfatavanach and lochmurren, the StroBehill 
•ear Liifi, and the point of Farkxn ; but, in ordef to hav« 
this h^ view in the greateft perfeclioni it is necefluy Co a«> 
Icend confiderably higher than the line of the road, Lochfi^ 
lomond is about 24 EAglifli miles iongi in fomc parts abovt 
7 miles broad, and contains above ao,ooo acres of water. Itji 
depth footh from Luis fcldom exceeds 20 fathoms, or lao 
lieet. North from that it is much greater. Oppofite to tht 
point of Farkin it is d6, and a little farther north 80 £1^ 
shoms. For about a mile fouth from Tarbet it is, with Uttlt 
dtfimace» 86 £ttfaoms ; but about two miles north from tt» 
c|>pofite to Alt»garv, it is 100 fstthoms, which is probably th« 
greateft depth of the lake. Beyond that its depth gradually 
dinioiihes to its north end. The north and deeper part of 
Lochlomond i^ never covered with ice ; but fouth from Lufs» 
m frvere frofis, its furface has been fo completely frozen, as 
to render it 6fe for men, and even for horfes and loaded 
ileds^ to go from each fide to the different iflands. It is re« 
snarkable, however, that part of the narrow found beiwcea 
fhe iflands of Inchtavaoach and Inchcooagan, the avtragt 
depth of which no where exceeds two bthoms and a half^ 
and where there u no perceptible current, yet was never 
known to freexe, not even in the year 1740. This, perhaps, 
^gaij be owing to bmt fprings rifing there, fed by the adja* 
fcnc high groonds. After great floods in winter, the fuiw 
£ace of Lochlomond has been known to rife about 6 feet 
higher than it is after much drought in fumnier* Its averago 
lieigbt above the level of the fea is 22 feet ; but that it is 
90W confiderably higher than it once was, and is therefore 
Haining upon tlie ground, there is clear evidence. Acrois the 
cbaonel of the river Falloch, at the north end of the lake, 
t|iere are ftoncs fixed at regular difiances, once evidently in- 
fended for enabling pafiengers to fiep from one fide to the 

y^^.j^ni^ li otbjd^ 

942 Siaiijlkal Acccunt 

otheri but now sever covered with leis than 4 or 5 feet depdi 
cf water. Near the middle of the Bay of Camilraddan, 
when the water is low, there is a heap of ftouet to be feen, 
jwhere the Colquhoun's cf Camftraddan are laid to have once 
had their family reiidence. Cambden, in his Atlas, Briton^ 
nka^ defcribes an Hhnd a9 cxiftiog there in bis day, in which 
there was a houfe and an orchard^. About 5 miles farther 
fouth, at a diAance from the ihore^ there is another heap of 
fipnesi faid to be the ruins of a church* A field oppoflte to 
it is Aill called Ach-na-heaglaUi or the church'^tield. This 
rife of the Airface of tiie laJce, is probably owing to the fand 
»nd mud fubllding near the uiouth of the Leveo, and dam« 
ming up the water. 

IJlands. — There are at prefent about 30 iilajads in Lochlo^ 
mond, fmall and great. Muii of them are finely wooded. 
Some of them are inhabited, and prove, at times, cottimo- 
dious afjlums to the difordered in mind. Ten of them 9tre 
confiderable in iize ; four of thefe belong to the parilti oT - 
Lufs : \flf Inchtavanach above three quarters Of an Englifli 
mile longt and about two furlongs- and a half broad, contains 
135 Scotch acres, of which 127 under a good oak wood, 
yhich is moderately valued at loool; each cutting, t>nce in 
20 years* The remaining acres are outfield, and carry at 
times a good crop. The ifland is not at prefent inhabited. 
A monk is faid, at a remote period, to have fixed his refi* 
dence there, from whom it derives its name of iMch'^ta^anacb^ 
l e. the ijland »/ the motiVs houfe. A fweeter retirement, 
or more adapted for contemplation, he could not perhaps 
have chofen, 2i//y, Inchconagan^ fituated on the eaft fide of 
Inchtavanach, and feparated from it only by a narrow found 


• Zee Pennant's Tour in 177s, 410, p. 155. 

above half a mile long, and about two furlongs and a half 
broad, contains 94 acres, which ar^ all under a natural oak 
and fir wood, 3^/^, Inchmoan^ i. e. the tnofs ijle^ lying a lit- 
tle to the fouth of Inchconagan, about three quarters of a 
mile long and a quarter broad, contains 99 acres, mofily of 
xnofs, from which the village of Lufs and the neighbourhood 
are ftipplied with peats, i^thlj, Inchlmai^^ near a mile long, 
and above a quarter of a mile broad, contains 14J acres, 66 
of which are under a natural wood of old yews. The whole 
iflanid has for many years been kept as a deer park by the fa« 
snily of Lufs. 

P^^/i0iiiri!M.-— Lochloiliond has been long famed for three 
wonders, viz* fijh without fins^ waves without wind, and a 
Jloating ifland. Vipers, which abound in the iflands, and are 
fo far amphibious as to fwim from one to another, are pro« 
bably the ffi withcot fins. A man of undoubted veracity, 
who lives in the village of Lufs, aiErms that he has feen one 
of them attempt to get into a boat in which he wa$| and 
that it was inftantly killed. A fwclling wave without any 
wind perceptible at the time, is not peculiar to this lake. It 
may bfe obfcrved, wherever there is a great extent of water, 
if a calm immediately fuccceds a ftorm. But independent of 
any commotion in the atmofphere, at the time of the re- 
markable earthquake at lifbon, in 1755, the water of Loch- 
lomond rofe fuddcnly feme feet above its former level, and 
was otherwife uncommoniy agitated \ and fomc phenomena 
of this kiiid, obferved at a remote period, may have been the 
wonder alluded to. A faiall ifland lyin^; near rhe weft (horc 
of lochconagan, is called the Floating IJland. It is now, ^t 
leaft, fixed there -, but that it may have once floated is cre- 
dible. In that cafe, it muft probably have been a mofly frag- 
ment, detached by the waves from the neighbouring ifle of 


04^ Stati/iiud Jctmmt 

IpchmimD, and kq3t tosedur Igj dw mtttcd TMtt^ 
p^es, galet, or Dutch mTrtles, willowy ficc; lomfma 
lake in the Highlands of PerthfliirCi a fmAi^ jfkMlof dui 

r J?A«r/.<N^Thefe ate 4 TV9m in the parifb, allof vhMi HSir 
ch^ge thcmfclves into Lochlomond, but none of ilm» aw 
vemarkaUe for fize; i/. The river Frgm^ whkk-riiinrm 
Glenfroooy and enters into the lake near the foutb end tt 
th« pariflu tdly^ The river of FutUffs. -^ily^ That of Ij^^ 
And, ^Ujt That of Thuglafs^ which forms a ^ccat put-of 
the boundary between the panChes of Luis and Arnidar% : 

, W9ois^ CsTr.— There are 880 acres voder natn«aI:Mndft 
Of tbefe there are about 700 almoft entirflj vndcr 09^ HMdiig 
whkh have been ufoaQy cut down onccin ac^ycasaiy.and^ 
kft cutting prodnced abottt 14000 boUs of bark f. A <uttsQf 
of the whole oak woods of that agCi at an avevagf of ptjc^ 
for 15 years paft^ may be valued at 7600 1..« of 
fuch.extent as to admit of thsir being properly divided; int^ 
to feparate bags or parts^ one of which may be cut-oyeiy 
year* The cutting commences about the beginning of Maj» 
or as foon as the bark can be eaiily peeled, and xDsfii be over 
before the middle of July. Formerly there was little atten- 
tion paid to the manner in which the work was pcr&npe^l^ 
but now case is taken that the trees Aall be all ci^ doin 
;and peeled clofe to the ground, fo as to make the young 
ihoots rife as much a» pofiible directly fronx the earthy ^mi 
acquire .roots of their own, independent of thofe of the pa» 
xent 0ock» For the fame purpoie, ia rough and h^ 


• &ci iPennant's Tour in 1772, 4to, part II. p.^ 18^ 
t Ike boil of bark contains 10 fioncs Dutch wcight». 

^Li^t. 84i 

baialDg At ImmIh or wjr kralb^Mod nkich 
be coUflAed about the fiocks^ is limnd ^ fiave aa eKcdteot 
cffcft. After ilb&mods are €itt» iliej wCi fbr 5 or 6 ycarit 
carefully p fc f er v t J from cattle. At that peiiodj at lo or ia« 
mnd at i; or 16 jeara of age, thej are weeded or ckared 
fipom kroom^ briart, or whatever elfe is prgudkial to them, 
and po|ierif tlunaed. The firft weeding is moch fbr the 
1miefil.of.the wooi^ hot makes no immediate rcturoa to th^ 
peofiiietot. The hoops got at the feeond wiU bear about ooc 
fistoitfi of the expenoe ; and at the thirds will do fottMlhie^ 
fliose than ckar the whole. Trees of every kind thrive ia 
this oooBtry amasingiy. An oak m Ac Baodry wood ^. 
years old, is 7 feet 3 inches in girth two feet above the 
g^gnfld;fihai4n k» fmnk, which b 21 ^t high, 45 ftlid Ifcet 
of^^ciMUr^^and fo cfmpttM to have 4 bolls of bark, imxs^ 
ahe^ ocktOMr the houfe of Camftraddan» which is about g# 
jn«S' old, if 7 leet % inches in {^h two feet above dko 
gredod^ hniA its traidc 36 feet of folid timber, and is com* 
juted-toluive ai bolls ot bark. But the trees of the great- 
aft fiae hi this parifli are at Rofedoe. A yew tree there, at 
Aelieight of a$ feet above the groond is 12^ feet, and ft 
^camore, at the ian.e height, 13I feet to girth. Their age 

'^ The natural woods of this country confift of oak, afh, jtn'^ 
liolly, liiDontai.v a(h, birch, hazel t afpen, alder, crab, faaw^ 
tSSoTD, and willows. Oaks thrive only in dry ground. Afliei 
ebound on the banks of the lake and near rills of waftest» 
Tews are rarely found but in the tflands. Hollies are feat* 
tered through the woods» and mountain aflies ofteo.grow in 
Olevated fituations. The remaining kinds are lefs valuable^ 
ftsd frequentlyi therefore, diftinguiflied by the name of Asr* 
tm thnhtr- The other indigenous plants are nearly the fame 
il in other parts of the Highlands, in fiiftilar foil^ and fitoa* 


%j^ Siailftkat Acc$uni 

dons. A few ar6 to be foandl, which' are ufiklljr eooffidirect 
as rare ; as, ifietes lacuftris^ xrr quillwoft ; fuhularia aquatiea^ 
or awlikrolt \ alifina rahunetHmdes^ or \xSkx water plantain ^ 
tfmunda regalis, or flowering fern*; /inSr/i Burgejii^ or crowned 
lich^ni &c. 

U^i/J Animals.— Tht foBowIng is a lift of the wiM animals, 
obferved for fome years paft in this part of the country. The 
names of fuch as are migratory, are difiingtriihed by an afte- 
rilk (•) before them. 






I if I?! tPn III i^^kr- s I ^ 

Pfcp o3 OP ""P 5 " 

?li^" II It '■ 


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StdH/lk0i Jxftaa 

5 8 I S g a>S.?S a »s.( 










a* <» 





a* i 



ill § 8 
I- -*■ 











Vol. XVIL 



Statfflied Aeam 

• • 



a «• 

§-8-8 S 

IS H ^ «B pa 8» 

6 S ^ S C3 E: 
. *• ft ^i • S 

P • P r- p 


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a a 













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B P S c 

r*i "1 C S X *f "^ K K R B S 

o 2 c 5* B Q < 

2. c S fe |5 o fc« ' 



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StoAJikctt Acema 

• # • # « • 

• • 











c a* 


• E 

L. a* 




S* SB- 




f 5 







I 2^ • 










Po/adaiwi.'^Accordmg to the returns made to Dr Web- 
fier in 1755, compared witK thfe [population in Mar<!:l^i793» 
the number of fouls in this pariih has decreafed within thefe 
4^ years. 

Statistical Tablb of the Pai^sh pf Luss. 


Perfons under 8 years of 

— above that age 
Married perfons 

Population in 1755 978 
in 1793 9«7 

Decreafe 61 

Number of £unilies i ta 

Males . - 448 

Females • • 469 

Conditions^ Professions, Sec. 

Proprietors refidiog occa^- 4 Coopers - 

iionallf ^ . f 

Ditto non-reiiding m 2 
Clergjrmeh » • i* 
MembeH of the EAabli* 

ihed Church 915 

Seceders - • 2 

Schoolmafters • 2 

Scholars • - 120 

Farmers * - -76 

. Innkeepers and retaikra 
offpirits, ale,&c. 







Bkcife officers 




Garpeaten fln;4 joiners 

Corn*millers • '. 

W^eavers • « 


Journeymen and appren* 
tices to weavers, tay- 
lors, and flioemakers 18 
Male-fervants • 38 

Female*fervants -*. 47 
Poor - - 10 

Capital of their funds L. 150 
Annual income ^37 

Boats . • 21 

WhceUcarrlages • ' 2 

ff tuft. ^ ^55- 

sCarts - . - 59 Ploughs * - • $7 

' \ Extent amd Valus of ^eopbrtt. 

A. R. F. 

Number of Scotch acres arable ' - 15*38 x> 26.20 

' ■ ■ in meadow - 109 iz 39«4<o 

{ . under pafture 149873 3 31 

-<^ woods • 8S0 I 33 

... Total acres t I7#4«^a 1 


Length in^EogUih aula . « . 


Average breadth in ditto 


Valued rent ih Scotch money ' - L. 1500 

Real rent in 1 793, in Sterling ditto 1600 

Value of Stock. 

no Draught horfes at L. 10 10 eaeh Li 1155 


4 Carriage horfca 30 .0 120 

6 Saddle horfes -r — 15 — -^ . 90 


'aoBeftcatde 8 160 

5.14 Inferior ditto *— - '3 10 — ^ 1799 


i975Beftflieep — 14 1312 


5625 Inferior dilt» — — • 010 6— 2953 



8 Swine -^-^ 15 -*— 6 

Total value of ftock L. 7595* 12 tf 

* Though tlie above number of |)lottgh$ is kept for the lake 
of convenience^ a much fmaller number would be ftifficient for 
all the tillage of the parifh. 

t The number of acres, excepting in one fann» wh^e thef 
are computed from the produce and ftodc, is afcertaine/i bj 
aAoai furvejs made in the years 1770 and 1776. 





^fpfvi 1700 h X719. 






































































































Total nunber for io yean 





pMcediqg 17SO -• 










Vei.. XVIIi 





Table of Marxiages, Baptisms, and BoutAis, 
From 1774 it^ i^9Z^ 

■ Y«ars. 



















































































































• >79a 






' '793 
Total nnmber for 20 







years precedbg 1794 
Annual arerage 








' «3f 



. I. 

From the foregoing table of marriages, bapUfmSi and bu« 
rials, as recorded in the pariih regifler, it appears that the 
population, for 20 years paft, is not very different from what 
it Was at the beginning of this century. A4)out 35 ycarg 
ag<)» upon the introduction of fouth country iheep, an union 
of farms took place, which| at the timc^ muft have dimini- 


ftped xht number a little. But that lofs hasfince been more 
than compenrated) by the additional hands employed in the 
flate*quarrie$ and other works. 

Agrieulfure^ Produce^ and Import s.^^Tht principal crops arc 
oats^ bear or big, and potatoes. Peafe and flax are likewife 
raifedy bat in fmallcr quantities. Upon fome of the farms, 
artificial graflcs have of late been cuHivatcd with fucccft. 
Oats, peafe, and flax, are fown from the middle of March 
to the end of April, and bear from the end of April to the 
beginning ol June. Potatoes are planted from the middle 
of April to the loth of May. The crops are commonly 
reaped from tkc beginnisg of September to the beginning of 
O^ober, and all got in before the middle of that monthl 
But in unfavourable feaibns, the harveft is fometimes nbt 
over till the loth of November. The parifli does not fup^ 
ply itfclf witir meal. About 200 bolb arc annually im- 

Horfes and Black Cattle — Few horfes are bred in the pa- 
Ti(h. They are generally bought at the different markets, 
for the purpofes of agriculture. Cows arc moftly kept for 
the convenience of families. Befides maintaining the (lock, 
I^owcver, a few calves are fattened every year for the butcher, 
and fonie young cattle are reared for lale. 

Sheep.— The higher grounds are now flocked almoft en- 
tirely with (hcep, of which there arc about 7500. They are 
all of the black-faced Linton kind, and kept almoft entirely 
for breeding, for which the nature of the pafture is more 
adapted than for fattening. A breeding ftock of 600 flioep, 
far taking care of which one good herd or (hepherd is rec* 


•€0 StafiflifalJffetm 

Iwofd fir^ciciity comoMily cpnfiftsi at Whitfundaf , of tlic 

ioUowiog proportiOQt : 

' Sreeding cfncf - - - - $00 

Tear old ewet, for fuppljiog the place c^F c^dfveircs ||q 
Tupi . . - ^ f aii 


A Beebding Stock of 600 Sheep. 

TjflLE lierd's wages, paid caawxpolj by the paftor^ 

of6ol]|ieep • ^ • jp. 7 10 q 
To hisoirnaiidhitdog'smaioteDaiiced 10 o 
Toagref pbu4gi^ei^hiai •' ^ ^ !^ ^ 

To the expeoce pf fmearing ^o of laid 9^ .,, ^^ <S .<o 
Xo ditto of (hearing or doping the ifho^ cf . ;,^ . ' 

faid ftock • • - • ^, a ij o 

To ditto of gathfriog and briniging to marlpe^ . . ^;l^^ xo o 

To imerefl of ftock, ac i}s« per head ibkr the ^ [ 

r. l^recdiog ewes and tups, acid 9 a. 6 d« fo^ 

. .the yeair pld^wesf beio^ 376 L ^ I^^iS^ ^6 j^ 

Tojqnt - . • - - - ca.ip o 

AMOUlf*^ OF TIIB AlfNOAt SlLBf,^^ ^ ;./ 

By 330 draft lambs, being the ufnal number for 
fale, after refervit^ the proportioQ necefla-^ 
17 for maintaio^og the ftodi, lofles, be.*— 
300 of dhto fold at 4 ^. 10 s. and 30 of the 
iiforft, called jih^i aa a 1. 5 s. per dad (core L. 6% 10 ^ 

Bjf 54 draff or JIack ewes,.at 6s. 6d. - . \f 1 1 o 

Carried forward L.t$ t o 

: Brought farmvdr - L« f; ^ '*^^ 

By lo yU ewes, beiag fuch as either had not 

laodit, ar loft theoi early, at if s* m f lo o 

Py 6 oWtcvpit at i^a, «- » « 3 sx o 

By 460 Qeepea wbite, 10 to the ftane, 46 

fiones, at7«. - - - 16 z q 

Ify 140 fleeces hkl, 7 to 4ie ftono. qo ftooet, 

ai5s. -. r - ■» 500 

L.IIS S ^ 
Yearly exj^ce j^ 5 q 

. Neflit profit l^izf 10 o 

';;he pcofit arifiog frpcn fuch a floe);, raema InaclefiiatcttA 
^^ij^ anil fUkllm it it to be obferved, that, in moft 
ihedfifefii^tlsb^^aN Ameloir artiMe and graft grotmd^f^ 
tlie prodoce of wViA^ ifi eftimating their valoe, i^ Telddtn 
fak^ into the account. Much depends upon tM tkn^, and 
inn^ H^ snanagctnent. In the etent of a leter« Mnt«r> 
or fpring, the nninber of lambs for Tale lidls often ohe thir^ 
ftoct oC the>regpltog ftattmcnt. The difeife called h^of^^^ 
Stat^iDesVWy^^*^^^^®^ tl^m. thongh odt dearly fo^ 
modi iS^f hit^> ^ ^^^" ^^^ grounds were firft laid imder 
0gM. ^t^ldom attacks any but the lambs or %/, i. t. 
VcarHogs. W^^^ iambs are more fobjed to it than ewe 
lambs, and the fetteft and t^ti fipcq«cntl;r fall a facrifice to it, 
when the lean efcape. It is moft fatal to t!^m on a change 
of weather from frdft to thaw, 6r ^h** to froft, hot tfpeciadiy 
dm'ing hoar froft. In open winter few fufii^ by it. Tftleing 
care that the pafturc is neither top rich nor too poor, is rec- 
koned the moft efFcftnal way of preventing it, and changing 
the paftare immediately, the moft eflcfhirf-way of coring it, 
W* ^ '^^^ ^^ preventing difeaf<$f) ^Ictetoying vermin, de-* 


aiK4 StattJIuai A€count 

fending firom rain, and preferving the wool, it is ufiiali about 
the beginning of November, to lay the cups and lambs, and 
a few of the weakeft ewea, with tar and butter. For the 
the fame purpofe, many now bsthi the reft of their ' Iheep 
with a ftrong inf uCon of tobaccoj broom tops, Sec. 

Farms, RifUs, (5V, — ^The fize of the farms is Tarioas. Im 
the lower part of the parifli, where the principal dependence 
is upon grain and black cattle, befides the lands poflefled icn^ 
mediately by the proprietors, there are lo farms, containing 
from 50 to 164 acres, and paying from 20 1. to 80 L Ster- 
ling of rent % and there are 54 fmaller pofleffions, rented 
from 2L 10 s. to 20 L There are likewife 12, which may 
be properly called Jbitp farms, contaiDing from 222 to 298o 
acres, moftly of hill pafture, and paying from ft4. to 8ol.>^f 
yearly^ rent. The average rent of a Iheep's paftore 10 the pa- 
jrifli at prefent, (for which an acre and a half of bill ground 
k neceflary),is from i s. to I s. 6 d. ; bat on any lands which 
have been let of iatc, it is confiderably higher. -Upon two 
of thefe flieep farms, the fmaller tenants have a common 
right of paftore to 6 or 7 horfcs ; and there is one hill, con- 
Cfting of 784 acres, which is laid moftly under ftieep, and 
which is entirely in the hands of 1 1 of the fmaller tenants 
each of whom is entitled to keep there a certain proportion 
of cattle. Befides the faid grain and flieep farms, there «fo 
feveral cottages, to which a garden, and fometimes so ler^ 
or half an acre of land is annexed. The tenants of the 
fmaller farms, as weU as the cottagers, depend often more 
upon days labour, or fome other employment, than upon the. 
produce of any land they poflefs. 

Wag^i, Provi^ofu, Fial, ts*^.— The common wages of «it*- 
ipTvants arc from 7 1. to 9L a year, with their ipaiat^ao0^>' 


0f Lufu fl^3 

of maid fcrvants; from 3 I. to 4 L The ufual day^s wages of 
ntcn are from S dr to 10 d* with mabteaance^ and fcoxA 1 s«. 
to I «. 3 d. without it J of wotneoj 6 d. wtk it. — ^Thc price 
of proTifions of every kind is very much regtiktted by the 
prices in Dumbarton and Greenock, which are the neareft 
market towns. For thefe 4 years paft, oat meal has fold from 
16 s. <fd. to 20 s* perboU; the beft lambs, weighing from 
15 lb, to 18 lb. from 4s. to 5 s, ; a hen, from lod. to i s. ; 
a chicken, from 3 d. to 4d.i butter, at 12 s. the ftonej cbeefe, 
from 4 s. 6d. to 6 s. the ftone.— Coals, including the freight 
from Glafgow or Scotftowrt, coft from 6 s. 6 d. to 10 s. the 
cart, which ihould be 12 cwt. Peats and (ticks arc the 
commoo fuelj and not much lefs ezpenfivc. 

'^iikU pf Property, £sfr.— There arc 3 heritors, one of whom 
relidei occafionally. Sir J a me s Co l ojj hod n of Lufs, Bart, 
is proprietor of far the greateft part of the lands in the pa- 
rifli. The family refidcnce is about 3 miles fouth from Lufs, 
at Jtofedoe or Re/sJw, 1. /. the black promontory or head- 
land, a name which b not now very applicable to ft, as it is 
fifacly wooded, and the black mofs which once abounded 
there is now moflly converted into meadow. There is an 
excellent modern houlc there, which comriiands fomc noble 
views of the lake. It was bmlt by the late Sir James Col- 
qoliomi, who refidcd in the parilh for many years, the in- 
fiuence of whofc authority and example, in checking all ten- 
dency to diforder, and in promoting the intercfts of virtue 
and religion, is ftiU fcnfibly felt, and his memory, therefore, 
xnach and juftly refpcfted. 

JJfwrfl/x.— There are two ilate quarries, one upon the 

cftate of Camftraddao, and the other upon the eftate of Lufs. 

Frem the former of thefe, for 5 years paft, from 25^.^^^ 


4^4 Siatlfikal Aaatoi 

to 2609C00 flitet, and from the latter quarry^ from iWiddA 
to i70»ooo flatea have been anniiilljr exported* Some of 
them were fent to Greenock^ Olafgow, and Paiikj, hot 
the greater part to the banks of the LeieOft and acrofs Loch« 
k>mood to StirlingOiire. The flatet are of an esedlcnt qua- 
lity, and were fold at from 1 U 4s, to i L 15 1. tho thoo^ 
fand. From 10 to 20 hands have been employed in th4 
Camflraddan quany* and aboot 10 in the other. 8om« of 
them work upon days wages } but the greater part by the 
piece. They commonly get at the rate of 15 s. per loooi 
and it takes is* 4 d» per 1000 to lead the ilates from the 
quarry to the fliore. In the fouth end of the pariih there 
is likewife a very good frce-ftone quarry^ from which the 
fiones to the honfe of Rofcdoe, and the other principal houfes 
in the parifb, have been taken 1 but it is only wrought otea^ 

ManufoBuns.'^lxL 1790^ acotton-mill was ereAed near 
the village of Lufs. It is of the fist moft Toiubk to the 
placet fufficiently large to give bread to fqch as might ^thet^ 
wife be in want of employment* but not to give encourage- 
ment to the vices which are fo apt to abound, wherever a 
/promiicnoos multitude of people are aflembkd* From 30 
to 40 hands, young and old. haVe been ufualiy employed m 
it. Of hte. owing to the general ftignation of trade^ littk 
Work has been carried on in it« A thread manuiafhire, upon 
a fmaU fcale. is likewife carried on at Donfioj near tlie ibodi 
end of the parlih. 

AnttquUtes. — About a mile and a quarter fouth from Lo(i| 
there are the remains of a large cmrn^ or heap of ftQoe% 
called Carfhma^cten/oig, or. the Cairn ef Si. Kijog^ who Js 
laid, at a& early period, to have fuffcrcd death thcrt^ and 


"' fo haVc* tJccn buried in the church of Lufi." He was long 
reveredj thereforei as the tutelar faint pf tjie pari(h *• hi 
the (phiircfi-yard there are fome fione cofiBns of confiderable 
antic^uicj. Each of them confifts of one entire ftone^ with a 
cavity cut out of it, fit for holding a dead body at its full 
knjgt^, and a ftone lid for covering it. There is no infcrip« 

^tion upoti eh!her of them. 

Church t, to'r.— The church is uncommonly good. It wa» 
'built in I77i> by the late Sir James Colquhoun of Luis, 

without laying any part of the burden ypon* the other heri- 
'tors. . The manfe was built in yy^o^ is insufficient^ and at 

prefen^ in need of repair. The iiyiog coniifls of 72 bpHs of 
'oa^-meal; at the rate of 8^ ftones perboU, 6 bolls of bear^ 
'$91! f2'*s. 94. d. Sterling in money, and a good glebe. There 

is a procefs of augmentation at prefent depending. Sir 

James Col^uhoun is patron of the parifb* 

• * Schools 

' ^f :!Mie high veneration in which the memory of this faint 
was h^ i^ early tim^s, appears from a charter to John, Laird 
of^Liifsy preferved in the chartulary of Lennox, which Robert, 
Sn;gf*<>f "Scotland, conBrms in the loth year of his reiga: 
, li^t^htipitaishoc^icriprum vifuris,'vel aadituris, Malcolmus 
<^ Gpmea d^ L«|venaj^ i^ocem in Ghrfio. Noverin's nos ob re- 
*^Yirehtiain ct hbnorcm. fanfliffinii viri^.filii Kessogi patron^ 
0''mfi#raiiffiire; conceffiffe et hac praefente. Charta noftra con- 
«• finna^ dUf^lo^tJufilt Baichohido noAro Domino Joanne de 
^' Lufs^ et haeredibus fuis quibufcunque talem Ubertatem, quod 
**' nos nee haeredes noAri prifas captiones feu carriagia infra 
'« terras fuas de Lufs, quas de nobis tenet ha^reditarie capiemus* 
^/Xoiifeflimns fimiliter/ .&c. 

t • •- '► \ 
f ' Thei church of Lufs was one of the 6 churches within hitf 
dioeefe, which, in 1429, John Cameron, biihop of Glafgow, 
ftith ^ confent, and at the defire of their refpedliv^ patrons, 
ereded into prebendaries. 

Vol. XVII. M m 

^a66 Statiftiad Account 

Beboob and Ptwl*— There arc two fchoblsi fbr each of 

. which a good hoafe has been lately built. One of thcfe is 

« the parith fcbool» io which the number of fcholars is gene* 

.rally from 30 to 50. The falary is 10 1. Sterling* The 

i&hool fees for reading EngliOi are i s. 6 d. per quarter; for 

.reading and writings 2 s. j for arithmetic^ 2 s. 6 d. } and for 

Latin, 5 s. The other fchool is fupported by the Society 

for propagating Chriftian Knowledge. The number of fcho- 

Jars who attend it» during the whole or part of the year, is 

.about 8o. The emoluments of the fchoolmafter confift of 

-13 L Sterling of fahry, a duelling houfe, garden, cow's grafs, 

«nd feme fchool fees. Ihe children of the poor are taught 


The Society have likewife of lato allowed a falary for a 
ftwing fchool at Lufs. The number of poor^ at prefent up- 
4in the roily is 10. Some of thefe get weekly, and others 
Qccaiibnal fupplies, according to their neceffities. The funds 
for their fupport arife from the coUeflions on Sunday, rents 
ii£ feats in the church, marriage and mort-cloth dues, and 
the intereft of 150L Sterling of (lock, amounting, at an a* 
vcrage, to 37 1. Sterling yearly. L. 50 of the faid ftock 
were bequeathed by the late Robert Carmichael, £fqi of 

Language and CharaBer. — ^South from Lufi, Eoglilh, and 
north from it the Gaelic, is the prevailing language. The 
fcrvice in church is performed in each of thefe. — The peo- 
ple, in general, are fober and induftrious, humane and cha- 
ritable. They are regular in their attendance on the ordi. 
nances of religion. The example, in this rcfpeft, of the fa- 
milies of chief rank for many years psft, has, without doubt, 
had conSdcrabIc influence upon thofe in inferior Nations. 


Raaif^ Ak^houfir^ fiftr^The roads ha^ i)f tei« beeh mnch 
attended ta, and are at prefcDt m good repair. In the 1786, 
an aft of P^liiament was obtained for converting the fiatnte 
feiboor of thia couatf into monej, which has had good tfm 
fe£b.-^Thcre ave 9 liceRfcd ak and whiftiy houfesi and OM 
Jnn. Four years ago there were 5 licenfcd ftiib for daftit^ 
Kng whi&7 1 now there is but one of 36 gi^na. 

Jlivontagts af9d D^advanfages.^Tht pfineipai difiidvvQta. 
ges, under which this parifli hbours, are the great expeac^ 
of foe), the fcarcitj of fiaturat manw^s, and the high price 
of labour, and of every neceflary of IHc, owing to the neigh.; 
bourhood of (0 many great mamifaAuring concerns} bnt 
that neighboorhood, en the other hand, is a great advantage 
to fuch as have any articles to difpofe of. > 

lEnts for hnprovenenis.'-^-VfeodA in general, an4 oa]( 
wooda in partfcolar, are now become valuable every whcre^ 
and efpeciaHy upon the banks of Lochlomood* Whatever^ 
therefore, relates to their improvement, n^ft be, well wor* 
thy the attention of every proprietor^ An acre of oak wood 
here, at an average, is worth from las* to 12 s. a year ^ 
whidi is a much greater return than could be had from at 
much ground of eqi>al quality in any other way whatevcx^.-^ 
The firft great objed ta be attended to^ is- rhe incloikg th^ 
great body of the wood with ^ ftificknt ftonc dyke^ Tho 
temporary wooden fence, which is cooinMuity raMed round it 
every time it is cut, feklom iafts above 4 yeacs^ and often art 
mouatr to one third, femetioies to one half the eapence of :| 
ilone wall. The wood thus inclofed fliouk^ as foon aa cir-* 
cumftaoces will permit, be taken entirely into the proprle^ 
tor's h^ds, whofe intereft it wilt be to encourage the i\atuwi 
ral growth of oak, aft, holly, and other valuable timber, and 


$68 Statical Actcuni 

to plant all tbe ^caat fpaces with trctt fuited tb the ftif , 
Oak woods^are never entirely out of the re^ch of cattl.ej and 
they ought nevo-, therefore, to be permitted to enter them. 
7or 4 or 5 years, all agree they n>uft be carefully preferved from 
them ( and, after that time, if they are thriving, and the^ao/ii 
fufficiently thic)c» the pa(lure in them is no oYffiSt. As to the 
age at which an oak wood Should be cut, there ar^ difier^nt opi^ 
nions. That there is a period, however, beyond which it (hould 
xiot be permitted to growt cannot be doubted. After it is ^ut, 
Che moft vigorous fhoots are always obfcrved to fprlng from 
well rooted young fiocks, from 3 tp 6 inches in diameter. 
Some of thefe will grow the fir ft year from 4 even to 7 feet 
In height, and near the ground will meafiire ai)ove half aq 
inch in diaiKnet^r. In proportion as the parent ftocks are 
older and larger, the ihoots are lefs vigorous, and when the 
fiocks are 13 or 14 inches in diameter, there are either no 
young fliQots at all, or they are very feeble« If the great 
objeA, therefore, be to produce, at ftated periods, % quaati* 
ty of bark for the market, It muft be the ruin of a copfe^ 
kept for that purpofe to allow it all to grow yerypld. If in 
this country it exceeds much the ufual period of 20 or 2Z 
years, the bark becomes inferior in quality, and the Jlool will 
foffer more by age, than the additional value of the timber 
and bark can compenfate. In order to make any oak in;^, 
however, fell to advantage, it is neccflary that there (hould 
be a certain proportion of timber of different fi^es, as well as 
bark. At every cutting, therefore, it is ufual to leave fo 
m^tkjjiandard trees of different ages, for the benefit of future 
fales. Thefe fhould always be healthy and vigorous, and 
either in the outer ikirts of the wood, or in vacant fpaces, 
where they are detached from other trees. When left with* 
QUt judgment m the thickeft part of the wood, being depri* 


Tcd of their former flidter, thejc feldom thrite themfdves, 
and by their drop atfd fbadc hurt all the youtig growth a- 
round them. Prunning or lopping off great brandies froia 
any of thefe ought carefully to be avoided. Though the 
ficar may heal outwardly, yet it never Sails .to introduce rot- 
tenncist Icfs or more, into the heart, whidi hurts the timber^ 
and impairs the vigour of the tree.* 

• As to the arable and bcft graft grounds, the indodog 
them, as well as the woods, with a.fufficient fence, is the 
firft great improvement of which they are capable. Of what 
kind the fence fhould be, nature, if attended to, will fcldom 
fail to direa. In high and expofi?d fituations, hedges wUl 
Bot fucceed; but there ftoncs conoroonly abound. In the 
bwer grounds, wh^rc ftones arc not plentiful, hawthorn 
liedges may be raifed with advantage./ But of all plants lor 
this purpi>fe, holly pwanifc? to anfwcr beft. Holly thrives 
every where in this country, as in its native foil ; and it 
makes not only the moft ornamenul, but likewife the clofeft 
and the bcfl: of hedges. The time which it takes to raifa 
the plants from the feed, and the expcnce of getting them 
from a nurfery, is the great bar to the general ufe of them. 
That bar might here be eafily removed ; the hoUics which 
grow wild in the woods, naturally lay their own branches, 
wbfch, as foon as they touch the' ground, fredy take root* 
With a little affiftancc from art, a fufficient number of well 
rooted plants could foon be got, which might fafdybe tranf. 
planted at fuch an age as to make almoft an immediate 


r The having the whole lands of a country engroflid into 
a/invbands, is certaihly much againft the public intcrcft. 
Every man, however, who depends entirdy upon the pro- 
duce of his fields, ought to have, at leafV, as much land as is 
fnffident for affording himfdf and his family a comfortable 


%fdt Staytkal 4ccomi 

fiAfifienet aad eBoftant emptoyncnt ; snd if he poflfaffitattf 
wftfle budi be ought to have fuAckot encouragcinept from 
the proprietor ibr taking it into tUlagei and improviog it. 
When the cafe it othervifei he is under a temptation of 
raining hit ground^ hj over-croppbg it, one of the moft 
prevailing errort in the preient Highland fyftem of fuming. 
But the maoi on the other hand, whole chief dependence it 
upon days labour, or fome other employmenti ought to have 
hnd fufficient only for fupplying his family with mille, pota- 
toes, and other necefiaries, but not fo much as to divert hit 
attention from his proper bufinefs. Grazing fkrms, and oC» 
pecially Jheep fiinns, muft, from then: nature, be on a greater 
ftale. In them a great range, and a variety of pafture, are 
jodifpeniibly neeeflary* As moch as the ftate of property, 
therefore, will permiti their boundaries ought to be the 
great boundaries of nature* When tbc^ pafture of a hUl or 
mountain is paroelled out among two or three different te-. 
aantSi whhout any inacceffible gutties or rocks to form a line 
of ftparatlon, the cattle of each will be conftantly trcipafiiag 
Ibmewhere, and therefiwe conftantly chased from one part to 
another! fo that neither will receive much benefit from it. 
CSommon pafture, in fuch % cafe, is feldom feund to be a re* 
medy fer the evil. Whatever wife and juft reguhtions maj 
at flrft be laid down for fixing the proportion of cattle toi be 
kept by *ach, they are never in b£i adhered to y and the 
ground is always overflocked. 

The prefent breed of Iheep in this pariih may perhaps be 
changed with advantage. In every attempt of this kind, 
however, great caution is neceflary. The trial fhould firft 
be made with fmall parcels, and rather by the proprietor* 
than by the tenants. Sheep are delicate animals, fubjeft to 
many difeafcs, and when they are taken from one country 
to another, or even from ^ fiurm to another^ it takes 


fome time before thejr are habituated to thdr new fitnation^ 
«nd thrive in it* When a man takes a iheep farm, there- 
fore, he endeavours, if poffible, to purcbafe from the ouu 
going tenant the ftock of (heep upon it, which he reckons 
at the rate of at leaft 2 s. a head more vahiabk to him than 
to any other. 

Though the tenants are now more comfortably lodged 
than they once were, there is ftill, in* that refpeQ, room for 
improvement. In a country which abounds fo much with 
flates. It may appear furprifing that fo few of the houfes 
ihould be covered with them, though there can be no doubt^ 
but in the iflue, they would be found lefs expenfive thaa 
any thatch which could be ufed. The great obftacle to the 
life of them for that purpofe, at prefeni, is the ezpence of 
the timber required. That obftacle, it is hoped, will in 
time be removed. When the extenfive and thriving pkn- 
tations, in different parts of the country, have grown up^ 
timber will be more eafily got. 

All theie improvements, however, are more wanted hi 
many other parts than here, where ibme of them have al- 
ready taken place. Within thefe a6 years, above 4000 L 
Sterfing have been hid out upon the efiate of Luis alone, ia 
tndofing the woods and arable grounds with fufficieot ftone 
dykes and other fences, and in planting ; not to fpeak of the 
fums expended upon other improvements. Within the 
fame fpace kA time, near 100 acres of wafte bnd have beeo 
brouj^ into tUb^ and now produce tolerable crops. 


aji StaHfticAl Account 



(Counties of Inverness and Argtle— P&bsbttebt 
OF Skt.-^tnoi> of Glbhelg). 

By the Rev. Mr Donald M<Leanj Miniter. 

Kame^ Sttuaticn^ and Extent. 

THIS pari(h coniifts of four iflands, £igg, Rum, Caims, 
and Ifle Muck. It was a part of the pariih of Slcat^ 
until the year 1726. At its erection into a feparate charge^ 
it was called the pariih of Eigg, (it being the moft valuable 
ifland, and that in which the minifter refides), or Short Iflet. 
In procefs of timej the name was, by an eafy tranfition^ 
changed from Short to SmaU Ifles. Eigg is fituated in the 
county of Invemefs, the other three iflands are in the coun«^ 
ty of Argyle* The parifh is in the prcfbytery of Sky and 
fynod of Glenelg. Eigg is between 4 and 5 miles in lengthy 
and from 2 to 3 in breadth. Through the middle of it 
there is a hallow, called, in Gaelic, Eagg^ hence the ifland 
derives its name. It is computed to be about 8 miles weft 
from the point of Arrifaig, the Heareft part of the main land. 
Rum is fituated about 5 computed miles W. N. W. from 
Eigg. It feems to derive its name from the Gaelic word 
Ehum^ iignifyiog extent, as it is the moft extenfive of thefe 
iilands, being 8 miles long, 8 miles broad, and containing 
above 22,000 f^uarc acres. Cannes 4 computed miles weft 


^rds the inhabitanu t competent luomccuw^^. au« ivv»«. 
Vo>. iVlI, N n yeari 


^ve 22,000 %uarc acres. Cannes 4 computed miles weft 



^f Smajl JJles. 273- 

from '^um^ and is about 4 tomputed miles long, and one 
broad, iile Muck lies about 4 miles W S. W. from the 
neareft part of £igg is between 2 and 3 miies in length, and 
one in breadth. This ifland is called in Gaelic, Eiiiean nan 
Muchd^ which, Ifteraltj tranfl/ited^ is, Ifland of Swrne; hence 
Iflc Muck, and fiachauan very properly calls it Inju/u Pot" 

jtffearanci.'^The ifLand of Eicig is partly flat, but princi* 
pally hilly and rocky. Ihc hills are covered with heath, 
which, in fome places, is mixed with coarie grais. Its low 
grounds are partly deep, partly (hal*ow, and tolerably prQ- 
duAive, where there is a depth of. loil. Rum is in general' 
killy, moui'tainous, and rocky, much fitter for paiiure than 
crop Canna is partly hi^h, and partly low ground, the high 
good for pafture, and the low for crop file Muck is pretty 
low, excepting One hill uf no cor.iiderable height $ its foil is 
Ml general good. The height of the Rum hills alone ieems 
worthy of notice, but for want of proper inftruments^ it can- 
not at prefcnt be alctrtained. Of thcfe the fummits arc aU 
mofl wholly rocky and barren. 

VegetMs and Jlnmal Produffiem^'-^Tlie parifh produces, 
barley, oats, potatoes, flax, kails, and a few other garden 
ftuflTs in fmall quantities. In Canna, great oats aufwer pret- 
ty well I on Eigg, the cultivation of thia grain has been at- 
tempted for two years paft, but did not lucceed. Af cr it 
comes to the ear, it is lodged, and great part of it rots on 
the ground, owing to the frecjUent and heavy falls of rain. 
On barley and fmall oats, the rain has often a iimilar tQ:\ £V, 
though not in an equal degree. It is with reafon believed, 
that green crops would anfwer better. , The crop feldom af- 
iQsrds the inhabitants a competent fubliftence. For fevecal 
Voj-. XVII. N n year* 

d74 StafiJUcal Account 

years pafty a confiderable quantity of meal has beep antiuallf 
imported, it having been neccfTary to feed their cattle with a 
great part of their own crop, during the winter feafon, cfpe* 
cially when fevere. 1 he feed time begins about the firtt of 
April, and the harveft about the 1 2th of September. In 
We Muck the harveft is fomewhat later, and yet the feed- 
time fomewhat earlier. Laft year, 1793, the crop was not 
all got in till near the end of November. The (hores would 
produce about 50 tons kelp annual'y, if the feafon was very 
fiivouraUe, but the quantity muli depend greatly upon the 
weather. The animals reared in the pariih are horlesj horn« 
cd cattle, fheep, and a few goats. Horie» are reared for late 
in Rum only: They are haidy and high mettled, though of 
a fmall Gze. The horned cattle of Canna and Ifle Muck 
grow to a confiderable fize, owing to the iinencis of their 
grafs ; but> when carried to trarketi they are liable to a dif- 
temper called the bloody urine, which of courfe reduces their 
price. Moft of the farmers in Eigg, and the principal tackf^ 
man in Canna, rear a few of the fmallet fort of Iheep for 
the ufe of their families. One farm in Eigg was begun to 
be (locked with black faced iheep, about two years ago. 
They fecm to multiply and thrive welL There are no iheep 
in Ifl|^Muck« In Rum^ there is a confiderable number of 
ihiall native iheep ; their fieih is delicious, and their wool 
valuable. A quantity of it is fent yearly to the Redcaftie 
market, near Invernefs, where it often fells at 14 s. the 
Aone, while other wool fells about half that price. This 
iiland fcems.beil calculated for rearing iheep, being almoft 
wholly covered with hills and high naountains, but the pro« 
prietor's attachment to the inhabitants, has hitherto prevent- 
ed its being (locked with them only. In Rum there were 
formerly great numbers of deer } there was alfo a copfe of 
Voodj that afforded cover to their fawn from birds of prey y 


of Small Jfles. 275 

I^articotarly from the eagle : While the wood throve, the 
deer alio throire \ now that the wood is totally deftroyed, 
Ihe deer are extirpated. Before the ufe of £re arm$» their 
method of killing 6ttt was as follows : On each fide of a 
glen, formed by two niotintains, Aohe dykei were begua 
pretty high in the nabuhtainsi aiid carried to the lower part 
of the valkyi always drawing nearer, till within 3 or 4 feet 
bf each othbr. From this nirruw pafsj a circutiir fpace wai 
inclofed by a ftone wall» of a height fufficient to confine the 
deer } to this place they were purlued and deitroyed* The 
Veftige of one of thefe inclofures is Hill to be &en in Rum. 
In Caona, there are fome wild rabbits of a greyiih colour. 
In this parifh rats abdiind ; lately a remarkable one, purelf 
white, has been killed in Eigg. It was the only rat of this 
appearance ever feen in the place. The amphibious animals 
are feals and otters 1 the blubber of the one is inade into oil, 
and the fkm of the other is fold for fur^ at a prite propol*- 
tionale 10 its fize ^ fome of them have been fold for above 
I2S. Stcrlipg* Though tl>e grown up ieals iced at iea, they 
iuckle their young on Ihore. There are two diilinA fpecies 
loi Ieals, a fmaller and a larger ^ the fmaller brings forth its 
young about the middle of fummer, a&d the larger about the 
fludcUe of harveft. It is fald the young are fuily fat, and 
often killedt beiore they bring them into the fea. The prin« 
eipal kindf of filh caught upon theie coaf^s are herrings, cod^ 
and ling. The herrings are fome years caught in Loch Sere* 
ibrt in Rum, during the month of Auguft } but the inhabit 
tants being ill provided in fiihiog materials, fcldom catch a 
competency for their own families. The cod and ling are 
caught mofVly on the coafts of Canna and Ifle Muck, the 
fiihing ground being moft convenient to the harbours in 
jtbefe iflands. They are exported to the Clyde market, and 
the ling fold from 3 1. to 3 1» los. per 120 ling. The Cear« 


17^ Siatiflical Accsunt 

ban or fan-fifli appear in May, and fometimes remain titt 
July. Thfir liver alone is ufeful for making oiK fome of 
them yielding 12 barrels. This oil is alfo moft frequently 
cx(x>rted to the Clyde market. Different other kinds of 
fiOies are caught, of fome benefit to the inhabitants; but 
it is unoecefiary to particutarlfe them here.— The land and 
iea birds in this parifh are much the fame with thofe ia 
the neighbouring iflands. Birds of prey are numerous; 
groufe are fot'.nd in Rum and Eigg There are ^oxs^ pi- 
geons, and a few wild ducks. The puffins are found in coo- 
fiderable number^;, which, though fea fbwls^ lay and hatch 
fometimes at a great dtflance from the ihorct even near the 
tops of high hills. Their young, before they leave the neft^ 
are as large as the dam» tranfparent with fat, and deliciouf 
to the tafte of many. It is believed, that the young puffin 
becomes fo weighty with fat, as to be unable to take the 
wing and ledve Its nefl : To remedy this inconvenience, the 
old puffin is faid to adminifter forrel, to extenuate, and reiH 
der it fit for flying. It is, at any rate, a known fad, that 
forrel is commonly found to grow near the pufiKn's neft 
There is a fmall kind of black crow peculiar to Eigg^ having 
its body, back, head, and neck, of a greyiOi blue colour^ and 
feemingly of the fize of a pigeon. In fome ok the high hiUi 
of Rum^ ptarmigans arc found. In refped of fize, they are 
fomewhat lefs tb;m groufe ; and, for fecurity againft birds of 
prey, they affiune the colour of the ground ; in cold (eafons 
they are white as fnow ; in other feafons the^ are fpotred 
white and blue, like the craggy clifl^ among which they 
live. Here plovers are not numerous. There arc a fc 
curlews, (hipcs, and herons, with many other birdsi of too 
little importance to be fevcra'^y mentioned. Our migratory 
bird& are rails, cuckows^ woodcocks, fwallows, ofAtc go^^S 


M)d Iblan gecfe. The periods of their arrival and dcpanur# 
are too well known to be iniiited on. 

IV^x. IJlanis^ and Harbcurs.^^ln general, the tide of flood 
iets oorthi the tide of ebb fouth ; but it often varies, accor« 
ding to the fituation of the coafts of the iflands. On the 
fouth coaft of Eigg^ there is a foiall ifland, called Eillan Cha& 
tel. which is good for p»<)urey and a ^nd>cle of a conrigtious 
faroi ii^ Eigg* A few pcrlonsy tending cartle» live upon it 
during a part of the iummer months orily. The found be* 
twcen this ifl^nd ^nd £i£gi makes a tolerable harbour for a 
few veflck not exceeding 70 tons. It has no great depth of 
water, and coniequcntly, with f}>ring tides, luch vcfTtls are 
apt to take the ground, the conkqueme of which, in icvere 
weather, might be dar gerous. This harbour is in the 
courfe of veficls from the point of Ardnanmrchan to ifle 
Oronfay in Sleat, oppofue to Loch L'rn, and nearly equi- 
diilaot from the latter and Tobermory. There are two 
entrances to it, the one fmm the fuuthweft, and the o« 
ther from the north- ca A, in a line parallel to the above 
courfe, and fo mu(^ be a good outlet for either of the afore* 
faid harbours. Within this harbour, a pier has been built 
by the inhabitants, for the itcurity of fifhing boats and fmall 
vcflels, but on a plan not iufficiciiily exteniive for accommo- 
datmg veiTels of the above li.euliot.rd iize ; belides that, iC 
bas been negledted for tome time, and become in a manner 
rumous. If a pier, properly planned to afford protection in 
caie of ilornis, were built here, this harbour might facilitate 
the navigation of herring bufles, both north to the fifhing, 
and iouth to the market. It lies in a centrical fituation, be« 
twecD the two former harbours, and, if accommodafrd as a« 
bove, might prevent boiTes, when overtaken by contrary 
vrinds^ or dlfa^reeable weather, firoiQ driving back to either^ 


4^1 Siatiftkal Account » 

tad thus be a means of bringing tkem to their deftined por^ 
manj days earlier. The only harbour in Hum is Loch Sere«* 
fort, en the eafi coaft thereof. It bears caft and weft, and 
runs a confiderable way mto the ifland \ it is eafy of acceis» 
the entrance being pretty wide ; there are iomz iunic rodu 
on the fouth fide of the entrance. Between thefe rocks and 
the north fide are about three fourths of its whole breadthj 
perfefUy clear, affording fufficieot room to tack in or out 
at ple^fure. This harbour is only open to the eaftward, and 
con&quently there is feidom any great fwell. It is fpacious^ 
its ground good, its depth of water from 5 to 7 fathoms, 
and is a good outlet either north or fouth. Near the head, 
and on the fouth fide of this harbour, a pier was begun a 
few years' fince, which is fiiil carried on, but not fimflied* 
This is fuftained as ftatute labour. This harbour, to be fre- 
quented, needs only to be better known, as it is not only 
commodious in itfelf, but lies convenient for fupplies of beef 
and mutton at a very moderate rate. On the fouth-eaft fid^ 
of Canna lies the Sand Ifland^ (eparated firom the former by 
a very narrow found, which ebbs dry for the greateft part 
of every tide, and at high water, £fliing*boats can wkh di& 
ficulty pais through it. This ifland is valuable, and fit both 
for crop and pafture. It has 4 tenants on it, who hold of 
the proprietor, and pay about 60 L rent. Between this ifland 
and Canna, lies the well known and much frequented haiw 
hour of that name. This harbour is fafc, efpecially for fliips 
of moderate fizc ; k is, however, fliallow and confined, and, 
wkhottt a favourable wind, it is difficult to enter or to leate 
k i and this inconvenience is increafed by a lai-ge rock with- 
out the mouth of it, which is fometimes wholly under waters 
On the north weft fide of Ifle Muck, Ues Lillian nan iacb, 
Mand of Horlcs. Between them Is a foul, rocky, narrow 
channel, which frequently ebbs dry. This ifland is of in- 


rf Small IJks^ »79 

fOf^derable extent, but good for pafture. In Ifle Muck 
there are a few creeks, which afford fhelter to fmall boats } 
but no Tafe harbour for vcfiels. In two of thefe creeks are 
piers in an imperfed ftate* 

j§ip and Climate --The air is generally knoift, and the wea« 
thcr rainy. The li>utherly and wefterly winds, which aro 
the rooft trequeoti are aiffioH confiantly attended with rain. 
It lb remaikcd by the inhabitants, that the feaions are fiiil 
becoming more ami more ramy. lor a few years paft, e?ea 
the win id's have been attended with rain, inCtead of the uiual 
fnow ai:d froft. The laiHummer and har?eit> I793» ^ere 
much more rainy than any remembered, which is the more 
lingntar, as the weather was laid to be very dry in the low 
lands of Scodand, and favourable even within 50 miles to the 
eaftward. Theft raini make the grain crops precarious, and 
of iktle value, though they have, for fome time, a promffing 
appearance. Tht climate, however, is healthy \ the caufcs 
inay be, that there is no confiderabie body of ftagnaht Wa- 
ters ; the good quality of the waters in moft of thefe iflands, 

and the pure fea air which the inhabitants always breathe. 

The diTeafes, wh^h moft commonly appear in tliis patifb, 
are the continued fever, croup, eryfipcUs, meafles, catarrhj, 
pleurify^ epilepfy, cough, diarrhoea, dropfy of the 
belly, and jaundicp Of thefe the moft fatal are the croup^ 
pleurify, and hooping cough. About two year^ ago, the 
croup proved very mortal, and fwept away many children, 
fome of them about y or 10 years of age, 

P^pulaikn. — For want of funds to fupport a feffion-clerk, 
there is no regifter either of births, deaths, or marriages kept 
in the pari(h ; befides, a great number of the inhabitants are 
Roman Catholics^ and dp not fall under tlxe cogniiance of 


i^Q Stafifical Aceounl 

the parifh m!«»/!cr ; and if he were to keep fiicTi regiffcri 
by liw he is liable to a penalry, unlrfs he O.ould colleft the 
taxes upon births marriages, gtc. which, by many, is thought 
a gfevanre, and lo evade the penalty, the regifters are nc- 
glebed. By a lift, lately taken, it appears, that the number 
9f inhabitants in this pariOi is as follows : 

InEigg — _ « 39^ 

— Rum 
«— Canna 



•— ifle Muck — — .^ ip3 

Total 1339 

OF whom there are. under 10 yean of tgc 397 

^ — ;; from 10 to ao — 256 

■■ ■■ from 20 10 50 — J34. 

■i II., from 50 to 70 .^m i^g 

I froui 70 to 90 ^— 4a , 

¥ above 90 ■— . ««. 5 

Total as before 1339 

And of theie there are, a. ales «^ 648 

IP-*— ■■ ■ ■ females — 691 

- > ' ' Protrftants — 799 

** Roman Catholics 540 


Four of the above are about 92 or 93 years of age, and 
one about 100. There arc married couples, 240; wid9ws, 
48-, widowers, fa; inhabited houfes, 3525 fo that the 
lUimber of married, widows, and widpwers, is to the xiumber 


tfSmlilJIesy ^ ftSi 

tf ttMnirried as 2 to 3, and to tlie nliQle popolationi as 2 to 
5 nearly ; and the avo-age number of e»ch family u about 
5^. By a lift of the inhabitants of this parilhi taken by the 
late Mr M^Aikill, in the year 1768, there were at that pe- 
riod in £}gg« 501 feuk; in, 302 ; in Canna, 233, alii 
in IHe Mnck, 1 72, in all 1 208, lefs than the prefent popula* 
tion by 1 3 1 ; to which, if the nnmber of emigranu hereafter 
mentioned be added, the population feems to be greatly qa 
the tncreaie. 

There are 8 male and ,6 female weavers, i houfe-carpen- 
ter, and 5 boat^carpeuters, 5 taybrs, and 2 fmiths. Moft 
of thefe, befides their refpe£tive trades, fpend a confiderable 
part of their time in fiflring, labouring, and other neccflary 
occupations. There are few or 00 lisamen, except thbfe who 
follow the-fiAiing dorhig a part of the year* . There are two 
merchants, wiio bring their goods firom the Glafgow market. 
There is one clergyman of the Eftabliflied church, one Ro- 
man Catholic prieft, one furgeon, and one (clioobnaAer 1 ail 
theTe have their refidence in £igg. 

In £igg, 8 tenanu pay rent to the proprietors \ in Canoa^ 
5 } in Ifle Muck, 24; and in Rum, 43. 

In the years 178^ and 1790, 183 fouls emigrated from 
this parifii to America, and 55 to the mainland of Scotland 
and to neighbouring iilandsi of theie i']6 left £igg* A 
principal canfe of this emigration was, that the country was 
overftocked with people, arifing from frequent early mar- 
riages; of courfe, the- lands were able to.fupply them but 
fcantily with the neceflaries of life. It is not unfrequent, 
vpon thefe occafions, for a parent to divide with his newly 
masried fon, the pittance of land (fometimes a very fmilt 
portion of a form) poflei&d by him, which muft reduce both 
to poverty and mifcry. Another caufe of the emigration is. 

Tot. XVII, Qo that 

s8« Si9tfiic9it4tatmi 

^at tbe4ib«d^Eigg»whic|| was Sarmcrly In pm reined by 
ffsaK teii4fl[t% waa diYided swoi^g 8 prindpdl tackfrneiu 

. Stams.'^Ju Tarioos parts of the coaft of Eigg, there art 
bodies of freit ftoae, Ibcne of it too fofti and fonie of it fuffi- 
xiemly fii^d to bear the chiflel ; but hitherto it h^ beea 
rooverted to no ufefal purpofe that I know. On the N. W« 
£de of the iflaad, there Is alio a body of Jhellj liiDeftoiie« 
yielding fine limei and not difficolt to born ; this» if foc^ 
were plentifiil^- might afford excellent tnaoore* In Rum, 
there it a knid of light red Mck, which has an aflinity to ve-: 
ry hard free (lone ^ it drefles well under the hammer^ and i^ 
very fit for rough building. In one pa^icular fpoty it is 
'fbond in pretty thin flags^ not dijEcult to quauy^ Um^ of 
f them abottt 5 ficot f^re ; fome of them have b^cn fqviared 
.with the hammer^ and floors pated with^them to very goo4 
purpoft. In this ifland, alfo^ cryftalline and pebble ftones. 
Dot large in fize, but of great folidtty^ are found. Gkfs has 
been cut by fome of the cryflrals. The pebbles are of vafpioua 
coknirsi and admit of a very fine poliih. 

Jhuftdatms.^j^-^yhtht nforth fide of Rum there is a rivolety 
faking its rife hi feme of the higheft mountains, which has 
often overflowed f ts banks, and, fpreadiog over the valley 
through #hidi it rans, done confiderabie damage, to the 
growing corn, and fwept along fonUe of the peats cut in the 

Lemguagi.^Tbt langvage, principally fpoken, and univcr- 
fally underftood, is Gaelic, and from it the names of places 
feem moftly to be derived j yet it muft be confefled, that 
there are names of places, which the prefent inhabitants do 
not fully nndcrftand, that feem to be derived fxom a Ian- 


tf Small IJJO: , {A^ 

^age fk bngiijkgeft to them nnkDowii \ but itt^poTed "to be 
Sanith. Tradition iitysi that of t>Id tiie ifladdsEibrsiing this 
parifliy had nacncs fbmetitnes giyea them dificrentfrom thofe 
Hirhich they now bear: Thus £igg waa criled I^an nan 
Banmore^ (the Ifland of the Great Women); Rum was calU 
led Ri^hacbd na FwrmSt Radboiob^ (the Kingdom of the 
Vi^lld Forreft) ; Canna was called An t^lUn tarjfmn^ (the 
liland lying acrofs); and Ifle Mnck^ Tirr CbHinm^ (the 
Sow's Hland}. But theie may be fuppofed. poeticsd aamef^ 
given by the Gkielic bards % and the fuperftitious are faid to 
have ufed them, and them only, when at fea^ and bound ibr 
tiiefe iflaods. 

Rtmsmrtd HerhiM'f.^^The rent of the porifli is as folbws: 
£iggf help mchided^ 343 L 12 s. 3 d. — Canna^ kelp included^ 
^boBt l4ol.*-^Ram9 209 1. 13 s. 6d. Ifle Muck, exclufive 
^f the ke^y but indoding one third of the whole ifland un^i 
<ler flock to the proprietor, and valued at an equal rate witH 
the reft, 252 L Total rent of the parifli, 10441. 5 s. pd, 
^-Three heritors have landed property in this pariflii viz* 
John McDonald of Clanrannald, £fq$ whofe property in 
this parifli is Eigg and Canna i Major Alexander McLean of 
Colli whofe property in this parifh is Rum ; and Captain. 
Lachlan M4<eaD, proprietor of Ifle Muck. None of thefe 
proprietors have their refidence in the parifli. 

State of the Ciurch. ^Thc King is patron. The Uvingi in^ 
eluding manfe and gtebe, has been, flnce the -aitgmentatioii 
in 1786, equal to tboct 90 1. a year. Of the ftipends, 17 1. 
18 s. 9 d. has been annually paid out of the teinds of Sleat^ 
fince the ere£lion of this pariflx into a feparatc charge \ now 
a procefs of rddli£tion is ciirrred on at the inftance of the 
sninffter of Sleat, with uTiew^oivithdraw the Ibrefaid por^* 


ti84 Statijlical Aicdunt 

tion of Ae Steal. teinds. The mioifleri weather pevmiitiagy 
officiates in. Rum once a month i in Ifle Mutkp. odc^ a 
nuMith; in Canna^ once a quarter ; and the reft of the time 
. in Eigg. He muft attend the ffteetings of prelbj^tery at Sky» 
and of fynod at Glenelg or Sky, and coofequentlj cannot be 
above a third of hb time at home. He moft» at his own 
expej(u:c9 keep a boat of a confiderable fize, and well rigged^ 
always in readinefi to tranfport him to thcle {everal iflands, 
.which muft be a confiderable dimuuition of his hicome. D<^ 
Bald McLean is now minifter of this parifli^ who was admit- 
ted. and fettled m OQob^r 1787* His predeceflbrs in office 
were Malcolm M'Aikill, who died April 1787, .and was ad^ 
mitted in 1757; and Donald M'Queen^ the firft minifter of 
the parifli as a feparate charge^, who was admitted, in I7;26» 
^nd tranflated to Uift in I75f5. The prcftnt minifter b 
snarricd, has 3 fons and 2 daughters, A manfet for Mxe firft 
time, was built in Eigg in 1790, and a preaching houfe in 
£jggj for the firft time alfo^ in 1 793. 

State of thi Peor» — The number of poor, on the kirk fcf^ 
fionroll, of the reformed religion, is yg, and thofe of. the 
Homan Catholic, 20. They^indifcriminately travel, and re* 
ceive alms through the parifh. There is no fixed fund, ex* 
cept about 30 s. a ye^r given by Mr M*Lean of Coll, for the 
poor in Rum. The fefiion fund con fi Its only of a little mo- 
ney colleAed on Sabbaths, and of fines paid by delinquents. 
This' money is, once a year, difiributed among the poor of 
the reformed. The prieft is left ac liberty to uplift fines 
from delinquents of .his own perfuafion, and to apply them ia 
a fimilar manner. , 

Prices of Pr&vjftQns^ Labour^ fa*^,— Prices of provifions va- 
17 according to fcaibns. Imported,oat meal has fold^ during 


the laft^ 5 years; from 159. to 20 8. each boHof'Sftonc 
weights the coQtitry mcal| both oat and barlejTi bom 14s. 
to lot. the boll, containbg 20 pecks, and each peck aboat 
5^ Scotch pints. Potatoes Tell between 2 s. to 3 s« the bar- 
rel. There Is little or no beef or mitt^ton fold by the weight, 
excepting in Caana, to feafaring people, who porchafe It 
from 2d. to 3 d. the lb. Butter fells from i as. to 14s. and^ 
cheefe about 5 s. the ftone of 22 Ea^ifh pounds. 

A labourer if hired at i s. a day, if he maintains htmftlfji 
or 6d. po" day with vifluals ; carpenters from 8d. to is* 
With viAiials } mafons, about 2 s. without viAuals } fhoerna- 
kers, at 8 d. whh viAuals. Taylors are generally paid by the 
•piece work. In a fituation like this, it is difficult to afcer« 
tain the expence of a married common labourer in hufbai>- 
dry. The terms allowed them have no fixed ftandard. Ms^ 
ny of them have one fourth of the crop they make with the 
plough, being generally barley and oats, and a third of the 
crop they make with the fpade^ and manure with fea^ware, 
which is principally potatoes, and grazing for two cows with 
their followers. This mnft afford them but a fcanty fubfiH 
tence, efpecially in years of fcarcity, when they have a nu- 
merous faxbily (rf* weak children j but, with the aid derived 
from the (hore, they are enabled to live. Thefe are fimply 
the wages of the man's perfonal labour, his wife giving no 
affiftance, except a few weeks in harveft, to reap the crop. 
Single male fervants in hufbandry receive about 3 1. in mo- 
ney, what they wear of ihoes, dther pcrquifites, and theic 
vitals. Other male domeftic fervants are allowed from 2 1* 
to 3 1. a year, with fboes and perquifites. Female domefiic 
fervanu receive from I2S. to 20 s* with Ihoes and feveral 
other perquifites. The average price of horfes may be about 
3 J. 10 s. s horned cattle, about 3 1. 1 ^eep| about 4 %. 

its Sfstipudi JcOufU 

Fuil.^'Vhi ititl cbnfifts principally of. peats, t& ^ikfcb 
^ faditll muft be frequently added. In Eigg there is a compe^ 
teocy of peata and heath \ in Rum abundance ; in Canna 
•there is no heath for fuel, and their ftore of peats is not fo 
.abundant. .Formerly Rum helped to fupply Canna in peats, 
iwt of latf yean the ifland fupplies itfelfi eieept a quantity 
<£' coal imported from the Clydci by the principal tackfmao, 
and fome peats, he now carries from the coaft pf Sky, (or the 
•tife of his family. Ifle Muck, within itfelf, is ill provided in 
.faeL Foflnerly they were provided in peats by Rum and 
Ardnamnrchan ; of late their fupplies were fblely from 
^Rum* with much perfonal toil and danger. From £igg» 
'they import boat loads of heath, when their peats become 
Scarce. In winter 1790 and 17919 there was a general fcaN 
<ity of firing throughout this parifli, which Ifle Muck moft 
tfeverdy felt. They were reduced to the neceffity of bond- 
ing different kbdt of furniturei fuch as beds, dteflersi^ ftoola, 
burreb^ and alio hou& timber, divots, tangles, ftraW,.fco» 
^o dccfi their vidluab. Bringing heath from Eigg was a 
fonftat^ employment when the weather permitted^ 

.. JPAi^JAr— In Eigg thcere are 8 ploughs; in Canna and 
Sand Iflasd, 7 ; in Ifle Muck, 7 ; and in Rum, 2 \ but they 
4abour all with thefpade, except two fmall fields* 

Aidiquilies land Curiofitiis. ^^Thtrt are fevcral vefUges of 
^tient buildings, generally of a circular form, which tradi* 
tion iays were Dani0i fi»rts. From their fituatido, the one 
bciog always in view of two others in oppofite dir^ioos 
from k, they were more probably watch towers dtem pkcet 
^ flrength. . There are no barrows or tumuli in the parifli^ 
except one in £tgg, on t|ie |arm of Kiell Doanain, neat ui 
old Popifli chapel, from which it lies at the diftance of about 
• '\ 80 

fb yards, hh fiudHo be (ke burial place of ]>oaii#% thii 
tutelary fabt of Eijgg s, and it lies in a fieU of arable groand, 
and the tbip flag coveriDg the fepulcbial urni ia which Don« 
nan'a i^maitM bad been dcpofited, waa fome yeara ago expo* 
fed by the plough { upon which the uri»s bebg a large Jroond 
hollow ftone, was tajceii up aod ezaminedi and found to con^ 
t^in a nuBiber of bones, but no fcuU appeared among them* 
It was again buried, at the di(laQce gf a few yards from th^ 
place where it 'formerly lay. .. , . 

Atnong the curioiities of this parifh is the Gonpafs Hill la 
Canna. It is called Compafs Hill, from its extiaordinary ef^ 
ic£t ^fon the mariners com'pafs. When a cpmpafs is brought 
|o a particular fituation thereon* its needle is immediatdy 
Teverfed. The fame effect is produced by a fteep rock oiv 
|he north fide pf the entrance of the harbour, when a com- 
pals is brought near it. In Rum is a well, called Tobar 
•JPeatg, (Red Welljf the water of whjch is highly oiineral i 
but very little ufed by the natives. 

If bafaltic pil|a|rs pay be coniidered as a fufficient proof 
of volcanoes, i&any of them appear in £igg and Canoa. Ii^ 
Canna they appear far diftant from the fea ; in Eigg, not on- 
ly near the fea, but' near the ^op of its bigheft hills. Eveo 
-Scure £igg, the bigheft hill in that iQand, feems to be prin» 
cipally formed of a rock, having much of a bafaltic ap» 
pearance. Along the coaft of £igg, rocks are found remarl^ 
abfy light and porous, which renders it probable that they 
have been once tortured in the fire. Even places may be 
pointed out, where fmall portions of tbefe rocks feem to have 
• been formerly in a liquid fiate. There are feveral caves a* 
long the coafts of the different iflands in this pariib, fome of 
which are not altogether unworthy of notice. Oo the S. 
W* fide of £*gg, there is one called Uamba Cbrabbuidh (the 
CsiW of Devotion}) in which the Ho^^t^ Catholic inhabitants 


|B$ SMiflhtl 4c€am 

wtTC^tront to attend mafi io time of tke Rcformatioa. Iteir 
altar is fiiU to be feen. Its roof is irregularly arched ; its 
height^ at the entrance^ about 60 feet ; its length^ 220 feet^ 
and its breadth^ 30 feet. Near the entrance of this cairc, 
fome parts of the rock lt^em to have been once in a liquified 
ftate. At no grea^ diftance eaft of this cave^ is Uamba 
Fbraine, (the Cave of Francis) remarkable not only for its 
form, but alfo for the murder of the inhabitants of this ifland 
by Aliftair Ootach, Laird of M'Leod. The entrance of this 
cave is fb fmall, that a perfon muft creep on four for about 
12 feet( it then becomes pretty capacious, its length being 
213 feet, breadth 22» and height 17. With regard to the 
SQiirder above mentioned. It is faid that fbme of M-Leod's 
vaflals, returning from Glafgow, touched at the harbour of 
£igg. Some Eigg women were then tending cattle in Bit 
lean Chaftell, the finall ifland which forms this harbour. 
The ftrangers viffted, and maltreated the women. Their 
friends having got information, purfued and deflroyed thofe 
Grangers. This treatment of his vafials, M^Leod confidered 
as an infult, and came in force to revenge their death* The 
inhabitants, appriled of their danger, flocked to this cave 
for concealment, excepting 3, who took other places of re- 
fuge, and a boat's crew then in Glafgow. M^Leod, after 
landing, having found no inhabitants, believed they had fled 
to the main4and, and refblved to return immediately to Sky. 
The people in the cave, impatient of their confinement, fent 
a feout to reconnoitre, who imprudently ihewed himfclf up- 
on an eminence, where he was readily obferved by the ene- 
my, then aAually under fail for Sky. Unfortunately for the 
inhabitants, there was new laid Inow upon the ground. 
M^Leod remanded, and traced the fcout to the cave's mouth : 
He ofiered, upon delivering up to him the murderers of Us 
|)eople^ to (pare the other inhabitants* The terms were rc- 


jinited, npM t^faicli M^teod Tmcked them all td de^th. tii 
fhe confintrd air of this cave, the bores arc'ftill pretty frefti, 
and feme rf the Ikulls entire, and the teeth in- ther lockctSi 
ikbobf 40 Ikulls hatt been lately numbered hefe. It is pro* 
bable a greater number fi^as dcftroycd ; if fo, their neighi 
boiiring friends may have carried them off for burial in con- 
fccratcd ground. 

Sesfanng^ ^l^t. — As to feafaring, <hf pedfrte appear fcfld 
«f fifhing only. They feldom enter on board the navy, iifl- 
Icfi compeHed. There are but two decked veflels, tt about 
aj tons each. The number of £f(hing boats' is about i^^ 
and of ^aflage boats 16, from 2 to 4 tons each. J!levcft 
yonni^ men i/i Rum inhfted in the Breadalbahe fencibic r^l 
giibe^it, Ih'-Marirh ^793* In £igg and Canna there was no 
recnittiiig' carried on'; and in Ifle Muck, none inliltedf^ 
though ^fc^tfrtl^d by the proprietor. 

1^^ tf Lfiing. — -The people ^appear neither ex^nffvc ndt 
luxurious. They live chiefly upon potatoes and herrfngs ; 
hod aimofng the inoi'e opCilcnt' tackimeti, a difii of tea and i 

tffadi of Whilky art their grcafclt luxuries. 

• •/ . ».'■,' 

Jtfdaf^s and ' DifaOiaAf^t^s.-^Tbit' healthy tkmWbn of 
ffie piMI^; andthe'filhii^g grountfe near its toalfs are atnong 
hs greto^cft advantages.^ £i'g^''fteiiis {Jret'ty equally dfvidcd 
as to crop and ()arturc gf-ounds, and, in' plenufiil fcafons, 
flioiild maihtaiii its prefcnt inhabitants. Carina, kfle Muck, 
and Kuni, arc not inconvcr icntly fitunted,' triutuafly to aflSft 
tach other, if a plan proper fbr this pur^^ofc t^erc adopted. 
Itum' migh< help the fummer grazing of Canna and Iflc 
IVf uck,'ind render their cattle fitter for n^afket. Canna and 
fflc'^1uck might afford a furp'tis 6f crop to fupjJy'the iiAa^ 
' ViL. XVII. P p bitants 

«9« Stft^kalAckMHi 

Mlanu of >Rmw la the former iflinds fuel U (ofcn ixhfk^ 
UxoTy mofs ^ pienttbd. Indeed the peepte of iilc Much gei 
« great psrt -of their fuel, and fummfr. gr^iT for ctieir hoflrle^ 

^iB RuaifrA* a gratuicj, during pleafure, from its proprieuMr 
^ the proprietor ot Ifle Muck, wh# t« a eader of hs faoulj^ 
Some benefit may rciuh to Ganna ftom its hitrbour, vbich 
is Ihueh fre^uetited by tlie trade tiom the Baltic tod its 
neighbourhood* It might be expeAed that Rum would 
Ufgely (hare io fbip benefit^ if iu harbour was gjcoerally 

The difadvaotagcs of this perifli are not few. In this ex« 
lenfive parith, confiding of fa miny litmds, whe^ the fuvi« 
gation is tedi<Mto »od dangero4^i efpe^ially tp the iflands 
snore remote from the. clergy nun's rdkencei tilt Alliance 

-irom the harbour of Eigg to the barbflHM* oi Gaouflt, being 

-computed jo miles | to that cif Rom iCff and. to that of Ifie 
tiwikf 6 liiiles: His attendance Oft each ciion^ be fo &f« 
<)aeat, nor Ins labours fo beiie^cial^ as their #aots nccedarUj 
require. NotwithAanding bis exertions^ the peopk muft bo 
liable to » fedoftion into a fuperAition, fubverfite tt mm^ali* 
ty and of genaine pety.} and the more fo, as its cmifiariesi 
SK)W tolerated by lawt traffic among them without controoL 
Hence the neeoffity of eftabUOdog amiffion in twQ of thcfe 
iflasds is'tkoughc evident The want ixf fchools is another 
diiadirantage* The ambulatory fiBhool^ once eftabUQied in 
this pariih, by the Society io Scotland for Pro(>agj^ii^phri£> 
tian Knowledge, was removed in Sommer ifoa* Till fui^ 
sacr f 793^ a parochral fchool was ^ver obtained i . It is i|ow 
fixed in Eigg, and the only one io the parilh. From thia 
Ichooli children in the other iflaods, efpecially the poorer 
Ibrt^ can derive no benefit. Ignorance muft be the con^ 

• quence, and they may not only be an eafy prey to feducen» 
but worfe qualified to aft their part as uiefol members of fo- 


^etf. To- obviM thit picvaace, % iichooU tf iin^ic^Uft 
fliottid be eflabTiOiod in each iOand. Another incoovenieD^ 
arifes from the want of a poft office, in a proper ^tuawn, 
on the oppofite continent. The neareft pKN^ftovrn is Fqi^ 
Witliam. From Fort WUliam to Ardnafeurao is ^ut 4fi 
compjitcd miles) from Ardnafouran, the ncareft ftagc to 
Eiggt is abont ii miles over water. A poft office at Ard- 
n^touran, Hpd a packet between Arifaig and Uift^ to call at 
Bigg and Cannsi, would pro?c highly |?cntficial| in facilitat- 
ipg the inrercourfe between tbcic i4an4s ^d th? cjonfiiie^t. 

The fait laws arc an ohicft of great complaint in this ?*• 
rUh. as well as in its neighbourhood* Tae late aiteratioi^s 
in thcfc faws have facilitated the getting, at a moderate rat^, 
£ilt for curing fiOi ; bnt iiill the cuftom-hooie iorms» cp 

> vhich every pnrchaQcr pf fuch felt muft fubmit^ may be co6- 
£dered as a teal grievance* If a p^rfon wiOxes to procure ;a 
or 3 barrels of luch f?|t, to cqre fifli fof the ufe or his fa- 
mily, he muft cnttr it in a cuftom-houfe, if it fliould te 50 
miles diftant \ he muft gr^t bond and fecurtty ior it> 11^ 
fiih faired therewith, he muft proceed with to a:cufiotx^ 
houie, hjMfver diftant ; there he maft unihip and repack ir^ 
and aH this trouble and cxpencp fqr a feijr barrels for his owa 
family ufe* Such a grievance cvjJently needs a remedy. 
There are otbor purpofcs^iitfp^ for whi^h k|tt is indifpeoiibly 
neceflary^ The lower clafs, who 9xc the bulk of the pcof^lr, 
are often at a lois for this aeisiflary' article of life,' frdm the 
icverky of the prefent fait laws. They will have it oa the 

*'eafieft terms poffibk, whatever be the means ; and the dif- 

^ ficuby of obtaining it in a fair^ encourages an ilUcit trade. . 
Anotiicr difadvapta^i onder which the pariOi ae$» is its 
fjrW dt^ance from public markets, both by Uad and water. 

'Ihis circumft&nce rcndt:rs it ncccir;iry.;ofeU their cattle \q 

- -^^ privtfc 


firWate ^ifftldrsi t^io in gfU^M) thibk it th^b ibfereft^ ^^ 
preciard ftdv«ftitageft irifing frMn local fiifuatkn. 

• The ftate :of ithe h>a4t, too, in tbit |Huri6i, may be cmfr 
tiered a« a dtfadf antage. The roa<k are almoft ifi a -ftate of 
nartire. All the Mature labour, performed m the 4ifftreat 
lilinds, has bccii d^refted towards the boilding of piers, foe 
\be ^ccbmmod<itioD of iiihing boats, aod veflels of 90 infe* 
Vior fize. And even thefe piers, it mufl be acknowleged, have 
Viot been cob'diAed on a phin the ■ moil liberal ^nd ufcful, 
nor has any of them hhhcna been carried to pcrftdtioii^ 
In the county of Invernefc, of which E»gg is a pendicle^ 
former a«5>s of Parfiament, re^.uiring flatute labour, it was 
'found difficult to fender effc^Vual ; but it is expected, tha^ 
'the aft obtained U\\ feffion of Pariian^ent may have a hap- 
'Y'ier effcA, and that projer attention (hall be paid to our 
"Tt^ads. T here is not a bridge in the whole p •rifli, yet it is 

obvious, that fnall one^ are abfolutely nectflary in Eigg 
'«fKi Rum, as fevrral of our waters become often dangerous, 
and fvcn inipaflibiej by heavy falls of raiui and melting of 

In this partfh, a fpirit of difcontent (eems much to pre- 
vail. Mat^y con plain of their rents, and many of their 
want of ichools, befides orher incotiveniencies already Aig« 
^efted. The foqrces of rcdneis ore obvious. ' 

Ppfifiript.^-^Xn the neighbourhood of the Compais Hill in 
Cinna, already mentioned, another has been very lately diico- 
vereU, that producer Similar efflftb upon the mariner's compafti 
and it is probable other places of the fame nature might be 

In Canna, there is a great deal of the rock called Plumb- 

* puiidingrock, and that in iome places connefted with the 
bafaltic rock. A iingular indance of this^ is a ficep and lof. 

4f rpek, nlkd' QthraiMun^ <»o tbf J3Dp U whkll » AmU ««fc 
Bous building nemains. Not mspy yards. d^^iu fr^Hn.iiiU |p 

roumicd \sj cbc fi^a* The iidc oi k qe^ the ^f)c)c i^ acarljr 
^riitodkuUr. Ip tjiis fi4< of thfl.-i^kt coofiderahly a^vf 
4be level •£ the feat there is, in. a hWftOP^ai pp^tioop, tbp 
#eiDa]«sof a tree, nearly in n putrid fta^e^'dppsureiiil; fora^ 
jog a part of .th^ foUd rock, and baviag ^ leaft 5 or iSi f%» 
thorns of the rock above \U There is np room tp dopbt 
^hat it has been w^od^ (tod its &btcs have a near refiemblanos 
40 xhfffc of oak. Its fitoatioo mafaes it ooie at tj)t ffntuA 
cutiofties diCcoTered Ja^any country^ .t 

. Avam%i tibe gr^cv^^ces df tius parifliy ipajr h$ ranked* 
jAat they never yet had a jnftice of the pe^ce 19 it. 

In the courfe of the iaft ao years, ibe drcsfein ibis parii^* 
^ wi^l aa^the neighbourhood, both of men and women, h^is 
undergone a very confiderable change. The «ien )xk g<Mi>t 
vrear hats, ibort jackets, and long trowftn \ inflead of boo* 
nets, fliort coats, and philabegs ; and inftead of the tartan 
ihort hole, ftockings are pretty much ufed. The kerchief, 
formerly worn by married women, and the tonnac, or fliorc 
plaids worn by females in general, are now almoft wholly 
not of ufe. Inftead of thefe, caps of various fafhtons, fhort 
and long cloaks^ great coats, and ribbands, have been fubfti* 
toted. The men, inch of them efpecially as foflow the fifli- 
ing, find the change in their drefs highly convenient, and it 
may foe prefumed that they borrowed it from the feafaring 
people, who frequented thcfc ifles. Some people think that 
it was introduced by the Highlanders, who ferved in the laft 
American war. The change in the drefs of the women 
may be thus accounted for : Moft of our young women go 
to the low country for fome weeks in harveft ; this time 
they (pend in fhearing ; and with the xponey thus earned, 


Acf codeateur to dreft rheairdvci after the bir cMmtry fc> 
ibioni the foibion, thus introduced* raifea an emuUtion i* 
■Boog the women in generaU and, of cooriei mercliaota are 
encouraged to impon like articles. The periodical migatioa 
of our young women ta the low country in harveft, is entire- 
ly with a Tkcw to dreis. They fcidom bring home any fhare 
of the price of their labour in caflii and they are a mean 
of encouraging an extravagance of drcfi. So intent are 
they on rhis objed, that from Whitfunday to Martinmas, 
they will not accept of fS!rTice at hornet and, except the 
fiew wcekft fpent in the low coumry, they are a burden to 
their friends for this half yoar* If maniiia&uresi particular- 
ly the woollen, were eftabtilhed among us, our young wo- 
men Qiight find confiant employment at home, mutually ad- 
vantageous to themfelves and to the public. 

In this parilb there may be about iico cows, about 5I0 
-ftirkSp and 500 two year olds. 




Perth AMD Stirling). 
JBjl tbi Riv. Mr David Dicksonj Minj/kr^ ^ 

Sliuaticn^ Extent^ isfc. ' 


nPHE writer of this account has not been able to diTcovet 

•^ the origin of the name Bothkcnnan This parilh is 

fituated in that track of countr j commonly called the Carft 

of Falkirk ; is about a mile and a half in lengtbi and nearij 

•f equal breadth, it is bounded on the north by the parifli 

of Airtb I on the weft» by the parifli of Larbert^ on the 

fouth, by the pariibes of Falkirk and Polmont ^ and on the 

eoft» by the river Forth. It (eems anticntly to have bcca 

bounded on the fouth by the river Carron» but that river 

hmv ipg changed its courfe, now interiefh both the parilhea 

of Bochkennar and Falkirk, leaving part of t,he former oq 

the fouth« and a imall part of the latter upon the north fide 

of it. The pariOi contains 96 ozgangs of land, which» at 

the computation of 13 acres each, amount in whole to 12481 

the jearly valuation of which, including cefs, feu-duty pafr 

able to the fimily of Marr, and minifter*s ftipend, is 3591 L 

22 4. 6d« Scotch. The real rent of the parifh cannot be ft 


1^6 SUtfftitat Jtcam 

€xa£Uf afcerttined, as it may vary according to the value d 
the ground, or thd date of the leafesi it fe medium, it majr 
be reckoned afleaft at 2 1. 5 s. per acre, which would amount 
to 28ad 1. Sterling ; and ^cb the jirioe ff t^P*:^^ hi|b, it 
may be confiderably more. 

&i/, Products 6*5:. — ^I'hc foil is moRly of a deep clay, and 
the landy which \i bcrieved to have" been antiently covered 
by the waters oF the neighbouring Frithi is» in general, very 
rich, and ptvKlaces plentffirl cfops of oats» * peaie, and beans^ 
barley, wheat, grafs, and potatoes. Mr Nimmo, in his hiC* 
tory of Stirlingflbire* inforois us, that as early as the 14th 
century, (when, in compariion, little improvement had been 
made in agriculture}| the yearly feu duty paid to the Crown^ 
out of the pariih of Bothlcennar alone, was no lefs than 26 
IhaldeH of ViAttttlf bMd«6 6<lAlders paid to the Abbacy ot 
C3MR<Hi|L<Mi#th.* Abtm that timei or pcobsbly at a lat<r 
|^dd| iht prke ef gttiin was fo vei^ Idw, that the Sprier 
ton of }«nd in tfat pcu-Uh^s of Ahth and fidihkepnar, h4d it 
Ih their optieto, when paying the feu*<ltity, to pay either a 
te^rk Scotth ora b6ll of m^heat. The (ofxsitt wifely cfadit 
Ib'pay ih moti^, wbieh they filU do i and the latter in gh^aif^ 
Which, irrilhiddf a mtHb Scotch, has, fbrihany yeavs pift, 
bto) eqtral in vafne to ibs. 2$ 9. Or fomettraes even 30 s. 
Bteriing. This pari4h is ^tn^ft a continued ilat } there is 
ftlif^Iy th^l^aftrififrggi^oiind tO fefe oMerved tbrOtigh the 
Mvol^ bf i6, tf nd Mt « ftooe to be ftehi unlcfs brought from 
iRher phees. IxcepiliHg the roads, there is pot a fpot of 
gi»Miid nncultl^Aved. The method of cuttivatton, the time 
^ifo^ng bad reaping, tbte wages offervams, itailefmeo, and 
^iy labourers, the prices cf coAly grain, and prbviSb»s, ait 
lA geii^fal itearly^the fame as in the parilhes of Airth.^and 
^Uffldnt, to the fiatifiical accounts of which the reader is 


^ Bdthkennarm 293 

here reFerred. There are t2 orchards in this pariflii the- 
largeft of which is about 3 acres in extent. They produce 
chiefly apples and pears, and, in good fruit feafons, bring the 
proprietors a plentiful return. 

Population^ {5*r. — According to a lift of the inhabitants^ 
taken by the prefent minifter in 1783, the number of fouls 
was then about 730; but iince thdt time it has confiderably 
decreafed, owing, among other caufts, to the flilpping hav- 
ing been, in a great mcafurc, removed from Carron ftiore to* 
Grangemouth, on which account, fcverul licifes in this pi-' 
rifli Lave been taken down, and others arc left without in-' 
habitant?. In the year 1793, another ^^^^ ^'^i^ taken, from' 
which it appears, that there are now oniy 144 h nilies, and* 
in all about 6co inhabitants, of whom 303 are -s/ and' 
297. females; 164 married, and 436 Uxuiurritrd ; among 
which laft, 45 are widowers and widows, and 133 children' 
below 10 years of age. The nuu.ber of marriage'-, bapii/ms,* 
and' buriah, for the laft 10 years, according to tlic panfii* 
regiiler, whicli, during that lime, has been very rc;^uiarly'^ 
kept, is as follows : ' 

ITenrS^ Marriages, Baptifms, Burials. 


7 - . . . 




































ip4 Statijiical Aieoum 

Tears. Marriages, Baptifms* Surials. 










107, of which 57 
males, and 50 fe- 

60 183, of which loi 

malesi and 82 fe- 

There are 38 farmers, and about 86 fervapts, 2 mafons, 
3 Wrights, 2 journeymen and apprentices ditto, 3 coopers, 3 
weavers, i journeyman ditto, 3 fhoemakers, and i cobler, 
2 tailors, 6 fmiths, 3 innkeepers, i baker, and i apprentice 
dit|o, I barber, i excife officer, 8 (hipmafters, 6 Tailors, 3 
carpenters, and 10 day-labourers; i clergymaui 2 ftudencs, 
and I fchoolmafter. The people, in general, attend the 
Eftabliflied Church i ofthofewhodo not, there are about 
9 Burghers, an equal number who are conneAed with tke 
Relief congregation In Falkirk, 8 Antiburghers, 2 Camero- 
nians, and 2 Epifcopalians. The inhabitants are, for the 
moft part, fober, induftrious, and kindly affe^lioned one to 
another^ maintaining a decent and becoming rcfpeA to the 
ordinances of religion ; whilfV, among the fewdifTenters firotei 
the Eftablifhcd Church, there is very little of that narrow 
bigotted fpirit, for which the fe^larles in other comers 
have been too frequently blamed. 

Climate^ {sV — Notwithftanding the low fituation, the cli* 
mate is uncommonly healthy. It is obferved to be even 
more fo than the higher ground in the adjacent pariflics. As 
a proof of its falubrity, among thofe who have died within 
the laft 10 years, 1 1 were above 60 ; 14 above 70 j 5, 80 
and upwards; and i above 90. ' At prefcnt there are living 
in the parifh 23 between 60 and 70 ; 9, 70 and upwards ; 
tad 4 above 8o. The moft prevalent difcafes arc rbcuma- 


g^ Botbkennar^ apj 

tifin and hyficric complaints. The former may be owiog to 
many of the houfes having only earthen floors \ the caufes 
of the latter, we leave to men of medical knowledge to de-^ 
ternaine. The ague, which about 30 years ago was very fre- 
quent, is now fcarcely known, which may be attributed part- 
ly to the ditches being kept more open, and partly to the 
different manner of living. The frequent breezes from the 
Frith may contribute not a little to the health oi the inhabi- 
tants ; and fome have fuppofed, that even the imoke from 
Carron Work, though in other refpcAs diiagreeabie, may 
ferve to difpel thofe noxious vapours, which, in other places^ 
particularly in low countries, are often fo prejudicial, ino- 
culation for the fmall-pox is fiill far from being general \ but^ 
when prafUfed^ has almoft unlverfally been attended with 

Churchy Manfe^ ^r.-— The church was rebuilt in a mo- 
dern formj in the year 1789, and is now a very neat place of 
worfhip, fufficient to accommodate 5 or 600 people eafily. 
The manfe and office houfes are at prefent repairing at a 
very conflderable expence. The glebe is about 4 acres of 
very good land. The ftipend, partly in money, and partly 
in viAual, is generally about 100 L Sterling. There have 
been only 4 prefbyterian minifters in this parifh fince EpiC- 
copacy was abolifhed. The firft, viz. Mr Lindfay, after- 
wards tranflated to Perth, was fettled here in 1721-2$ was 
fucceeded by Mr Penman, in 1744; after him, Mr Nimino^ 
author of the Hiftory of Stirlingfhire, was ordained in I765« 
The prefent minifter was admitted in July 1783. The he. 
ritors are 22 in number, of whom only 10 refide within the 
bounds of the parifh. The principal are. Lord Dundas of 
Alke, Mr Ogilvie of Gairdoch, and the heirs of the late 
much refpcAed General Thomas Dundas of Carronhallj all 


99^ Statijlkal Account 

of whom are non-re&dent. The patronage belongs to the 
family of Airth, who have always cxcrcifcd that right in a 
manner that docs them the highcft honour. The late Mr 
Grahami who had a particular plcafurc in promoting the 
happincfs of thofe around him, (although not a member of 
the Eftabliflied Prcfbyterian Church), was accuftcmed to in- 
dulge the people with the choice cf their own paftors ; by 
doing fo, he obtained juft and univcrfal efteem while he liv- 
ed, and on this account his memory will long be highly rc- 
fpcfted. If other patrons were of the fame difpofition, the 
law of patronage, fo long complained of, would ccafe from 
being a grievance \ and inftead of that frequent difcord and 
animofity, which are fo dcftruftive to the civil and religions 
intereAs of our country, peace and harmony would every 
where prevail. 

School and Poor. — ^There is only one fchool in this parifli, 
at which 50 or 60 children are yearly taught Englilh, writ- 
ing, arithmetic, Latin, Greek, &c« The fchoolmafier has a 
lioufe and fmall garden. His falary is only 100 merks 
Scotch, which, together with voluntary contributions from 
fome of the heritors, his fchool wages, and pcrquiiites as 
Icflion.clerk, fcarccly exceed 20 1. Sterling /fr annum. It is 
much to be wifhed, that, in this age of liberality and im- 
provement, foineihing were done for the encouragement of 
Ichoolmaflcrs, many of whom, having families to fupport, 
inuft often be flraltened to obtain even the neceflaries of life. 
—The poor in the pari Hi are not allowed to beg from door 
to door. The number upon the Scfficn roll is at ircfent ?» 
who receive a weekly allowance, bcfides a few who get oc- 
cafional fupply. They arc fupportcd by the weekly collec- 
tions, with the intereft of 130 I. Sterling, which together 
amount at an average, for 10 years paft,to 34 1. 10 s. yearly. 


. rf B^thkermar. i^f 

A few poor fcholars alfo have their fchool wages and books 
paid from the fame fund. 

Rffoiff nnd ImffroffementSi-^Tht roads in this pariflii which 
old people remember to have been once fcarcely paflable^ 
are now in general good, unlefs for a ihort time during the 
winter, when the ground is very wet, or when covered with 
water, owing to the tide and land floods meeting together. 
Within thclc few years, a confidcrable extent of ground has 
been gained in this pari(h and neighbourhood from the Frith, 
which, though defended at a great expence, will foon be- 
come a valuable acquifition to its pofltfibrs. There is a 
• bridge foon to be built over the river Carron, a little above 
Grangemouth, and a new road to be carried from thence 
^crofs this pariffa, towards Alloa and Stirling, which are 
likely to be of great advanuge to the inhabitants, and will 
open a nearer and more agreeable communication both to the 
north and fouth. 


f 9* Statijiical Acctnud 



OF Lothian and Twebdale.) 
Written in 1793. 


WHITEBURN, now commonly written and pronoun- 
ced Wbitburny according to fomei took its name 
from a conilderable number of familiesi of the name of 
Whicci living along the fide of a bum or rivulet, which runs 
through great part of the parifh ; but more probably from, 
being near another of the name of Blackburn. 

Extent. — ^The parifh is about 6 miles long, and^ at an ave* 
rage, between a and 3 broad. It is bounded, on the eaft, 
by Livingfton ; on the weft by Shotts, and part of Cambuf-* 
nethan ; on the fouth, by Weft Calder j and on the north, 
by Bathgate and part of Shotts. 

Situation and Surface. — This parifli is in the county and 
prefi>ytery of Linlithgow, and fynod of Lothian and Twee- 
dale. The foil is generally what may be called loam, 
inclining to clay ; and, in fome places, having a mixture of 
■iofs> with a ftrong clay or till bottom. 


ef'Wbiteburril ^99 

Towards the middle of the weft end, there is a high ridge 
about two and a half miles long, and, in fome places, above a 
mile broad, of very deep barren mofs, part of which, how« 
ever, is known to contain a valuable Team of coal ; and pre- 
parations are now making to have it wrought. The fame 
feam of coal has been wrought for above feventy years paft, 
at Burnhar, in the adjoining parilh of Shotts, and ftiU con- 
tinues working ; having now approached within a few hun- 
dred yards of the boundaries of Whiteburn parilh. The 
pari£h is chiefly under tillage ; a, few black cattle being paf- 
turcd upon particular fpots of almoft every farm. 

Climate and Difeafes. — The climate is damp and cold, 
though not unhealthy. Rheumatifm, flow nervous fevers^ 
and confumptions, are, perhaps, the moft general difeafes. 
Inftanccs of longevity are not unfrequent. Several pcrfons, 
within the laft 50 years, have died upwards of 90 ; and at 
prefent there are fome living between 80 and 90. The fmall- 
pox is not remarkably mortal here, though inoculation is 
extremely little in ufe. The few inftances, however, where 
it has been pradiifcd, have been always fuccefsful, no perfon 
in the parifli recollcfting a fatal experiment of this kind ; 
but fl:ill the prejudices of the common people are inveterate 
againfl: this falutary praftice. 

Rivers. — Almond water runs through the north part of 
the parifli, and Breich water along the fouth fide of it. The 
canal propofed to be cut between Edinburgh and Glafgow, 
muft he carried through at leaft a part of the parifli. The 
whole parifli is well fupplied with good who^efbme water, 
from fprings ill alnlipfl: every quarter of it. 



2p<y Siattjlical Accent 

Hwrfts^ Sheep t 55'tf.— There, arc about aoo horfesinthe 
parifli, and but very few fhccp, of late years, fincc the, 
grounds have been modly inclbfed and tilled, A good ma* 
ny hories and black, cattle are brtd for iale. . 

Population^ — The population of the parifii is certainly in- 
creafed within thefe 40 years. In 1755, it amounted to 
1 121 fouls. Lafl year, when a pretty exa£l account of the; 
DUfl^rs of the pariih was taken, they were found . to be 
1322 fouls. When the firft calculation was made, there was. 
no village in the pariQi : At prefent there is a village, which, 
contains about 500 fouls. But the cot-houfes, which were 
formerly fcattered through the parifli, are now almoft all 
'demoliihed, and thofe who pofieilcd ^hem have removed to 
the village. A perfon who has refided long, in a public ila- 
tion in the parifb, remarks, that not above a third part of 
the prefent heads of families are natives of the place. 

Extent of Farms. — There;^has been little alteration in the 
extent of farms for the laft 50 years. 

Births^ Deaths^ and Marriages. — The number of births 
cannot be given with precifion } but they are computed 
about 30 yearly. The burials are about 24 in the year; but 
fome bury in Weft-Calder, and fome few in Livirigfton.— 
The marriages are from 12 to 15 annually. A great propor- 
tion of them is irregular. 

Rent of the Pari/b — The valued rent of the pari(h Is 
4244 1. 2S. I id. Scots; the real rent is about 1800 1. or 
2000 1. Sterling. The rent of farms is in gtneralfrom 78. 6d. 
to 20s. per acre, according as they lie nearer I0| or more remote 


i^W%fteburir. joi, 

froiii Ac hlgii road. The rent of houfcsin the vUiagc li' 
tibout 20 s. in the year* ' ' ' 

•* Proprietors^ Ttnants^ fa'r. — There arc only two cOnficler- 
aMc proprietors in the parifh. Eight pniTcfs property from 
50 L to 15c]. a*year; and there* are about 16 portioners. 
Of the cooiiderable proprietors, one refiiJes occaGonatly ia 
tlie parifh ; and of the iecond clafs, one half is refident. 
There is one farmer in the parifh, who rents a farm of ra- 
ther more than 150I. per annum. There are a few others, 
whole rent exceeds 50 1. There is one phyfician, and one 
lurgeon in the parifh. 

Trades. — In the vllbgc there are 3 (hopkeepers. Withlrt 
fKc pariih there arc to weavers, who work chiefly for Gial- 
gow and Lanark. About 50 yourg people^ from y to 3d 
years of age, are employed in the flowcriig of muiLns lur 
Oa/gow, earning uiuaily about 10 d. or 1 s. a day. In rhc 
village there is a cotton manufaAory, employing about 30 or 
40 hands, at about 1 s. a day. 

In the parifli there* are generally about 
15 Mafor s and wrights 

10 Shoemakers / 

6 Taylors 

2 Bcktrs, and fomctimcs a butcher ' 

4 Fublic-houfes, and 
6 Alc-houfes, which laft are tolerably well frequented. ' 

Crops. — Oats and potatoes arc almofl the only general 
eroj,£. \\ hen oais arc town af cr joratocs, the grcund is 
feldom plowed. There is raifcd a good deal <.f rye-u.-Js 
and clover, and a tcirrabic quantity of flux for iWc^ 
Thr ra:s arc <own Irom the middle cr cud of March 10 ihc 
•'Vol, XVIL Rr ' ' " ' ' be- 

3M Siatlfiical Aca>u$ti 

beginning of May. There is little more meal made tlaatf 
what is afed in the pariOi, the farmers generailj thinking k 
more advantageous to difpofe of their oats to the public- 
houfes in their neighbourhood. The oats produce from 9 
to 13 pecks of meal from the boll. Both fpring time aad 
harveft are generally wet. 

Me^iaftical State of the Pariflj. — ^There are three clergy^ 
men in the pariih ; the minifters of the Eftablifhed Church, 
of the Burgheri and of the Antiburgher congregations. To 
the Eflablifhed Church there adheres about a third part of 
the parjfh. To the Burgher congregation belongs by far 
the greater part of the remaining two thirds. Only a few 
individuals of this parifli belong to the Antibiirgher congrci* 
gatioUi the reft of its members coming from Weft Calder« 
and other parifhes. 

Perhaps the following circumftances may, in fome mea« 
fure, at leaft, account for the great proportion of Seceders in 
this pariOi. Whiteburn was formerly part of the parifh of 
Livingfton ; but was disjoined from it, and erefied into a 
leparate pari(h» anno 1730. The errAion was made in con* 
fequence of a fum of money having been raifed, by a vohm- 
tary fubfcription over all Scotland, which, after building a 
church and manfr^ and purchafing ground for a glebe, was 
thought fufficient, by its yearly produce, for the maintenance 
of a pariih minifter. Several of the heritors were liberal in 
fuMcribing, aftive in procuring fubfcriptions, and zealous ia 
carrying on the procefs of ereAion before the Court of 
Tcinds, from entertain ng the idea, that the minifter was to 
be chofen by the parifh at large. The patron of Living- 
ilon, however, was found, by the Houfc of Lords, to be, tx 
fieceffitate, patron of tVhiteburn, which h^d been diyoined 
from it. And this gave iiich univcrfal c.ffrncc in the parifh, 
as threw tfargreatct part of it, gradually, into the Scceffion. 


^ Wbiiehurn. 3#3 

Another circumftancc farther increafed the difTatisfafiion of ' 
fome of the fmaller heritorS| and their inclination to fecede. 
They imagined, that the rent of certain lands in the parifh 
of Shotts, which had been purchafed with the lubfcription 
money, was to be all the maictenance to which their mini- 
fter was to be entitled : But this turned out to be by no 
means the cafe I for a few months afcer the decreet of pa- 
tronage by the Houfe of Lords, th^ mini fter was preferred 
to 28 1. 6 s. 8 d. additional Oipend^ out of the teinds of the 
parifl), by the Lords Commjffioners of teinds for Scotland. 
The chagrin occa6oned by thtfe two circumftanccs contU 
nues ftill fo firong» that not many, even of the moft fenfibic 
IB the par.fh, can talk with any degree of patience of pacro« 
nage, or augmentation of ftipends* 

Sir WiUiam Aoguftus Cunningham, Bart, is patron of the - 
parilh. The prcient incumbent, Mr James Rhind, was ad*; 
mitted minifter of Whiteburn in 1790. His only predecefl 
fbrs were Mr Alexander Wardrobe, deceased j Dr Porteous 
of Giafgow; Profcflbr Baron of St. Andrews; and Mr 
Sommcnrille of Stirling, to the lait of whom he fucceedtd. 
He t^as been married aboiit twelve months, and has one child. 
His income is 125 L of ftipend, and 3 I. 6%^ 8 df of com- •- 
munion elements, which> with the manfe and glebe, may be 
eflimated in all at 140 1. per annum. Of the ilipend, too U 
ariles from a feu of two farms in the parifh of bhot:s % and 
the remainder is the augmented ftipend* The church \% a 
good, large building ; but ftands much in need of being re- 
paired. The manfe is an old, but tolerably good, houie, an4 
in decent repair. 

Pw,— The nunabcr of poor upon the parifh roll 5$ uruaHyt 
about io« They are maintained, at ^refcnt, 1^ the coU 
leAions in the church, and by a voluntary fdtrcrlption orec . 
the pariQii which are. diftributcd hf liio. ftiSlim^^Hvider tl;^ 


304 Stati/lrcai Account 

infppflion of the hfrifors and'fubrchbnsB. The fuoi whkl^ 
niud be raifcd m'thls way is about 40 1. Sterling annually, as,^ 
the pnor,»,iccordir.gra they are fin^Ie^ or inapried 5 able t».. 
work a litrlo, or. ntoic^ at ail ; Uavealiowanoe^ oi Trom 6d» ^ 
to 2 $« ^ d. week. 

. Manners ttnd Morals, — A fol^nrable degree qF iaduftry pre^ 
v|iils in the parifh, and the morals of the people are aft good 
a^ thfoughout (he country at larg^ 1 

^.^d^^onUges and Dtfiidvii^agis.^Tht great difad vantage 
tHld^r Wutch the parifh Idbour&».is wetoeft iq almo(t aii teai- 
foji}$| {)<ciicttlarly in i<:edi cune aed iurveft, Cvi]^ at)ound ia 
the parifn, .irid are to be haji'both in \Xi and rhe caii ^ri of 
•Hhbtts>aloWV adjoint^g to it, at 6ds per Load^ >ve(ghiix^ two 
arid ahftlVcVrt.. L»tne i» eafily driven from the ntfighbo«4r* 
isg parvihc«i ot Bathgate and Livingft^ne,, 4S thf^ high ro ^ 
. from?Ghigoli».toJEdmburgi>» and from jiorrow-ilou/^nds to^ 
Glcti^h, xun throiii^h the pariCb in oppdlire dire^l^ns. Ffeo- 
floi?' quarries are open in ieveral parts of the pariQu 
. F^dinbMr^h Ufi^ords a rt^dj market for ino4i pf rhe pro« 
duce of the farmsy ais calves, poultry, cheeie, and butter, 
which arc boqglu up, and- taken there by earners. There 
!s aUb .31 conildetable traffic in is.ilk cqws, to fupply the 
lidioburgh cotr-feedcrs. Ihe panlh and neighbourhood 
abGur.ds with dealers in black c^ittle. Thde dealers, by re. 
quirmg grab parkt toehold the cattle they have on hand» 
give great cncouragcmeoj :tQ in^lpfing and planting. For 
Uich parks as are tolerably fenced and (helteircd, they pay 
from 15 s. to 25 s. p^r ncrc. Many people in the pari(h 
make a Uvelihobd by kbtptng ahorlie and carti ^ixh which 
they drive grain from Lcith and' Dalkeith fo Glasgow, anci 
Aften bring a load of pig-iron, in returning, frooi the ironi 
fork's lately eflabliflied ip that neighbourhood* 



Situation^ ExUnU tind Surface, 

THE pariib of Meaums is &uate4 ib KenlrcwjQiire, ia 
r the ♦prtlbfteff of Paifbf » asd pretiq«iat tpxKl of 
Glasgow aftd A^r*. Jhsccntrois abom .9 mil^s idiftant brooE^ 
G4(ifg«W| AfKi .ncafclj as far from Paiflcy^ JjWileQgth, ixonv 
caft to weftf is 6 mika, and its breadth aboiK 34. It fisAd^ 
high above the level of Clyde. There are no confidcrable 
bi>H in ie. bm the face vi the groaml m bcautifaUj ^iiveyfi- 
fied by a gr^t variety •£ waving fweUa. It rifes .graduallfi 
from the eaft e»#einity to the wcft^wbtve tha moot or cooii^ 
ihontf He»« 

Sm/ oitt/ ProJmce. — ^The foH is aH of a light and qttick kind, 
lying on a bed ot rotten rock, excepting iome fmall tracks 10 
the Ibwer part of the parifli, which have- a clay bottom* l€ 
is chiefly remarkable for itsJne pafiiun& U produeeg graft 
both ia greater quairtfity thai^^ohimon, ^an>d lifcewire of thd 
tery befl kindt i and it every where abounds With a proiisit 
fion d whitp clovev. The, greater part of. th< bnds is iia 
paflnrage. *^9«iy'^araui$*ft«ckodiuihnilkoot»^ and th^ 


^•6. SiatiJKcal Accwm 

principal objcA of the firmer is to prodaee butter, and baU 
ter milk, for the Glafgow market. The butter that is made 
here, and elpecialiy that which is faltcd for winter's ulc, is 
reckoned preJFcrable to any other, and the demand for it is 
vaftly greater than can be anfwered. It has nothing of that 
vancid tafte, which butter made on deeper and heavier foils 
is fometimes found to have $ and it keepks in good condition 
for a very long time. Potatoes are raifcd for domeftic ufe, 
and fome barley and oats, but fcarcely io much of the Utter 
as can fupply the parifh. It is but a few years fince Town 
grafles were introduced. Lefs attention, perhaps, than they 
deferve, have been paid to thcfe, on account of the great 
crops of natural grafs which the foil, in many places, is fitted 
to produce. Two hundred ftone of this grafs is often raifed 
Dpon one acre ; in fome particular fpocs, 260, or even 280, 
and this, too, for a great fucceffion of years. This natural, 
grafs fells one penny, or three-halfpence per ftone cheaper 
than the be(l clover and ryo-grafi. Field turnips have hiv 
therto been fown only in fmall quantities. 

Cw/.— Mod of the cows here are of a naiddle fize, and 
of a brown and white colour. They give from 10 to 15 
Scotch pints of milk per day. Some of them, durng tkc 
prime of the grafs give 17 or 18 pints. There arc not 
» few farmers, however, whofe cows, upon, an average, 
4q not give above 8 Scotch pints per day. This is owing to 
their want of care to get a proper breed, and to their keep- 
ing more of them upon their ground than it is able fuffi- 
ciently to pafture. Ihcir queys, too, are much injured, by 
being kept in the Moor of Meams, where they arc only 
half fed 5 and from this circumftancc, they never afterwards 
attain the fize, nor give the quantity of milk, whicfcthofa 
cows do that have been reared with care at hon^e. 
p. Tlie 

tf Mearm. ^07 

. The dittrning of milk makes a great tod laborious part 
•f the fermcrs work. Of late they have introduced the ufc 
of chuming-miUs driven by water. There are many ftreams 
which run through the parifh, and aniwer for thcfe mills, 
and, on trials they prove highly beneficial, and fave a great 
deal of labour. 

*Mo9r. — The commonty belonging to the heritors is about 
1600 acres in extent* It is always covered with the moft 
beautiful verdure, and produces very good grals and clover, 
without any heath or bent. Were it once divided, it would 
need nothing but ihelter and inclofing to render it extreme- 
ly valuable. At prefent the heritors receive little benefit 
jb-om it, as it is under no proper management. There are 
fie^.s taking to bring about a divifion oi it, which will both 
tend to enrich the proprietors, and add to the beauty of the 
parifli. In this commonty there are three lochs, well ftock« 
ed with fiih. One of thefc, (Sailed the Brother Loch, is 
about three miles in circumference, and abounds with ehar 
and trout. The other two, the Little Loch and the Black 
Loch, are of a fmaller fize. Thele lochs afford plentiful 
fupplies of water for the public works, in this and the neigh* 
bouriog parifli of £aftwood. 

Heritors and Rent. — The landed property of the parifh is 
at prefent divided among 60 heritors, the greater pan ef 
whom are relident. The principal ones, according to their 
Taluatton, are Mifs Poliok of PoIIok \ Sir Michael Stoart of 
Blackhall, Bart. ; Mr Hugh Hmchifon of Southfield ; Mr 
Brown of Caplerig ; Mr Maitland Hntchefoa ^ Grecnbank ; 
Mr Logan of Fingleton ; and Mr Wilfon of Ncthcfhoufe, 
Several of thefe arc refidcot. Tht7 hiivc excclleht if odcrn 
4naoiien*houfcs on their eftates, and are exemplary and a^vc 


^t SiaOfUcai Jcmni 

in.promotlog aromd thetn a fpirit irf ittdbftrjr and impMTc- 
meirt. ." * 

^ The rent of hif d i$ iiigll. Eaelofite of the moor, it maf 
i>e» on an average, 26 s. per sere, bo tut parts of it are let 
In (afhire, at 50 s. yer acrei and there arc fonae cbhfider- 
aWe proprietors, who can let the whole of their lands fof 
pal>urc, at 44 s. per acre. About 26 years ago, the average 
rent was not above 7 s. or 8 s. per acre. The 'lands then 
^cre not inclofed, and it was ufaal to have a great part 
of them m conAant tillage, which gaTc the moft mifcrabte 
returns; and what was in pafture was always overftocked 
with cattle, which were therefore kept in a ftarving con^ii' 
tibn. The profits of the farmer, of confequence, were fmatt, 
Ite'paid his rent with difficuky/ and lived poorly. The in- 
deling of the lands, and an induftrious and judicious ni;^ 
aagerr.eBt of them, as well as the incrcafe in the value of the 
anicles of produce, enable the prcfent tenants to live com* 
fortabhf,;^ and to pay their rents with punftnality. — The val 
hrcd rent of the par.fh is 471 1 1. 6s. 6 d. Scots. The real 
rent is probably near 5000 1. Sterling. 

« '*• 

Manufa£biris.^Thfr(S are two cotton mills }n this parifli^ 
at Bufhby on the water of Cart, both belonging to the fame 
proprietors. 1 he one of theie w-is ertftcd in 1 780, atid the 
<Kher tboixt tw4 yearsTa^o. The number of people em* 
ployed in botk mills are as loliows : / 

Of tndes under 15 years there ar^ 100 

• Of females under 1 j — . .^ n^ 

Of males above 15 .« i.^ ^q 

Of females above 1$ -^ — 90 

^ Two 

^ Meamsi • ^9 

T«o Uoadifieldt have been lately eftabliflied. One of 
thefef ft Wellmeadow, employs 13 men and 26 women* 
The other, at Broom, which has juft begun work this fum* 
mer, employs 1 1 men and eleven women. 

Cburcb^ PooTy and Scbool.^^w Michael Stewart of Black« 
hall, Bart, is patron. 1 he (lipend is 5 chalders of meal, 
and 27 U 13 s. Sterling of money. No augmenution ha9 
ever yet been demanded. The glebe confifts of about 4 
acres of arable land. A very good manfe was built in 1789, 
and the church was fitted up in a very neat and commodioui 
manner in 1792. There has long been an Antiburghec 
meeting- hottfe here. The congregatiom ^hich is xx>t near 
fo numerous now as formerly, is made up of people belong* 
Ing to this parifh, and to fome of the adjoining pariihes* 
There are, likewife, in the pariih, a few Burghers and Ca-* 
meronians. Ii is pleafant to ice the happy effcAs of tolera* 
tiott* Time has fohened th^ rancour of party among thele 
feceders from the Eftablilhed Church, and almoft all of 
them live in good neighbourhood, and dikover a fpirit of 
Chriftian charity and moderation. 

There are but few potT in the parifli. Thcfe are fupport* 
ed in the ufual way, by collections made at the church, by 
the intereft of a fmali accumulated iund, by the profits of 
the mort*cloth, and by the dues arifing firom the publication 
of the banns of marriage. There are no begging poor be- 
longing to the parilh. 

There is a parochial fchoolmaAer, who has a falary of 8 1. 
6 s. 8 d. Sterling, befides the ufual fmali fchool-fecs, aad an 
allowance of 30 s. as ftfiion clerk. There is the fame reafon 
to complain here, as in mod other places, that the emolu* 
ments of the fchoolmafter are, no way adequate to the qiiaU- 

Vol. XVII. Ss ficaiiona 

^hd Sigtfftkal Account 

ficatioDs generally ezpeded, and to the labour and fatigue 

Pofmlatwn. — From an accurate account taken in 17921 k 
appeared that there were in the pariflx 1430 fouls at that 
time. Of males, 675 — of females. 755. 

Under 15 years of age — . *— 5^* 
From r; to 70 -— -^ 841 

Above 70 — — — 27 

According to Dr Wcbftcr's account, in 1755, there were 
886 fouls in the parifh. 

The prefcnt very confiderable incrcafe of population, is 
chiefly owing to the introdudtion of manufjdlures, and io 
the addition of inhabitants to the yillage of Newton. This 
is the only village in the parifh, and it has uf late increafcd 
greatly. There arc at prcfent 47 families in it. The moft 
of thefe are the families of tradefmen and common labourers. 

CharaBer of the People — The people of this parifh are fo* 
bcr, Induftrious, and oeconomical ; rcfpcftful to their fupc- 
riors, and uncommonly friendly and obliging. They are ra- 
tional In their religious fentiments, and moderate in their 
religious zeal. All of them are Hrongly attached to our 
prefent civil conftitution, and cautioufly avoid giving coun- 
tenance to any change or innovation in it. It is happy for 
them, that they pretend not to make politics their flcdy. 
They mind the duties and bufinefs of their own ftation, and 
wifh to enjoy, with thankfulncfs and peace, the many blei^ 
fings which a kind providence bedows on them. 

Mtfcellaneous Ohfervations. — The only antiquity here is the 
Caftle of Mcams. It is a large fquare tower, fituatcd on a 


reeky emiaence, and commandiog an extenfive and beauti- 
ful prufpeA. It ia not known when it was built. It is fup* 
poied to be fev<rral hundred years old, and to have been ufed 
as a place of deCence. It was furroundcd by a ftrong wall, 
and the entrance was fecured bj a draw bridge. It is now, 
however, greatly diloiantled and out oi re^^air, the ta.jjily of 
Blackball, to whom it belongs, having their rclidence at 

The roads are in good condition, and the brft materials 
arc every where at hand for making them. The ^rcat roacj 
from Glafgow to Kilmarnock runs through the whole length 
of the parifli ; as does alfo the road from Glafgow to Stewar- 
ton. The road from Paiiley to Kilbride and Hamilton . 
croITes the pari(h from north to fouth. There are alio i:ia- 
ny jwrivate roads. Thefe were formerly made and repaired 
by Aatute labour, but an a£t of Parliament is now paficd, fot 
converting the ftatute labour of this county into money* 
Tliere are no difeafes peculiar to this' parifli. Inoculation 
for the fmali-pox is gradually gaining ground. There is 
neither free>ftone, nor lime, nor coal in the parifli, but all 
thefa are to be had in plenty at no great diftance^ . 


jffl StatiJHeil ActmM 



(CouNTT OF Orkney and Shetland — Presbtte&t 
OF Cairslet. — Stnqd of Oeknet). 

Bj the Rev. Mk James BremneRji Mmlfter. 


W^LLS fomerimes fignities the parifh only^ and fome* 
tirrits it is taken for the whole ifland. In old tnaf$ 
it is Ipeir Waes^ and its pretent pronunciation is uniformlj as 
if written Waas^ a corruption, probably, of Voes^ which ori- 
ginally, and at this day, fignifies a confiderable inlet or bay, 
where fli p^ anchor \ and in thcfe this end of the ifland 
obounds, as Lyarvoe^ Thur-voe^ 0/mandvoe. Here it may 
be remarked, as a thing not improbable, that KifkwaII« the 
chief town of the county, was originally Kirk-voe. 

Population. — By an accurate lift taken in 1788, the inha- 
bitants of all ages, in both the united pariiObes of Walli'aDd 
Flota, ftood thus : 

In^he fouth fide of Walls 451 

In. the north fide ditto -— *— 233 

In Faira and Flota — -^— 236 



^ Walls and FbUi %i^ 

%j nils taken ia April 1794, the population ftands thus ; 
lo the ioath fide •-- -»- 449 

In the north fide — — 30a 

Id Faira and Flota -^ -r- 240 


The population, in 17J5, was 1 000 fouls. 

What accounts for this iiicreafe of 71 is, the fettlement of 
a colony of Highlanders, who had been forced to emigrate 
from Strathnaven, where their farms were converted into 

fliecp pafture. 

Thefe people, it would appear, had been comfortably fi- 
tuatcd in their former refidence, as they all brought with 
them, to this place, a very confidcrablc dock in horfes, cows, 
flicep, and goats, and alfo in grain. As to all other proper- 
ty, every man of them might truly fay, Omnia mea mecum 
porio. Their houfehold furniture muft therefore be ddfcrib- 
ed negatively. No bed, no table, no chrfr. Thefe the 
Highlander does not reckon among the neccflaries of life, as 
he can make the earth fervc him for all the three. * 

In his (healing, compofed of earth and a few flicks,, you 
find no other furniture than a few difhes for his milk, and a 
barrel for his meal : So true in f aft, as well as philofophy, is 
the maxim, Natura corUenta efi pauds. 

Ctf«/^.— The number of horfes in the parifh is about 


The number of cows and queys — 400 

The average value of horfes and cows is from 

i 1. 1 $ s. to a 1. Hence the value of the Sterl. 
whole horfes and cows may be about L. 1200 

Foals of a year old, 21, at 1 1. each — 21 

Calves of a year old, 65, at 10 s. — — 32 

Carried forward, L. 1253 

.' ' ' Brott^r oHt^ : L^ 1053 
Switiei 1339 value about. 5.S. ..«* «^ 32 

Shcxp from T^wcedfmuiri 700, at ^a. each 315 

Twtf*tj ditto <f»m&, at I k I s. each . ' — ^ —4 21 
Sheep of Orl^nej breed, 900, at 3 s. each — - 13; 


It may be thought, perhaps, that the horfes are valued 
too low J but the i'd& is othcrwHe. The horfes in this ifland 
are inferior in value to thofe of the main land and North 
lilea. This is owing, probably, to the number reared in the 
ifland, and the lefs frequent renewal of the breed, from the 
horles annually imported into this country from Strathnaver 
and Sutherland, as well as to the very diflFrrcnt manner in 
which they are maintained here and in the main-land. In 
the latter, there is a great emuUtion among the farmers to 
have the bcft horfes. Their horfes are confequentiy fed at 
an extravagant cxpencc, and thereby rendered of a better 

The above ftatement of the fhcep is formed from a plan 
adopted about two years ago, by Mr Moodie of Millet ter« 
According to this plan, the whole were converted into a 
common ftock, betwixt Mr Moodie himfelf, his tenants, and 
a fliepherd ; but the tenants not entering heartily into the 
fcheme, the bufincfs now refts almoft. entirely bctwjxt Mr 
Moodie and the fhephcrd. 

The trial is yet of too fliort a ftanding to form any cer- 
tain judgment how far it maybe fuccefsful, or otherwifei 
only this ipuch aheady appears in its favour, that the fouth 
country fheep.havc agreed very .well with the change of 

Un^il the above alteration i^k place, the number of 
Jhccp m the pariih was ufually about 2000, diftingaiihcd by 


^bore^iSO diffcvest niarks; aod, txing the property of the 
inhabitants in general* were kft to range at random over 
the ifland« They were never houfed; nor one of them taken 
without a dog. They feparated themfelves into difierent 
flocks^ and had their particokr places of fefort, the fame 
flock always frequenting the fame place. Every owner knew 
the marks and haunts, not only of his own Iheep, but alfo^ ia 
generalf thofe of ail his neighbours \ io that if any of them 
chanc^ to ftray into a new w^ak^ chcy were foon diicoverod^ 
and their owners, without any trouble or expence, knesr 
where to find them* 

■ Where iheep are fo wild as to be taken only by means of 
a dogi it might feem extremely difficult to take any particop 
lar one out of a large numbers but thofe in the praAke of 
it can, in a few minutes, take one of any given defcriptioa 
out of a thouiaod. 

Sheepmen are commonly fworn to fidelity in their office § 

and when a fheep is to be taken* one of thcfe fets put with 

fais dog dofe at his foot, or carrying him in his arms, thai 

the Iheep may allow him to approach near enough to difco- 

ver the mark. This point gained, he advances more briiklyt 

when the flock begin to break ac^d divide before him, and^ 

in proportion as the divifion which carries with it the mark* 

«d one diminilhes its number, it iaci cafes in fear and fpeed* 

The man, no longer equal to the tafk, afiigns it to his com* 

panton, by this time grown impatient to d£i his part* Such 

{heep as now happen to be before the dog, begin prefently 

to break into new divifions, whilft the fheepman, keeping a 

fharp eye on the objefl of his.purfult, directs every motion 

of his dog by a different call, by the courfe he hioafelf takes^ 

or even by the waving of his hand ; all which being readily 

uad>erftood and obeyed by a well trained dog, the vi£tim is 

foon feizccl, atid, for moft partj without receiving any ma* 


'^t($' Siatifiical Accim 

terial iojor^. Thfe more fagacioos (heep dogs trip them over hf 
laying hold bf one of their fore legs, and thereby effeduallj 
|>revents them from advancing a ftep farther. When the 
fheep finds himfelf thus overcome, he ceafes all further e£* 
fort, and lies almbft mbttonlefs at the feet of the dog, untU 
the flieepman lays hold of him. 

Climatn — ^The Orkney Iflands, fitaated at the extremity 
of the ifland of Great Britain, can only have, a land breeze 
from two or three points foutherly. As the wind, in every 
other direftion, comes fit>m the German, Nonhern, or At- 
hintic oceans, it muft neceflarily be damp and cold. That 
this is the cafe in Orkney, will appear from the following 
circuihftance i Planting of wood has frequently been tried in 
different places in this ifland, and always without fuccefr; 
fo long as the plant is iheltered by furrounding houfes, or 
high walls, it will make progrefs ; but, where thefe are want- 
ing, it may indeed live, perhaps for ages, but will never be 
able to reach its natural perfe£tion. A plant of afli, for ex- 
ample, 3 feet in height, may, in the courfe of 7 years, equal 
a wall of 6 feet high ; but it might ftand a century without 
gaining 3 feet mOre in height, or 3 inches more in diameter. 

Agriculture. ^^TYiC only kinds of grain ufually fown here 
are a fmall kind of barley, and fmall grey oats. Now and 
then, a few people, by way of trial, fow white oats and peafe, 
an experiment that has been tried repeatedly for generations 
pa(V, and which every new comer from the fouth country may 
perhaps repeat for generations to come \ but of which the 
advantage will never be fo apparent as to bring it into genc 
ral practice. 

It may be alked, What fhould hinder white oats f^m 
growing here ? The anfwcr may perhaps be this, The fitu- 


gf WaSs and Flatal '3 1^ 

ition, the lbil| the feafoti, and the climate, are unfavourable 
to them. Thcfc yield very little to art ; it therefore be- 
comes the bufinefs of art to adapt hcrfclf to them. It is for 
this reafon that the fiarmers in this county do not begia 
their oat feed till the beginning or middle of April ; aor 
their bear feed, till the beginning or middle of M^y,- the 
ieafons when the one and the other are ofuaily over in the 
ibuth of Scotland. Not that the farmers here are not equal- 
ly aware, as their neighbours, of the dangtr of a late harveft ; 
but that their experience convinces them no lels of the daa<- 
ger of too early a feed time. 

It muft not, however, be denied, that the iuiprovemenU 
irhlch might be made here, by indoling, fallowing, and 
green crops, have been hitherto too much negkdcd. 

.Churehis, Manfi^ to*^— -The church of Walls formerly 
flood at the Kirkhope, but is now in a more centrical iitua- 
tion^ on the fout^ Cde of the Longhope. It was built about 
the year 1743, and laft year was thoroughly repaired, it is 
rather fmall for the parifh, but couimodiouily contrived and 
well feated. The church of Flota had ftood for many ycara 
without a roof 5 but, about 12 years ago, it was roofed in, 
being thatched with heather, and farnilhcd with new Icats 
and new windows. 

The manfe was built in 1782, not where it formerly ftood, 
and where the glebe ftill is, on the top of the Hiii of Fea 
on the fouth fide, but on the north fide of Longtiopc, aU 
mofl oppofite to the church. The former fituaiion, in point 
of profpeft, drynefs of its fiance, and convenience in being 
near the church, as well as in fome other refpefts, was far 
preferable to the prefent. But in a country where there arc 
few days, even in fummcr, that a fire can be dilpcnfcd with, 
Ac article of fuel comes to be a matter of material confe- 
VolXVII. xt ^uence. 

<iueace. The prefeat incumben*. therefore, <:hofe tohavelus 
B)an£e oo the north 6det where there is peat ground iq aboii- 
tlancci and very near, rather thao where it formerly was, wkh 
the above advantages, but with the difadvantage of carrying 
peats from a confidcrable diftance, both by hnd and wato, 
with much trouble, and at a Goofiderable expence. 

When the prefent maofe was buih, it was lijkewtfe tnten* 
lied to cxcamb the glebe \ and it was in great forward nefs to 
he accoxnpliihrd, when fome elc£lioo pundilio put a ftop to 
it« Mr Moodie of MeUettcr, on whoie property the oianie 
fiands, ftill propofcs to complete the excambion, to which 
the prefent incumbent is ready to accede, being pcriixaded 
that it would foe for the intcreft of his fucceflbrs, as wdl as 
for his own. 

The prefent rent of the glebe is 5 1. lis. in money ; and 
the tenant has lately had a ihiali creft, formerly \U to a cot- 
tar, given him without any additional rent. The glebe was 
much injured in the laft incumbent's * time, by a pknking 
which never was authoriled by his prefbytery \ but, as the 
diviiion fiands at prefent, it is pretty extenfive and improve- 

The ftipenJ, In money, paid by Mr Moodie 

of Mclfctter, amounts to — L- 25 2 2| 

Communion clement nioney, by ditto 245 

Out of the biQiopric, in money — 8 <S S 

Out of ditto, in malt, 28 meils, at a medium 

price, about 10 s. — — . 140* 

Payable for the ifland of Flota *• i < 3 4 

Glebe as above — — — 5 1 1 o 

I-S* J? 7i 

• Mr Grey. 


%f. Walls and fhta^ 3 if 

PrM/fMr*^— The quantity of kelp made yearly is about 80 
tons^ and cofts from 1 1* 5 s« to 1 1. 10 s. f^er ton of 24 cwt. 
for bfinitng. About 20 years ago, for the fame quantity, 
the prkes were only from 15 s. to ao s. or^ on the very worft 
ihoresj H* i s* 

.^ft.— The cod fifhing here is eatremety precarious % the 
fifli being fonie feafons remarkably plenty, and at others 
equally icarce. At iome periods, for months together, there 
frill not be fo many fiih caught in a boat, as, on a divifion, 
to be a fi(h for each man. At other periods, on the fame 
ground, and in the fame fpace of time, the boats will be 
loaded as deep as they can fwim, . From 50,000 to 70,000 
cod have been often cured here in one fcafon. 

When the fifhing is good, there^ may be about 12 boat?, 
with 6 men each, that ufually follow that bufinefs \ at cither 
times, about half that number follow it occaiionally. £v(rry 
cod, meafuring 14 inches and upwards, from the fhoulder 
fin to that next the tat], cofls 2 d. All under 14 inches to 
1 1 inches coft i d. each. 

The lobfter fifhing is carried on in Orkney by about 60 
boats, with only two men to each boat. At an avierage 
fbey may catch about 2000 lobAers to each boat, making 
•nnnally from ioo,oco to 120,000 fiih» at i^d. each. 'The 
number of boats have been conftantly increafing for thelis 
feveral years pafl, and are fliii increafing; but it is not like- 
ly that the number of fifh caught will be thereby increaled ! 
For^it is found by experience, that all the fifh on any parti- 
cular Ipot are foon picked up, and that, at the end of a filh* 
ing feafon, they become very fcarce every where. 


Poor.— The number of poor in the parifli is, in ordinary, 
aboiic 20. The annual colleAions leldom exceed 3 1. los. 


S^9 Swiftical Accouta 

This is fofftlly inadequate to their Support ; bat the ch^ty 
of the parifli is not to be eftimated by the trifle contributed 
in inonry. I he people are far from being deficient in thit 
▼irtuc ; many of them poflefs it in a conGderaUe degree^ 
and cxcrcifc it liberally in proportion to .their abilities. They 
occaiionally fend fupplies of the necefiaries of life to the 
abodes of the neceffitous \ and if, at any time, this fuf^ly 
fails, the latter make an occafional toar, and the intention 
of the vifit is perfedly underflood. Die charitable know 
the neccllitous, and the neceffitous know equally well the 
charitable. If any who are. unable to travel, their 
cafe is always particularly attended to. When the prefent 
incumbent firft underftood how trifling the funds were, and 
the def^itutc and helpjeis condition of fome of the poor, he 
was much concerned to think of the mifery to which fome 
of them might fometimes be reduced; but was no lefs plead- 
ed to be informed, that there exifted here a fpontaneoos 
mode of chariry, founded on the principles of nature and 
duty, equal in its effedls to any political inftitution what- 

ChMrailer.^^ht people are very peaceaUe and inoffenfive, 
apparently very fimple. but infadl abundantly fhrewd. Thor 
addrefs is without embarrafi'ment or nideneis, but not with- 
out a degree of politenels and good manners, though fome- 
times an aflr£^ation of refinement in the laft, makes it ridL 
culous. What has been faid of their charity, may ferve as a 
criterion of their frnfe of religious obligation. Being flraa- 
gers to all the different opinions of fedtaries, they are firan- 
gers alfo to thofe vain difputations, violent diflentions, and 
ftrifes about words, fo. frequently to be met with in other 


9f Watts^and Flotai 31T 

Their tttendance at thurch, aod on 4lU rdi^oos ordi- 
nances, b pun^ual \ and their fenrices are performed with 
all that outward ierioufoefs aDdfolemnity^ that ufually indi- 
cate the ioward fincerity of the heart. 

£irir.— Ember geefe are plenty here in winter, but, being 
birds of pafiage^ they dilappear in fpring, and do not return 
till the end of hanreft. How this bird hatches its youngs re* 
maios a profound fccreti both as to the manner and the 
place. Hiat it fhould be in either of the ways commonly 
iuppoied, under its wings, or in the fands, are conjeAures 
attended with many difficulties, that render both very im- 
probable* But that they do not breed any where here^abouts 
IS certain, as their eggs are never found here, nor their youngs 
till fully grown. 

This bird is alio remarkable for its Arong ftruAure of bo- 
dy ; for though confiderabiy lefs in fize than the common 
gi*^ goo^9 it weighs a great deal more* They fometimes 
weigh 18 pounds. It is never feen on the land; and though 
it has pretty large wings, it is never feen to fly. Every wa- 
ter fowl takes the aflifiance of its feet to faife itfelf out of 
the water, when it b going to fly ; but the feet of this bird 
are fo much in a right line with its body, that they can 
never be brought far enough forward to affift it in rifing out 
of the water. Nor does nature feem to have intended that 
it ever ihould fly ; for in whatever manner it is attacked, 
purfued, or fuddenly furprifed, it always has recourie to div- 
ing for its fafety. Being a bird of paflage, it differs from all 
others^ in preferring, on that occafion, the medium of water 
to that of air ; and as it makes its way, probably with equal 
(peed, by means of its wings, (for Tea fowls are frequently 
feen ufing their wings under water), fo it accompliihes it 
with equal certainty, • 


^%z SiaUfikal Accaant 

The tyar bird is not peculiar to thii ifland, bat abottdds 
ftr more bere tban m other placet of the coontry. The food 
of tifisrbtrd is not known $ only by its being web- footed, and 
feen always flying and hovering over the fea, there can be no 
doubt but that, in fome (hape or other, it derives its fubfifteace 
from that element. The ftomachs of the young ones do 
not fervr to afcertain their food ; they contain nothing but 
^ thin oily fubOance which flows readily by the bill, wheo 
tley are hung by the feet. 

This bird makes its neft, by digging a hole horizontally 
in the foofe earth» found among the flidvings of high rocks. 
The holes arc commonly of that width and depth, that a 
man's hand and arm can reach the birds, of which there is 
Only one in each hole. One of them may weigh nearly a 
pound weight) and is fo fat, that one half of it will run to an 
on. Some reckon it the moft delicious morfel in the world^ 
aind others the moft deteftable. 

' Whether the lyar, or lyar-catcher, be the greateft curiofi* 
fy, I fhall leave the reader to judge. The former, as if io- 
ilinAlvely warned of the adventurous boldncfs of the latter, 
cbufes a retreat for hatching its young, fccmingly perfeAly 
inacceffible to every creature not furniflicd with wings. 
Rocks perpendicular, or fometimes projefling far beyond 
their bafc, and in height from looo to 1300 feet, promife 
the defired fecurity j— but in vain. The lyar-caf cher fwings 
himfelf over by means of a rope, and lowers himfcSf, or is 
lowered down by his affiftantsi who hold the rOpe^ tilt he 
reaches his intended flation. He then crawls, and clings, 
and climbs, till he has taken every lyar in that quarter. In 
purfuit of the fame game, he fometimes, by a fecond rope, 
makes a fccond defcent ftill farther down the precipice, lo 
this laft ftatioo*, he may, have 500 iett perpendicular rock 
•vcr his head, and 7o#or 800 feet below, him, hanging over 


ff WmUs and Plata: f;i% 

tl&e oceaa; jr^ foeb it the We of fame» of ibme fort 
or other, or fudi the diSaftncc »f buman tOBftitiiti«Nif> 
-that die adventurer repeses hero his maoocuTreit with the 
greatcft feefDiiig Qoconccm. And indeed hu uocoocem 
muft be real ; for if he ftould oece begin to Ibriak or.(bu^ 
der at his awful fituatioa» he would fooo tumble headlong 
to the bottoHi, an event that fometimes, chough but rareliCy 
happens. Having coilc£lcd his prey^ he ydjufts it to his 
iboulders and back^* taking care that it may not incommode 
him in climbing. He then returnsi and climbing where he 
can, and ailifled by his rope where he cannot, he .regains 
the fammit, bringing with him the value of ^nly a few (hil- 
lings m his mod fuccefsfiil adventure. 

Eminent Men.r^Thc only perfon bom in this parifli^ 
"whofe merits claim a place herci was Comutodore J;iijies 
hoodie, of the family of Mclfetter, who« when a boy« hav- 
ing run off from fchool, entered himielf on board a man of 
war, where his good condud gradually advanced him to the 
rank of a commodore, in the iervice of her Majefty Queen 
Anne. How well his fervices were received, and how much 
he was refp<rAed, may beft appear from the following letter^ 
written by Charles III- King of Spain, to her Majefly Queen 

Madame ma Soeur, 
Le Capitaine James Moodie, qui commande le vaifieau Lstn- 
cafter, m'a rendu des fervices f! confiderablesy que je dois 
prefque uniquement reconnoitre de fon z^e, la confervatioii 
de ma ville de Denia, bquelle (depourvue de toutcs fortes 
d'amunttion9)» n'auroit gueres tenuo, contre un fiege do 
cinque lemaines, amoins que le dit Capitaine, n'en eut fourni 
quelque quantite fur la requifition que lui firent cecx, qui 


SU Staiifikaf Aramt 

commandoioit de ma part. Jc ne doutc point que votreMajeA^ 
▼oadra bien lui fairc refentir Ics cffcfts dc fa genereuTe re- 
connoifancci tant a Tcgard de^dltes ferTices,que de ma prcC- 
fante intcrceffion ; a laquelle jc n* ajoutcrai que I'aiTurance dt 
refpcA ct attachment fincere avcc Icqucll, Jc (uis, 

Madame ma focur^ 
Marciime, ce iimo. Nov. Votrc tres affeaione frcre 

^ijoj. CHARLES.. 

The above tranflatcd may run thus. 

Madam my Sifter, 
Captain James Moodie, who commands the veflcl Laa- 
caftcr, has rendered me fervices fo important, that I owe al- 
moft entirely to his zeal, the prefervation of my city of Do- 
nia, which, being dcftitute of all kinds of provifion, could 
not have held out againft a fiege of five weeks, unlefs the 
faid Captain had furnifticd a fupply. at the rcqucft of thofc 
who commanded on my part. I doubt not but your Ma- 
jefty will make him a handfome and generous return, both, 
on account of the faid fervices, and of this my prcffing inter- 
ceffion : To which I fhall only add, thfc aflurance of that re 
fpea and fincere attachment with which I am, 

Madam my Sifter, 
Tour very affeftionate brother, 


With regret I add, that the above gentleman, at the ad- 
vaneed age of between 70 and 80 years, was bafely murder, 
•d in the ftreets of Kirkwall, by the hand of a hired viUain, 
and at the inftigation of a rebel, Sir James Stewart. 


•f KilUaman. n^yf 



om Ross). 
By the Rev. Mr David Dunoon, Minijer. 

Siiuatioti^ Natne^ and Extent. 

IT is bounded on the weft by the parifli of Urray ; on the 
north by a range of common, dividing it from Ferrin- 
tofh ; on the caft by Kilmuir Wcftcr and Suddy 5 and' on 
the fouth by the Frith of Beaulyi along which it is piea« 
fantly fitaated. 

The origin of the name is uncertain. Tradition makes 
the burying ground, which gives It to the parifh, to be that 
oi Irenan^ a Danifh prince, who fell in battle on its confines, 
i?here cairn Irenan ftill cxifts* The grcatcft length, from 
north-weft to fouth-eafV is about 5 miles, and the grcratcft 
breadth about 2. It is wholly the property of two rcfiding 
heritors, Mr Grant of Redcaftle, and Mr M'Kcnzie of Kil- 

iSw/.— In this there is a confiderable variety. Light loam, 
gravel, and deep blue clay, are to be found on the lame farm. 
Some fields are covered with fmall fiones in remarkable a* 
bundance; ico cart loads have been thrown oft* an acre, yet 
on the next plowing, a fimilar fource of amufement has pre- 
fented itielf to the farmer. A confidcrable track covers a 
. Vol. XVIL U q ^ remarks 

338 SiH^a^t Aiiwnt 

remarkablf thick ftratom of reddiih free-ftoney which eZf 
tends almofl duo north to th^ Fi*ith of Dhagwall. It is eafi- 
]y hewn« and, when properly felefted, Tcry eligible for buiM- 
iogs of ady defcripfion. 

Several fmall veins of wilks, and other fliells, are found. 
There is nekber nark nor lime-ftone \ nor baTe the efie&i 
of either (with very immaterial exception) been hitherto tried 
on the foil. This will lead the reader to infer, that the 
ftatc of 

jtgricultural Improvement is backward in the extreme. Of 
this a jul^ idea will be formed, when it is mentioned, that al- 
though about 2000 acres are in culture, there is not a two 
horfe plough in the pariih, and very few, iron included, 
trorth above fix or feven (faillir gs, thofe of the proprietors 
excepted The farms are almoft entirely under a conftant 
lucccffioo of corn crops, barley and oats alternately, a very 
finall extent being altogether for peafe, and an inconfider* 
able proportion, which exhaufts a large (hare of the manure 
of the year, appropriated for potatoes. The farmers have 
ao inclofiires, and of courfe confider the vicinity of any as 
an intolerable grievance, fo that their fields from antumit, 
tintil the briar appears in April, are one ondiftingoilhed 
common, through which horfes, oxen, and ibeep range pr»- 

To a perfon unacquainted with the ^ircom fiances of the 
country, this f^atement will appear unaccountable ; he wilt 
look on the inhabitants as labouring under obftinate preja* 
dices, or (lupidly incapable of learning the beneficial fy£- 
ttms of others ; but to neither of thcfe cattfes it it to be at- 
tributed \ Ty9, The proprietors do not appear to have looked 
on the introduAion of the modem fyAemof farming, as an cfe* 
je^ ;*dequateto {what-they cor.ceived)the unplea&nt oeceffity 
of granting long leafes, to the tax on their propenies of an in- 


j^ Kilkamafu 33^ 

crcaTed sidiorfttion, at well as the iadsccmenl wbick they 
would probably reqioire to bold oat to uDproving teoants in 
a diminution of the rent. No man of this defcriptioo. can 
commence his operations on a prqper kale, without a capital 
oqual to at leaft 5 years rent. Sot reafons obvious to every 
perion in any mealure acquainted with huflKmdry \ and np 
fliani who is in pofllffioD of a capital to this extent, will be 
induced to take a farm, unleft he can have the proipeA of a 
comfortable maintenancci and hill melioration lor his expen- 
diture in building and improvements. The rent that can be 
afforded by fuch a farmer muft of courie be proportionally 
low, as the fum which he advances on entering, as the value 
of his (locking, (fay the neceflary horfes, faroiing utenfils, 
&c.)» together with the probable requifite expenditure, are 
high ; becaufe he has to add the annual intcreit of theie, be- 
ing at leaft 8 per cent, to his rent, it is therefore evident, 
that the difference betwixt the value of melioration! expen« 
diture, and flocking, neceflary for the prefcnt mode of con- 
ducing hufbandry, and the value of thole as requifite for 
the efieAual introdudion of the more generally approved 
fyftem, muft be altogether againft the proprietors. This 
difference is very confiderable. 

Let us view both In a few particulars, as in their probable 
confequences affc£ling the lands in this parifli. Firft, fiy 
the prefent fyftem of farming, it is believed that the full 
melioration does not exceed two-thirds of the rent, fay, (for 
the fake of even numbers) 1400I. the intereft of which is an 
annual tax on the different properties of 70 1. But by the 
modern fyftem, 3 years rent for melioration will be requifite, 
fay 6300 1. raifing the tax to 315 hper annum. 

Farther, by the prefent fyftem^ the difterent operations of 
hufbandry are principally carried on by oxen. Uorfes are 
(I believe with very few exceptions) ufed for conducing the 


340 Smifikal Account 

modem' fyftem. Suppofe that a[oo horfes may be able to !»• 
boor what is now done by 600 oxeo. Suppose the Talue of 
the neccflary ftocking to be thus moch the fame, calculating 
each pair ok horfes as equal in value to 6 oxeo, fay 24 1. which, 
for the above number, fuppofed neceflary for the purpofe of 
hufbandry in this pariihi is 2400 1. • 

The intereft of this fum, funk in a ftockiog of oxen, may be 
6 per cent, being, /fr annum * L. 140 o o 

Xhe intereft of the fame fum, funk in a ftock- 
ing of horfes, is at leaft 10 per cent, being, 
per annum . - * L« 240 o o 

The fmith and ferrier's charge cannot be under 

JOS. for each horfe/fr /7/7/ii/m - loo 6 e 

Suppofe the confumpt of oats to be a peck per 
week for each horfe at an average, f. e. 3 
bolls I firlot per annum^ or 650 bolls for 
the above number, valued at 1 2 s. per boll 390 o • 

In all L. 730 o e 

From this take as above 140 00 

The fuppofed difference betwixt the expence 
of labouring with horfes, and that of la- 
bouring with oxen, is - - 590 o • 

Ditto betwixt that of melioration, as above fta- 

ted, is - - - - 245 ^ • 

So that thefe two articles, which are moderate- 
ly rated, make a clear annual balance againft 
the proprietors, of - - L. 835 o 6 


• We have a number of fmall horfes, even by the prefent 
fyflem of farming ; but thefe are maintained at a confiderable 
expence ; and it is prefumeable, that any loifes to which they 
fubjciM the farmer, is more than compenfated, in general, by 
the number of fupcrnumerary caiUe -which be is able to rear. 

• ' if Kittiarnan. 54* 

-which in this parifli would be near 40 per ani. of the rent« 

Add to thefei the very material difference 10 the expen* 
ditore for farming qcenfils, manares, and imnrovementSi the 
material deficiency in the article of manure, together with 
the predigkut public Irfs *, which would refult from the uni- 
verfal^ adoption of the modern plan of ufing horfes infiead 
of oxen. 

Thefe circomftances Ihew, that the iiitroduAion of the 
more approved plans of hufbandry would not| in a pecunia- 
ry TieWf be fo advantageous to the proprietors as might at 
firft be imagined. And indeed it is a well known &(k, that 
Tery difiant as farms in this part of the country moft uo- 
quefiiooably are from improvement, yet that from the mcon- 
fiderable neccflary expence of an mtrant tenant, the average 
rent of fome of them equals that of Ibme in the county of 

But other circumflances have contributed to that back* 
wardneis in agricultural improvement, too evident in thit 
and the neighbouring parilhes. 

Before any perions can be induced to deviate from eft»- 
blilhed praAicCi they muft have accels to oUerve the fupe- 
rior advantages of a new fyliem ; they muft have the prolped 
of reaping the fruits* of that lyftein by long ieaies; and alfo 
(as already obkrved) a lufficitnt ftock to enable them to per* 
fevere until their farms are brought to proper heart. 

The farmers of tbis parilh have never had the advantage 
of the firft of thefe. It is true» the proprietors have occa* 
iionally introduced the improvements of modern hu(bandry» 
but from the efforts of proprietors as examples, the pealantrjr 
never will a£t» 1 hefe generally improve more for pleafure 
a» than 

• An 100 oxen mud, one year with another, be fold and flaugh* 
tercd cut ot 6oo. To this quantity of beef add the above 650 bolls 
jOf oats favcd — ^laeritur. To how many people will thcle afford 
annual maimenaace. Our oxen weigh about 350 or 400 lib. 

§41 &tdiftiia Accmi ' 

than profit. U feed of a country B&t tHeir czpendknre m 
•|M4ging^ indofingt trcnckingy vkli a thoiir^d M eHirat^ is 
^ndleft. I bx9t koovro thft firft crop, of Ikde nore tkn 
'half an acre, coft the impvoTiog ivroprietDr aboTC ao L Hov 
<an a poor tenant imitate <Us? He viil. laugh at irliat he 
confidcrs the enthufiaiin that leads to it» and it will rivet his 
prejudices againft improvement. 

An intelligent ^Buai former^ whofe bread depends npon 
his induftry, and who is little removed £rom their own fpheie 
!n life« (the Hngh Reoch, mentioned in the very iagenions 
ftatiftical account of Alloa), is the man who will moft efiea- 
lislly contribote to introduce an alteration of fyftem, and a 
Spirit of improvement into any diftrifi. Uis nc^hfaoiirs will 
pbierve, and are, in very few inftances, fo blind to their io- 
lerofty as if able, not to imitate his eaertions. 

But the agricultural ftate of this parifli will farther be ait- 
counted for, when it is mentioned, that leafes are, with verf 
'U^ tatctptions, unknown. The farms on the meft con8« 
derable property have for many years been held only firon 
year to year. The longeft leafe recolle£ked, with the excep- 
tion of the life- rent of one fmall farm, is lo years, and very 
few have exceeded 5. What inducement does this preftot 
for improvement ? How can that man embark in any plan 
for ameliorating his farm, who knows that be only hangs 
out a bait for the grafp of avarice, and that ingenuity and 
Induftry tend only to ruin him ? It is to be hoped that the 
more enlightened policy of the fouthero counties will fooa 
he more generally adopted in ours, and that the proprietors 
irill delight in receiving << the Ueffing of them that «*e ready 
•• to periAi ;** the juft recompence gratefully paid to the lord 
of their manor, by induftrious, flouri(bing, ufeful members 
of fociety, and accompanied, let it not be thought of little 
Vidu^ by their prayer for his enjoying the bleffiog of the 


1^ KiwST$khU i4^ 

Lord of lordt. From tlM above flafe&ncnC it wilt be Sftfer** 
red, «Dd with jofticc, that the Artnert te this ^ifh» and iii# 
d«ed throBghout this country, are, in ge*er*),^r/ (b miidi 
fo» that although leafes ibonld be gfamedi it weidd take 
. fome confida^aWe time before thej poffiMy could adc^t aa 
improved ij&em of hufbaadry. What ( wiH a mere thcorift 
in Cu-miiig exclaim, Is not one fyftem of hoAaDdry aa eafiijr 
followed as acother i Doca not the modem iyftem re^aire 
fewer fer^ants, and lefs feed » and does it not yield more 
luxuriant crops ? Lef M theie be granted i b«K what this rca« 
foiling is to a f$or tenant, the following faOs Will tend to iU 
luflnite. By the pefeot fyRtm, h rcqiiiris the ucmoit ex*. 
ertion of his Indoftry, and in almoft nnintefrupied (uccef-' 
fion of crops, to pay his rent and fervantS} and afford ^ 
maintenance! very JUer indad^ to his iamtty. It may be af» 
firmed, that on a farm of 30 acres, 2 1. /fr mnum has not 
been cleared, at an average^ by any one farmer^ for ao years^ 
by Arming alone. Let ns fuppofe a man in this prcdicamentj^ 
from obferving the loccefs of others^ anxious to Uy a fifth 
part under graft, fay 6 acres y before he can poiBbiy do this 
aa inclofure is ncccflaryt which, if built by the proprietor^ 
exhaufls, by the payment of 74 fer cent, intcreft, the fuppo- 
fed, or rather real avenge, profit. Let him, however, per- 
fovere to manure this properly, he ftarvcs the reft oi hia 

The graft is notwitbftanding fown at an extra expence of 
20 s. per acre, and cnt the fecood year \ but when he calcu*- 
ktes profit and loft, he finds a deficiency of 24 bolls, the 
w^iial average produce of 6 acres ^ the fame the fecond year 
of the improving aera^ 4S bolls and 61.) fo that before he 
can experience the benefit of a graft crop, his corn yard 
wiay be probably fold to the hlgheft bidder. It will be 
a&ed. Why not fell the graft at 6 d. per fione ? for the beft 


.^44 Staiiftical AceOinl 

of all reaibnsy foecaufe he has no market. This is not mere 
theory, it is founded on h& ; and the circumftanccs are 
mentioned merely ^or the purpole of pointing out to fpeca- 
latifts in farming the almoft infnrmountable difficulties which 
miift be eneountercd by poor men^ whofe backwardnefs in 
tmeiioratfng therr farms^ they are too often difpoicd to 
<lfi:ribe to ignorance, indolence, and obftioacy. 

Let not the generous heart, therefore, load them with in^ 
▼eAive, or treat them with ieverity, for thinking once and 
again before they enter on meafures which, however fenfible 
they may be of their good efiedts when perfcvered in^ may 
eventually prove their ruin. To the benevolent mind, on 
the contrary, it will affi>rd pleafure gradually to hy open to 
their view what may be moft conducive to their benefit, to 
ftimulate their exertions by fuitable encouragement, and to 
fee them contented and happy in the pofleffion of thoie 
comforts which are fatted to their fphere in life. To this 
mode of conduA, it is to be hoped, that the farmers ia this 
pariOi may have the comfort of looking forward. It is with 
much pleafure mentioned, that the prefent proprietors offer 
premiums to encourage the induftrious ; pay the expence of 
fmall tiemporary inclofures, to enable them to experience the 
utility of Town grafles ; and allow meKoration for comfortable 
houfes. A number of farms have undergone judicious di« 
viGons of from 20 to 60 acres each. ' Cufioms and carriages 
have been converted ; run ridges have been aboliflied ; and, 
it is not doubted, that proper leafes will be given to tliofo 
who difcover a wifh to improve. Nor will they experience 
that this treatment of their inferiors will run in oppofition 
to their intereft. The above mentioned di\ rfjon of the farms 
they will find particularly beneficial. Frr^m the too preva- 
lent praftice of uniting fmall farms, it is coofeflcd that a. 
proprietor may have his rents collefted with fomewbat Icfe 


^ KiUiatnan. 345 

ttoiible, and his property maybe brought with more rapidity 
to its otmoft value } but this plan is certainly objefkionablc, 
for two reaions of indifputable importance. \ft^ Snppofe 
the mode of farming the famei it is clear that the occupier 
of 30 acresi being the aBual labourer^ is able to pay a higher 
rent than can be afforded by thofe who employ Tcfranu at 
extravagant wages, and are ofteo^ through their negligence 
or lulhiny, ezpoled to impofition and confiderable lofies. 
The different operations of hufbandry are performed oa 
farms of this extent, not by the carelefs menial, but by the 
united exertions of a fimily, happy in themfelves, and each 
feeling an iritereft ib aAing his part. Bilit, idly^ In a na- 
tional viewi the confolidation of farms is ftill more fefloufly 
objedtonable. Its t&t& is immediate depopulation. It com- 
pels the poor aborigmss^ « Patriae fines et Julcsa linquere 
•< arva^ to emigrate, friendlefs and unprotefted, to other 
countries ; or to crowd into towns, with the view of grafp- 
ing at the caitial fburces of earning their pittance, which 
may occur. 

<< HI fares the land, to hafi'hiog ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay t 
Princes and lords may floorifli or may fade, 
A breath-can make them as a breath' has made; 
But a bold peafantry, their country's pride. 
When once deftroy'd, can never be fupplvM. 
Their beft companions, innocence and heahh. 
And their beft riches, ignorance of wealth ^J* 

Were it poffiUe to mtroduce the improvements of modern 

hulbandry.on farms of the above extent, juft fufficient to oc» 

cupy- the attention, and incourage the exertions of the aAual 

Vol. XVII. X z labourer, 

• Goldlinith's Dcferted Village. 

24^ Statijlical Account 

labourer, aided by hi« family, (and poffiblc it furcly is bjr 
degrees) that point, it is conceived, would be attained, which 
would happily conabine humanity with public utility, and the 
real intereft of the proprietors with the happinels of thou- 
fands of their fellow creatures. 

U^ii/,— The valued rent of this parifh, including that of 
Weftcr Kcflbck, annexed, quoad facroy to Kiloauir Wetter, is 
1 873 1. I a 8. 7 d* Scots. The real grofs rent exceeds aooo 1. 

Popttlathn,— In order to afcertun the comparative popa- 
lation betwixt the years 1755, (when the return was made 
to Dr Webfter), and 1795, it is neccflary to oWcrvc, that its 
boundaries have undergone confidcrable alterations, in con- 
fequence of a decreet of the Court of Teinds, paflcd in the 
1 756, annexing the neighbouring parifli of Suddy to thofc 
of Killearnan and Kilmuir Weftcr. The moft accurate me^ 
thod will therefore be, to compare the returns of the three 
parifhes of Killearnan, Suddy, and Kilmuir Wetter, as ftatcd 
in the 1755, wkh thofe of Killearnan and the united parifhes 
of Kilmuir and Suddy. 

The exa£l population of this parifli was» in February 1794, 
Males, above 7 years of age -* — 505 

Females above 7 years — — 517 

Males below 7 years — .^ .i— 68 

Females below 7 years - - — 57 

The number of fouls was, on the above date 1 147 

As there are many of the inhabitants of this parifli of the 
Epifcopal (formerly the Nonjuring) perfuafion *, by whom 


• Above 300. 

cf Killearnanm 347 

H is believed no regifier is Icept ; and as a confideraUe num- 
ber from other parifbes are interred in the burying ground 
of this oaei and vice ver/a, it is impoiEble to ft ate with pre« 
cifion the number of birthsi marriages, or burials. It may, 
however, be remarked, that from id February 17949 to ift 
February 1795, there it an increafe in tliat of each beyond 
any thing recolleflcd. As far as the fciOon rcgiAer goes *, 
fhe births have been, 





































.3ut through the prevalence of a putrid fever, the burials for 
the year 1794 have borne a ftriking proportion. 

There are in the parifh, paying from 61. to <5ol. rent, 

Farmers — «— — 61 

Shoemakers — • •— .^ 14 

Weavers and apprentices -^ -^ 21 

Taylors and ditto — « . _ 14 

Smiths and ditto — « _ ^ 

Houfe- carpenters, cart and wheel wrights 9 

Millers and fervants — — 5 

Mafons •— — — 8 

Antiquities.^^XJnitr this head, there are few particulars 
worthy of notice. There are two confiderable antient flruc- 


• It includes only ihofc who were baptized by the eftablifii.- 
ed minifier. 

34^ Sfaiijlical Account 

tures, Kiltoy and Redcaflle, the manor places of the heri- 
tors, which have evidently been buiit more for defence than 
&r elegance, or comfortable accommodation. The latter 
(probably thus denominated from the colour of the ftones of 
which it is built) was annexed to the Crown, with the lord* 
fhip of Rofs, aftm 14551 ^^^ ^^^ rights of a burgh of barooy, 
with thofe of a free port, holding weekly markets, levying 
tolls and anchorage dues, together with all other baronial 
privileges, not exprefsty abrogated by the jurildiAion aA, 
17148. At the beginning of laft century, Redcaftle was a 
place of confiderable ftrength. In the 1646, foon after 
Montrofe was forced, qr rather permitted, by MrJdIeton, to 
raife the fiege of Inyernefs, Rory M<Kenzie of Redcaftle 
joined him, together with his chieftain and clan, in that, re- 
monftra^ce agamft the procedure of the Covenanters, for 
which Seaforth was foqn thereafter ei^communicated. 

In the 1649, ^^^ M'Kenzies, exafperated at the King's 
death *, and vowing revenge, projefted an expedition to the 
fouth. Joining a party of Sutherlands, they, in number 
about 1500, crofTed Kellbck and Beauley on Sunday the 3d 
May : Coming to Inyernefs in time of divine fervicc, the 
ringing of bells was foon fucceeded by the noife of dmins 
and bagpipes. The alarmed inhabitants, haflily fummoned 


* The writer finds the following lines in an old manofcript, 
faid to have been written by Montrofe on the fea beach, with 
the point of his fword, on receipt of the intelligence of Piarlcs's 

Great, ^ood, and jofl, could I but rate, 
• My griefs, and thy fo rigid fate, 
I'd weep the world to fuch a drain 
As (hould it deluge o'er again. 
But fmce thy loud tongu'd blood demands fupplies^ 

More from Briarias^s hands than Argus's eyes, 

I'U fmg thy obfequies with trumpet founds, 
And write thy epitaph with blood and w6unds« 

9f Kilkaman. 349 

from cborthf were obliged to provide the beft lotertainment. 
Their goeftsi however, were fo delicately nice, that it was 
found Decenary to bribe their teeth into exercife^ by laying 
on every man's cover what tbey called argiod cagmJb^ chew* 
iag money* 

From Invernefs they marched through Murray^ and, cro& 
fing the Spey, encamped near. Balvany Caftki the property 
ot the Marquis of Huntley, But amidft the revelry which 
rcfulted from confiderable plunder^ and unfiiipeAing feca« 
rity> they were luddenly attacked by Colonels btrachan an^ 
Kerr, Ocieatedy and almolt ali made prifoners, Strachan, im- 
proving his victory, lent a party to beiiege Redcjfile, which 
was garriibned, m the proprietor's ablence, by his fqns and 
dependants* A lieut. M*Bean was ient to fuo^mon it to 
furrender 1 bat he was fired at from the wallsi and killed. 
This fo enraged the aflailants, that they ftormed, took, and 
burnt it to the ground. M*Bean's covenanting firiends look- 
ing on the M^Kenzie territory as unhallowed, conveyed his re* 
mains to have • the privilege of Chriftian intermei^t among 
the Frafer*s at Kirkhill ; where a flag f^ill covers his grave» 
bearing this infcription, Here layes one of David's Wor* 

Cdms.'^Thttt are on the confines of this pariflb afionifli- 
ing numbers of thefci fome of them of uncommon magni- 

The fervants of a neighbouring proprietor, when lately 
taking away the ftones of one for an inclofurc, found a (tone 
cofiin in the centre. This, with feveral other circumftances^ 
evidently mark them as indeies of the ferocious fpirit of an- 
tient times. The moft confiderable were probably gathered 
in memory of the chieftains, or thofe who had been moft il- 
loftrious for deeds of valour««— 'C^nJ^ mi chcb or do cbaam 


^ David Leflie. 

356 Statyiical Account 

1 — I Ihall add a ftooe to your cairOi was, among the High- 
landersi the valediAory exprcffion of gratitude or efteem. 
. There is one Druidical tempki Cairn- Irenao^ formerly 
mentioned, probably the moft complete in this country. 

To the fouth-eaft of Redcaftle, about 400 yards within 
flood- mark, there is a cairn of confiderable dimenfions. Ma- 
ny of the ftones, notwithftandiog their coUifion through the 
violence of the tidei ftill bear the marks of art, and indicate 
the exiftence of a confiderable building at fome very remote 
period. There are feveral cairns of this defcription in the 
Frith, about the origin of which even tradition is filent. 
Were there any veftiges of tumuli on which they could have 
been built, or any other circuinftances which ihould indi- 
cate the eligibility of the fcites on which they are placed, 
we might be induced to look on them as temporary afylums 
from the predatory incurfions of rude and barbarous tribes; 
but none fuch exift. Urns have been found in one of them, 
which, with other circumftances, induced Dr Campbell * to 
be of opinion, that the Romans muft have been thus far 
north. The cairns he fuppofes of Danifh origin. An ia- 
genious countryman f has gone farther, and fuppofes that a 
confiderable part of the area which is dry at ebb tide, but 
covered with from 2 to 16 feet water when it flows, bdng 
at lead 10 iquare miles, muft have been inhabited. 

Whatever may have been in this, the proximity of this 
arm of the fea is of very confiderable utility to this and the 
neighbouring parifhes, as, exclufive of the facility with which 
/coals, lime, wood, and other necefTaries are conveyed, it fur- 
niflies a variety of fiih, and particularly herrings, in their fea^ 
fon, which have been fometimes fold 100 for 1 cL Sprats, 


• Polit. Survey, vol. I. p. a 1 7. 

t Mr Frafrr, miniflcr of Kirkhilt, No. 2. Philofoph. TranC 
I cannot recoiled the precife number, it may be about tbe a<{o. 

tf killeamofu 35^ 

fandals, fiininps, floundersi and other fmall fifhesj are taken 
during fummer and harveft in what we call yares, a contri* 
vance fo common as not to require defcription. 

2>5^7/m^/.— There are 7 licenfed ftiib,of 30 gallons each^ 
in this pariflii yielding an annual re?enue of 3 1 5 1. ; but 
confuming a rery confiderable proportion of the produce* 
It is much to be regretted tbut the price of ardent fpirits 
has not rifen in this part oT the countrji in proportion to 
the advance of tax. The difttllers having in general no ca* 
pitali are frequently under a neceffity of felling their whillcy 
at a coniiderable dffadvantage $ and the number who are 
thus fituatedi fupply our confined martet fo abundantly, 
that thofe who are poflefied of capitals cannot avail them^ 
lelves of them b^ a retention of the commodity, until the 
advance in price fliould yield a reafonable profit. Of conft- 
quence, while barley fellsi as it now does« at a guinea' per 
i)oII, the price of the gallon is only 3 s. and it is actually re 
tailed in our dram boufes at 3 s« 8 d. which is no more than 
it fold for before the laft additional 50 per cen^ was kvied 
on each ftill. Hence it is evident, that that tax has no efie£k 
in rendering fpirits more inacccffible to the lower ranks, and 
that it is principally, if not altogether, paid by the diftillet 
out of his profits, not by the confumer ; how far he is able 
to afibrd this will be feen thus : The quantity of barley al« 
lowed to be ^iftilled by each poflTefTor of a 30 gallon fiill, is 
188^, fo that 4 bolls, the quantity ufually diftilled at a time., 
pay about - - • • L. o 19 6 

The price of barley may be averaged at 19 s. be- 
ing for this quantity - - - 3 16 
Fire, without including carriage for 3 or more 

miles - • * • *oioo 

Carried forward L. 5 5 

^5t StBtifikal Acemni 

Brought over L; 5 $ <> 
CandteSf bandages, tear and wear of diftilliog 

otenfib - * - ---050 

Attendance for 8 days and 8 nights^ carriages to 
' and from millsj ezpence of makingi the kiln*^ 

drying, &c, &c. valued at • « e to o 

Total expence ^ • L. 6 o o 

The average produce of each 4 bolls is highly rated at 9 
Scotch, or 36 Engliih gallons, apd the average price equally 
ib at 13 s. 4 d. per Scotch, or 3 s. 4 d. per Englifli, (ay 6 1, 
The ref ufe for cattle may be worth ; 8« whith is in fa£t th« 
Mly profit to be derived from diftilling ia this comlvf i 

It will be aiJLed, Why then fo many diftiHerics i For theft 
leafcAS : Diftilling is almoft the only method of Goavertrag 
our vi^al into eafh for the payment of rent aofd fefvants ; and 
whiiky may, in faft, be called our Aaple commodity. The 
dMtillers do not lay the proper value on their time and 
trouble, and of conrfe look on all, but thie price of the barley 
and fire added to the tax, as. clear profit ; add to thefe the 
luxury of tafling the quality of the manufafture dormg the 

A very b^eficial aheration in the dtiliUery law wcMd be 
a more frequent renewal of licences \ fuppofe 6 months in- 
fiead of I a. As it now exifts, the diftjUer becomes bosmd 
for 4 s 1. for a 30 gallon ftill, from the ift December to the 
ift December, let the ' prices of barley and fpirits be what 
they may } of coorfe, he is under the neccfixty of continuing 
to diftil, however exorbitant the firft, or cheap the hft. This 
has two bad confequcnces, when a crop is unprodudlvc, it 
raifes the price of meal on the one hand, and renders 
fpirits a dangerous drug on the other. The above alteration, 


cfkUleamam 353 

Without idiuring the revenue *, would, in a great meafure^ 
.prevent both. The ^rice offpirits woi^ld find its level in 
proportion to that of grain, and the mean of intoxication 
would not ofier itfelf to the lower ranksi with fuch pernicious 
facilitj as it now does in coofequence of a glutted marketi 

jFW.*-»The only firing in this pariih is a yellow fpongy 
mofs, now almoft entirely exhaufted, and the wretthcd turf 
pared off the common. Nemrcaftle coals are ufed by thofe 
who can afford the outlay of caflii together with burn wood 
and peatS| fubjedting fuch a family as the incumbent's, for a 
fire in tf room and a kitchen, and occafionally in bed robmi^ 
to. an annual heavy ei^nce of from 10 to 14 L f^ 

Several cireumftances indicating the exiftence of coals have 
occurred in different part) of this country $ but a peculiar 
difadvantagt which prevents diicoveries oi this kmd is, that 
the pcrfons who are beft qualified to make Ihem, and who 
are of courfe employed, are^ in general, notonoufly interefted 
in craihing the attempt. Until fome man of Iktll and Ipirit 
ihall be induced, by a pi^icipation of the protiti>, or other* 
wife, to make proper experiments, we (hall probably remaia 
as we are, in the want of this very effential comtort of life. 

Imprcvemints.-^UndtT this head, it is pleafing to remark^ 

Ihat the progrefs, in fome particulars, has of late been rapid. 

Vol. XVII. ^^ "^^ 

• Any poflible injury to the revenue could arifc only from 
the diminution of the quantity, aiid of courfc of the confumpt of 
ardent fpxrits. Bj the law, exportation is not permitted ; and 
confequently* however much the market may be ovcrftocked* 
the inhabitants of this diftrid of country are literally compelled 
to drink the fuperabundance. 

+ We have hitherto, from th^ advance in freight, feamcn's 
wages, &c. experienced very little benefit from the fuppreflioa 
cf ihe partial Red*head tax. 

354 Siatiflfcal Actount 

To Mr Grant of Rcdcaftle the fuccceding gcncrition Will fe 
much indebted for his exrenfire plantations of oak, larch, 
planctrcc, a(h, elm, and Scotch fir, fenced by at lead 20^000 
yards of an inclofure ; but, however great the exertions of in- 
dividuals may be, a bar has hitherto prefented itftlf to the 
general -improvement of the country, in an extent of odap- 
propriatcd /»«/>, perhaps the moft confidcraWe in Great Bri- 
tain. It is lamentable to obferve, that tht peninfula foraicd 
by the Friths of Beauly and Dingwall, (commonly defigned 
the Black Iflc) contains, it is belicfed, from 30 to 40 fquare 
miles, abundantly capable of improvement by agriculture or 
planting, which ftill continued in their natural ftate, not 
worth one penny per acre, yet a continual fource of jealou(y 
betwixt the conterminous proprietors. It is the more fo, as 
the propriety of a divifion is admitted on all hands as iht 
power of the Court of Sefiion, under the aA i<^$) to carry 
it into eneA is Undoubted, ^nd as nothing is wanting but co- 

Some of the proprietors arc now induced to look to the 
well knovrn philanthrophy of the AgriculturtU Boards for 
that cffeftual interference for carrying this very defil^ab^e ob- 
jcft into effift, which might prove tedious, vexatious, and 
irkfomc, to any private individual. It would be an objeft 
highly defcrving of their attention, which, whhout fiibjcfting 
them to a fliiUing of expence, would moft materially contri* 
bute to the good of their country. 

EcdcfiitjT.Ciil Staie. — The prefent incuaibent was admitted 
afllftant and iucc^flor to his father on the 3d March 1790, 
in confcqucnce of a fign manual from the Crown, and a prc- 
fentation from Kenneth IVPKenzie, Efq ; the rcprcfcntative 
of the family of Cromarty. 

He Inclines to believe that the right of patronage belongs 
to the latter. 


tf KilbamMU $$$ 

The ftipeftd of Eilcnuir Wefter, and Saddjr» wd that of 
this parifli, are prccifely the fame, beiog nine chalders and 
one boll of bear, three chalders and three boils oat meaU and 
ninety eight pounds nine (hillings and ei^^ht pennies Scotch 
money. It is^ however, marked by thcfe peculiar circum- 
ftances, that the lands of one heritor do not pay a boll more 
than they did anno 1695, nor tfaofe of the other proprietor 
more than in the year 1721 » and» however paradoxical it 
may appear, the laft is in fa£t coniiderably the gaintr by the 
quantum of ftipend payable by his property. It was pur. 
chafed at a judicial fate — a full fifth of the property, or what 
is the fame thing, of the rent, was previoufly ftruck off bj 
the Court of Sei&on as teind. While the purchafer was un- 
der the neceffity of taking a tack of the free teind, he wa$ 
of courfe not a fhiHing in advance for the exhaufted part, 
(f. e.) for tfa^ lands paying ftipend. 

But while the living remains, in Jlaiu quo, the mioifter's 
portion of the property^ (may not this name be given it on 
paper) ? bears its proportion of a confiderabie augmentation 
•f rent, fuppofe 20 per cent. 

The glebe may be about 6 acres arable and pafture. The 
names of two villages in the parifh, ChappUtown and Spittal *, 
corroborating fome confufed traditions, indicate the txiltence 
of two religious houles at fome remote period, one dedicated 
to a Popifli Saint, the other belonging to the Knights of 
Malta. . There are at prefent none of the Roman Catholic 
periuadon, nor any who profefj* to differ from the eftablilh- 
ed church, the Scotch Epiicopals (who arc rather more than 
a fourth part of the number of inhabitants), excepted. 

Poor. — We have no parochial affcffment for their fupport* 
There arc, at an average, 35 on the roll, who, for feveral 


♦ HofpitaU 

J|t Smyiieal Accomt 

yean, have only had the fcanty weekly coUediodS diftriboted 
among them, fcldom amounting to above 5 L when Icffiott 
clerks and officers dues are dcdu£led| 15.0 L belonging to the 
poor of this parifli were given to the late proprietor of Red> 
caftle on perfonal fecurity ; hb property was feqneftrated, 
•nd judicially fold^ anno 1789; and while thefe crediton 
who had heritable bonds were all paid, principal and intereft, 
and fuch as accepted of themj liquidated penalties, the widow 
and orphan have not, for many years, received a penny of 
cither, and are now involved in a procefs of ranking, of which 
the termination and refult are yet uncertain. 

The poor of the two neighbouring pariflies are in the fame 
predicament, which is mentioned as a caveat againft over- 
firained delicacy in the requifition of proper fecurity, by all 
who are intruftcd with the management of public funds \ 
and particularly by thofe who z€t for the indigent and the 

The number of itinerant poor has undergone a very pleai^ 
ing (Jeer cafe of late, by the introduAlon of a branch of the 
Invernefs hemp manufactory. 

An agent diilributcs hemp to be fpun for faiUdoth, and 
pack*(hreting, furnifhing an eafy employment even to the 
^aged and infirm, by which they can earn from 2Td. to 6d. 
' per day. What renders this of peculiar utility to them is, 
that as they are not rcftri£ted in time, it does not prevent 
their attention to other neceifary bufincfs ; they can occupy, 
in fpinning, thofe hours which would otherwife pafs in idle- 
nefs ; and a ftimulus to exertion is found in immediate pay- 
jnent on performing their engagements with fidelity. 

, Manners of thi PecpU.—Thtk have, during the currency of 
the laft 40 years, undergone a very pleafing alteration. The 
generality of the inhabitants were thea ignorant hi the ex« 
trcmci and much difafieAed towards our civil and ecclefiaf« 


.^/Killearnm. ^Sf 

tical eftabliflnneats. As aftrikiQ^ inftance of this the fol* 
lowing circumft^nce is dientioned : The late incambent was 
fettled minifter of this pari(h. in May 175ft; ^^) ^ months 
thereafter, publicly intiaaated, sifter iermon, his intention of 
catechifing the inhabitants of a particular diftrifit on the fol« 
* lowing Tuefday ; but, on going to the houfe which hehadfix#d 
on as the place.of meeting, not above three miles from the 
church, he fc.und a convention of only a few old women. 
Having never before feen their minifter they appeared much 
agitared, telling him, however, that he might have faved 
himfelf the trouble of coming to their town as they had no 
whifky. 1 hey retired, one by one, and alarmed the neigh- 
bourhood, by frying, that a ftrange Excifemaii had juft come 
to fuch a houfe. Since that period the change is firiking ; 
the afiiduity of the minifter. In the difcb^rge of his parochial 
duties, was attended with much fuccefs ; his exertions were, 
as he has often gratefully acknowledged, powerfully aided by 
the introduAion of a • fchool, (fupported by the Society for 
Propagating Chriftlan Knowledge), at which from 60 to 90 
children have been taught gratis. The houfe of God is now 
attended with regularity and devotion } they have learnec^ 
not indeed the chearlefs refinements of modern Philofophy^ 
but in the perufal of the gofpel of peace, to find a healing 
balm to footh and to comfort them under the prefiure of all 
the calamities of life. 

May they increafe in thofe virtues which are pure, peaces 
?^ble, gentle, of good report, and eafy to be intreated I 

• The very inadequate falary payable to the parochial 
fchoolmafter is much againd the parifh ; it is only 8 I. 6 s. 8 d. 
^he o£Bce of fc^oolmaOfer has been vacant fince Martinmas, be* 
caofe no qualified perfon can be got to accept of it. What a 
pity is it that the pecuniary reward of a defcription of men, 
among the moft ufeful in fociety, (hould exceed only, in a mere 
tri^e, the wages of a common hireling* 


^5| Statijikat Aeemtt 



^(CouMTiBs OF Banff and Morat.-^Presbttert oi 
Aberlour.— Synod of Moray.) 

By the Riv, Mr Francis Leslie^ Minifier. 

Geography and Natural Hijlory. 

THE ancient name is Bocharin ; in the original (ignify« 
ing the bow about the cairn, or rocky hill, from its 
furrounding nearly three parts of the bottom of the moun- 
tain of Beneageen. The length, between the pariQi of Mort- 
lich, at the wed, and the parifli of Bellie, at the cafl, is from 
7 to 9 Englifh mites ; the breadth, from the pari(h of Bo- 
triphnie, at the fouth, to the higheft cuhivated land on the 
mountain, northward, is from 2 to 3 Englifh miles ; but the 
figure of the parifh is fo irregular, that thefe meafurcs are to 
be regarded as the mean, rather than as the particular length 
and breadth. 

The general appearance of the country may be conceived 
as an extenfive valley from ead to weft, having all the arable 
land hanging on the declivities of both fides, there being lit- 
tle or no plain on the banks of the brooks, which, riflng in 
the hills, bend their courfes to either hand ; to Fiddich, on 
the weft; and, by the eaft, turning by the norih-wcft to 
Spey. From this general defcription, Airndilly, the feat of 
Pavid M^Powall Grant^ Efq^ falls to be excepted, being de- 

lightfdlly fitnated oil a rifing groiindi above a pfettjr exten- 
five plain, hatf encircled by the Spey, in the fouth-wefterii 
end of the parifli,; near to which, a little farther down the 
river, lie the haughs of Kailymore, a part of the fame eftate, 
figniffing the great vmd s which epithet, in fome degree, it 
ftill comparatively merits. The foil here is fandy, warm, 
and fertile ; but, in general, over the reft of the parifhj it is 
a iliff, rich, deep clay, generally on a bed of lime-ftone, and 
very retentive of water, with which it is too frequently fup* 
plied, the fummit of the moantain attrafting or intercepting 
the clouds borne along from the ocean by the north and 
nortb-wefterly winds, on which account the harvefts are 
rather late \ and, though the air be moift, yet there is no 
diftemper generally prevalent. The people arc vigorous and 
healthy *, and fever?ls attain to the longeft term of human 
life, there being at prefent fevefal men, each 80, and one 
woman accounted 100 years of age. 

The water of Fiddich, turned almoft at right angles, from 
an eaftern to a northern courfe, along the weft end of the 
parifti, fteals in to the river 8pey, which is only navigable 
for floating timber down from Strath Spey, part of which is 
manufaAured into plank, deal, fpar, and fcantling, by two 
faw-mills at the Boat of Brigg. It is hardly neceftary to no. 
tJcc here the excellent falmon caught in the Spey, as the 
public are already fufticiently apprifed of this particular. 

The charter of Moray has preferved the memorial of the 
bridge over Spey at this place. Part of the foundation of 
the fouthern pier ftill remains. It has been fuppofed the 
bridge was of timber. Here alfo flood the Chapel of St Ni* 
cbolas-r-^^ Ad recepttonem Pauperum iranfeuntium!* Both thtf 
bridge and hoCpital were extant in the year 1232 ; but few 
particulars of their hiftory or deftruftion remain. 


0U . Statl$ical Acami 

It may be mentioned, that it is fuppofed pra£ticabfe fd 
buU4 a ftone-bridge here foraboat the fum of 3000 1. Stei^ 
ling, whicbt beiides certain conveniences peculiar to this 
fituation, would comprehend alfo all the requifite accommo- 
dation to the public ; for, if the high-way were continued 
from where it joins the road between Keith and Fochabeny 
at the fouth end of the lad of thefe villages, in the fhorteft 
courfe, to the Boat of Brigg, the diftance from CuUcn to El- 
gin would not be increafed above 5 Engliih miles on the 
whole, on a road as firm, and le(s cxp<^d to depth of inowj 
than the prefcnt high^way from Fochabers to Elgin* 

Pofulation.^-The ancient ftate of the population of tha 
parifh cannot now be afcertained, farther than th^ it does 
not appear that the number of .farm*houies,- or the extent of 
^able land ^. has been any way materially altered from whal 
they were in times very remote. 

.. Of late years, the population has been rather on the de« 
creafe,. owing to feveral fmaller farms, on which from 2 to 
6 families refided, being reduced into a fingle £u:m, and oc- 
cupied by a iingle family. 

At prefent, the number of perfons amounts to 1294, of 
whom 588, are males, and 706 females. 

They all refide in the country, and follow the occupf^tion 
of hu(bandry» with the exception of the few ccaftfsncn who 
are requifite for that objcA, and for the more immediate ac- 
commodation of the people. There are oone^ho have left 
the parifh for want of employment ; yet a few go fouthward 
an fummer, on account of the higher wages given in that 
part of the kingdom. 

There has never been any accurate regifier kept of bap- 
tifms, marriages, or, burials. Thefe particulars, thercfbrct 
tatmot witJb^ an^ (atisfaAory precifion be afcertained. 

. Prodi4Skn$ 

ef Bohariiu Jff t 


'ph^uahns of the Parifii.— Oats, barky, and pcaft, are'thd 
icinds of corn prihcipallj raired. There are fields of fown 
grais, liearingi however, little proportion to the natural lie 
grais and common pafturage. Of the corn, there may be 
about two third parts in oats, the remaining third in barley 
and peaici In which part the potatoe and flax may be alio 
included. ^ 

The oats ^nd peafe are fown from the beginning of March^ 
as the fealbn allows, to near the middle of May j and the 
barley feed-time b generally completed before the ift of 
June. The harveft begins from about the middle of Auguft 
to the middle of September; In fome years, of late, it has 
not begun before the firft week of OAobel". Its concliifion, 
of courfe, muft ht at difiirrent times i and it has been, of 
late, accounted early, if completed by the end of November^. 

On the eftate of Aimditly, if the di&rent banks and 
clumps be regarded as a wholes there is a confiderable ex* 
tent of natural wood,' itt t^hich wild cherries, pluiiibs, and 
geens, are interfperfed. On this eftate there are alfo exten- 
five pUntations of fir and pine; and other foreft trees ; and 
fimilar plantations have alfo rifen up on the eftate of Auch- 
iuncart, and on the lands in this parifh appertaining to the 
Earl of Fmdlater^ tod which «re dot dcftitute of natural 


ilie blaek cattle among the country tenants^ though not 
6f great bone, *«re accounted handfome, and of a fine figure. 
The ordinary pricfc of a yoke of oxen may be from 8 L to 
15I. Sterting; and fome hare been fold at a higher rate^ 
A milk cow may fell from 3 1. or 4 L to 6 1. Sterling ^ and a 
icore of weddersy with the fleece^ ftom 6U to 9 L Sterling. 

Mifcellatmus.'^lx, muft be accounted a difadvantage to the 

greater part of the parifli> that it is fo much expofed to rata 

Vai..XVIl/ Z% ui 

^z Staiiftical Accmnt ' 

]n the end of rummer, and durmg the autumn ; and, ironi 
the coldncfs of the foil, the fnow lies long in the fprkig, fo 
that the (eafons are later ; much of the corn not fully ripen, 
cd ; much loft ; and much vexatious trouble in harvcft, evils 
to which the oppofite fide of the Spcy arc comparatively not 
expofed ; while, on the other hand, the near and more eafy 
accefs to the cattle fairs during the fummer, the abundance 
of natural pafture and lime-none, are advantages which the 
neighbourhood on the north fide of that river do not fo 
amply poflTefs. 

The parifli is at prefent poffefled by 4 heritors. David 
M^Dowall Grant, Efq; has' the lands of AirndiHy, Papecn, . 
Newtown, Gallval, and Auchmadies. The Earl of Flndiater 
holds the barony of Mulben, the lands of Cairirty and Mut- 
dciry, Andrew Stewart, Efq; .writer to the %net, has the 
barony of Auchluncart. Archibald Duff of Drummoir, Efq; 
has the farm of Kriocan. The valued rent of the ^parifli is 
2840 1. Scotch. The real rent of the wholt has not been 

The Scotch is the only language fpoken in the parifli ; 
but, with a few exceptions, the names of the places belong 
to the Earfe tongue. 

There are no funds for the fupport of the poor, except 
two fmall mortifications, amounting only to 81. ids. Stcrl. 
together. The number of poor on the roll may amoont to 

The t\nn of the caftle of Gallvall is the only remain of 
any thing that can be deemed aatiquity in the pariih. It 
"Was built fronting the eafV, on the north fide of the valley 
towards the weft cm end, where the declivity hath fallen 
more gently into an inclined plain, and (hot a promontory 
mto the deep defile, formed by the courfe of the ftream of 
Aldermy ; fnugly (heltered from the northern blaft> with an 




enliveoing exteot of arabk field, rifiog behind on either 
hand ; a itixuriant landfcape, fpread weftward on the wind- 
ing banks of the Fiddich, glittering through the meadows 
and woods, decorated bj the fteady battlements ot the caftiet 
of Balvenie and Auchendown» each on its own green hiil^ 
and terminated by the fummits of the blue mountains, ranged 
at a diftance around, fecming to debar all irruption upon the 
fequeflered vales. It bore little refemblance to the other 
caAles of the feudal lord^, whole towers^ cr iquare or rounds 
of various heights and form, projected for the protection of 
the intermediate walls. It appears to have been a iimple 
Aru£iure 6f an 1 19 by 24 feet within, divided by an internal 
wall, fo as to form two halls on the ground floor, one 6^, 
and the other 54 feet in length. The windows were only 
20 inches wide, though the walls were 8 feet thick, built up 
in frames of timber, for keeping in the fluid mortar whic^ 
was poured into the dry flone-wall, when raiftd to a certain 
height. The front and corners were neatly fiuifhed with 
free-flone from the quarries of Dufiiis, at the diltance of 20 
miles, on the other Ode of Spey, the neareil where I'uch 
i\one could have been procured. The front and gables are 
now entirely broken down ; but, within thefe 50 years, they 
ftood to the height of fcveral (Tories. About tUat period, 
i'everal fllver fpoous were found among the rubbifh» having 
the handle round, and hollow like a pipe ; and the concave 
|)art, or fhell, perfcftly circular. 

This bulky fabric, which on the eaf^ern front had lower 
external accommodations, in the year 1 200 was denominated 
Caftellum dc Bucharin. It then belonged to the Frefltyns 
of Duffus, by whou) it was no doubt built. By aiTuming the 
title De Moravia^ from their connedlion with that country, 
they became the author of that flrname. They were once 
poflliflTeJ of many a fair domain in the north, namely^ Ouffus, 


^€\ Siatfftical JcAunt 

Daldavie, Dalvey, Inveralkn, and Kirkdales, in Siflfrajr^ 
Airndilly, Aikenwall, Boharm, Botriphnie, then Botrathin^ 
Einermonie, then Cere Ednermonth, in Batlff (hire ; and in 
Nairn or Invemeis, Brachlie^ Croy, Ewan, Lunyn, and Petty, 
as appears by the charter ofMoray^ from the iioo to 1286. 
At this day, they are reprefented» iii the 20th generation, 
by the Duke of Atholl, Captain Sutherland of DaSiis, and 
Mr Murray of Abercairny. 

It is alfo by the charter of Moray inftru£ted, that, be- 
tween the year 1203 and 1222, William, the fon of William 
Frrikyn, obtained the confent of Brucins, Bifhop of Mor^, 
for buiidfng a domeilic chapel, for the more commodious 
performance of the offices of devotion* It ftood on its own 
. confecrated burying-groand, forfaken only in the conrfe of 
the laft^6o years, about go yards from the north end of the 
caflle; and, though only 24 by 1 2 feet within, mnft have 
been the parent of the prefent parifli church, which, with 
feveral others, was crcfted at the private ezpence of James VT. 
for civilizing the north of Scotland, in the year 16 J 8, ac 
which period the parifh of Airndilly may be fiippofed to 
have been annexed. 

A part alfo of the parifh of Dundurcos has been of late 
conjoined, and a new church erefted about tWo miles eafi^ 
ward, in a fituation which fome fuppofe to be more centri- 
cal. But the (Upend, after both annexations, including the 
allowance for communion elements, is only yjl. ys, 2ri» 

Although it is not certainly known that any man of pecu- 
liar eminence was bom in the pariOi, yet it may be proper 
to notice, that Mr James Fergufon, the ailronomer, received 
the rudiments of his education here, under the patronage of 
the grandfather of the prefent Mrs Grant of Airndilly. Mr 
Fergufon has himielf publifhcd his Bfe : It is only oeeefiary 


tflBoharfKk 3^1^ 

^erefivre here to add» that, whfle a little boy who could 
hardly read, and employed in tending the cows^ the family 
clock was the firft objeA which elicited thofe fparks of me* 
chanical genius which in due time fhone with fach a bright 
imd vigorous flatne. 

1 he people^ on the whole^ are ioduftrious, economical, 
obliging, and kind» according to thcii' manners and qrcum- 
Aances ; very attentive to the national religion \ and there 
is no remembran<;e of any having been judicially puniflied 
for the violation of the laws of morality or juftice. They 
appear, in general, to enjoy the neceflaries, and many of the 
cpmforts of life, and to be contented with that fituation in 
the world whkh has been allotted to them by Providence. 
Tkiere are ineans by which their circumftances niight be 
meUoeated } but, it being extremely probable they will not 
be a4opted, it may be deemed officious to enumerate them 

The difiiculty and ezpence of procuring hands for the 
operations of agriculture, and the want of all police, either 
conventional or legal, refpeAing this objeA, has of late been 
fo heavily and univerfally felt, that perhaps any fpeculation 
that' might contribute to turn the attention of the more dlf« 
cerniogi t^.this imerefiiog objeA, may not be deemed entire- 
ly nugatory. far as this grievance hath arifen from the diminiOaed 
value of money in the prefent opulent age, when, as in the 
days of Solomon, it may be faid ^< of Jilver^ that it is not any 
<« tMn^ accounted of ^'* it cannot be regarded as any caufe of 
compbint ; for the price of labour muft be proportional to 
that of other articles : But, in fo far as the evil arifes from 
the combined fraud, the faUehood, the ftubbomnef^, and 
the domineering infiolence of that rank of fodety, it ought 
to be repr^fiedi although in due confiftcnce with the rights 

3<?^ Staifiical Afcmit 

of men $ and tnach delicacy, in this regard, b no doubt re- 
quifite. It might tend, perhaps, to check the evil, were 
every agricultural (err^iDt, by law, obliged to produce to the 
mafier with whom he engages, and to the church- feiEon of 
the parifhi when rt^quired» a certificate from the mailer 
whom he left| granted before two le^al witnelTeSy of the 
wages which he received, and of the dilcretion» fidelity, and 
diligence, which he maintained during the period of his pre- 
ceding (ervice ; the engaging matter to forfeit equal to a 
quarter of year's wages, and the fervant as much, to the pa- 
rifh fund, for every omifilon of iuch formality; to be re- 
covered at the inftance of the caihier of the feffion, by the 
warrant of one juftice of the peace, or other judge ordinary, 
ID the fame fummary manner in which tiie fines are levied 
on the abGentecs from the ftatute labour on the roads. 

Thofe who have been attentive to the operation of any 
new law, will be able perhaps to form a judgment of the ef- 
fect of fuch an eftabliflimenc, were it fo framed as to admit 
of equal execution in England and in Scotland. It does not 
appear. that it could be attended with much inconvenience to 
either party ; add, while it would, in general, prevent im- 
pofition on the mafler who engages, by an exaggerated ac« 
count of the wages paid by the laft mader, as is now fo ge- 
nerally the cafe, it would, in many inAances, have' the efit£l 
of rendering the fervant difcreet and diligent during the 
term of his fervice, when fo much as a quarter's wages de- 
pended on his behaviour. 

Other improvements refpe£ling diet, and the hours of la- 
bour, might be fuggefted \ but it is probable the eflfeA alone 
of the certificate may render thefe unnecefTary : At any rate, 
if regulations refpeAing the contrail between mafter and 
fervant {hail be taken under the confideration of iicgiflature, 


if Bobarnu ^6f 

every thing of this kind will be maturely digefted^ and fuffi- 
ciently provided for. 

* By the naufeous draught of train oil in Lapland, and the 
more difguftlng beverage of Otaheite, it may be inferred^ 
that man cannot be fatisfied with the fimple element alone of 
water* From the different circumftances concomitant oa 
the excife law in England and in Scotland, it would not be 
difficult to inveftigate why beer has been the pirevailing drink 
among the peafantry of the fouthern, while ardent fpirits 
has ib univerfally obained among the fame rank in the 
northern end of the ifland, to which mud be attributed their 
afperated and contracted features, rather than to the hiflu- 
ence of their climate. 

The Secretary of State for this department, by the refto- 
ration of its ancient families to their paternal fortunes $ by 
jocrcafing the independence of its Judges, particularly the 
Sheriff-fubnitutes, on whom the adminiftration of juftlce 
among the poor fo much depends ; by providing tor the in* 
tercfV of the Teamen and their connedlions ; and by the re- 
peal of the tax on water-borne coal, hath merited more of 
his native country than all his predeceflbrs in office to- 
gether. Characters fo highly refpedtable are unpopular 
only among the blinded of ^ the mob. To him it would be 
cafy to model the law in fuch a manner, that beer, inflead of 
whifky, fliould in a (hort time be generally adopted by all 
the labouring people in Scotland ; and, by this means, while 
he would contribute to maintain, in a high degree, the puri- 
ty of the morals, and the foundnefs of the conditutiohs of 
his countrymen, he would at the fame time expand their 
countenances, and improve their whole exterior form, to the 
higheft elegance of fymmetcy and beauty. 


30i Statijical A'ccdufU 



(County of Perth.— Presbytery of Dunkbld.-^ 
Synod of P&rth and Stirling.) 

£f tic Rev. Mr Patrick StuailT| Miniftir, 

Namff Situation^ and Extent* 

THE namejQif this pafifh is evidently Gaelici and feem^ 
to iignify the chapel» church^yard^ or burying phce 
of the pool * ; the ruins of an old chapel, and the church^ 
yard, being fituated on a bank of the river of Lochy, and 
having one of the deepeft pools in the river jnft behind 
them. From this citcumftance the pari(h fcems to have de- 
rived its name \ but as the word Killin may fignify in Gaclicj 
toO| the burying place of Finga! f , a tradition prevails, owing 
probably to this very circumftance, that that great hero of 
the Highlanders was interred here, and that it is thence that 
the pariih derives its name. A fmall eminence in the neigh- 
bourhood of the village of Killin, has been accordingly 
pointed out as his grave, bur on being opened fome years ago, 
ho veftige appeared of any peribns having been interred 
there. The parifli is fituated in the north-weft comer of 
the county of Perth, in the diftri^t called Breadaibane, and 
in the prcfbytery of Dunlceld,' and fynod of Perth and StiN 


^ Killin. 569 

liDg. It is about 28 ftatute miles in lengthy and^ in moft 
places, from 6 to 8 miles io breadth. It is bounded by the 
pariih of Kenmore on the eaft, hj the pariibes of Coinric and 
Balquidder on the fouth, by the parifli of Arrochar ob the 
Ibuth-weft, by that of Clochandyfart or Glenorchay on the 
weft, and by parts of the parifh of Fortingal in Gicniyon on 
the north. From the parifh church, which is fituated in 
the village of Killin, at the weft end of the lake called Loch-^ 
Tay, the parifh extends 8 miles eaft along t e fouth fide of 
that lake, an4 to the weftward about 20 miles, through a 
valley, the eaft end of which is named Glendochart, and the 
weft end of it Strathfillan. A village called Glenfalloch which 
breaks off from Strathfillan, and is about 7 miles in lengthy 
lying towards the fouth-weft, belongs alfo to the parifh of 
Killin. Towards the north lies Glenlochy, a valley about 
10 miles in length. It is feparated by a ridge of mountains 
from Glendochart and Strathfillan, and runs parallel tothem^ 
terminating, like Glendochart, in a pretty extenfivc plain, at 
the weft end of Loch-Tay. Moft of the farms in Glei.lochy 
belong, according to the antient arrangement of thefs pa« 
rifhes^ to the neighbouring pari(hes of Kenmore and Wcem^ 
but^ from their vicinity, depend entirely on Killin for church 
privileges, though not formally annexed thereto, quoad facra^ 
and the cafe is the fame with the farms to the eaftward of 
the village of Killin, for two or three miles alongftthe north 
fijcle of Loch«Tay. 

&i7 and Surface, — The foil of the greater part of this pa- 
rifli is light and dry, but abundantly fertile when the feafon 
is favourable. As it lies moftly on gravel, however, it is apt 
to be parched up in dry fcaibns, particularly alongft the de- 
clivities of the hills. A confiderable part of the foil in the 
parifh too is wet and marfliy. This kind abounds uioft in 
the plain which lies at the weft end of Loch-Tay, and in the 

Vol. XVII. 3 A bottoms 

37^ Siatifiical Account 

Ijottoms of the valleys of Glcnlochy and G1endochart» wbick 
arc fubje^l to the overflowings of the rivers of Lochy and 
Dochart running through them. Thefe rivers, being fad* 
denly fwelled by the rains, defccnd frequently with coafi* 
dcrablc impetuofity, overfl.)wing their banks, to the no fmaU 
prejudice of the fields and meadows which lie along the fides 
of them. The furface of the ground in the parifh is gene- 
rallv unequal. The bottoms of the valleys arc moAly level, 
confiding chiefly of meadows and ar^ible ground. The hills 
rife with a gentle flope, and are cuhivated and inhabited in 
many parts a good way up. They rile, in many places, to a 
confiderahle height, and carry rich grafs to the- very top. In 
the higher parrs of them, it is generally interfperfed with 
pretty rank heath, which the fhepherds of late years have 
been at pain<i in burning, and the fheep, fince the more ge« 
neral introduflion of them into the country, contribute to 
keep under. 

Lakes and Rivers, — Loch-Tay, by the fide of which a great 
part of the parifh of Killin lies, is the only remarkable lake 
in the country. It is a frefh water lake, 15 Englifh miles in 
length, and reckoned about a mile in breadth. It lies from 
weft to eaft, and out of it the river Tay iflues. There is 
another lake at the weft end of Glcndochart, called Loch* 
dochart. It lies alfo from weft to eaft, is about 3 mtJes in 
length, and forms the boundary betwixt Strathfillan and Gleo- 
dochar|. The river of tillan f^lls into the weft end of it, 
after running for n miles through Strathfillan, and the river 
of Dochart ilTiics out of it, which runs for 8 miles through 
Glendochart, before it joins the Lochy and enters into 
Loch- Fa V. The river of Lochy^ runs for about^ jo miles 
through Gj'-nlochy, and thefe rivers of Lochy and Do- 
chart evidently give their names to each of the valleys 


' 0/ Killiru 37« 

through whkh die y run. They are but fmall^ smd moftly 
clear and rapid, being formed chiefly of the ftreams that . 
fail into them from the adjacent bills. There is another 
fmall river, earned I'alloch, which runs through Glenfalloch, 
and ieems to give ks name to that valley. It diicharges it« 
felf into the north end of Lochlomond. 

Fsfl). — Salmon and trout are the kinds of fiih that abound 
moft'in the lakes and rivers of this parifh. The' falmon of 
Loch*Tay are rich and large ; and it is a remarkable circuav» 
fiance refpeAing this lake, that, esLcepting for about two 
months in the middle of winter, the falmon are found cleaii 
therein during the whole }ear. Tbey go weft the river J^o- 
chart in coniiderable numbers in the Iprirg ai.d lummer 
months^ but few or none of them are found in th^ Lochyi 
owin^ probably to fome corifidenblc f<.lls in ihat river. 
There are iome trout of a large (ize fcunJ in Loch- 1 ay, buc 
they are rare j and the trout m the rivers of Lothy and Do- 
chart, and in iome lakes in \\\c adjacent hills, though pretty 
numerous, are generally of a ima>l iizc. Loch- 1 ay,aud the 
rivers that fall into it, have alfo eels, pike, and ^jcich in 
them. The char, too, are in the lake, but they oidmarily 
keep by the depths, fo that they are icldom got but in the 
end of autumn and beginning of winter, when they proceed 
up the rivers in great numbers to fpawn *. 

Hills and Woods. — The parifh of Killin abounds in high 


* There is a ctrcumflance not unworthy of ootice, that the 
Earl of Breadalbane has, by bis charters, the priviiege ot fiih^ 
ery for falmon upon Loch-Tay at all feaions, without any re- 
ilraint from (latutory reftriftion. This privilege is faid to have 
been intended, for fopplying with 61h the nuns of a convene^ 
upon the ifland at the eaft end of JLoch«Tay, founded, it is faid^ ' 
by one #f the Scottilh Queens. • 

§yt SfaiiJUcal Account 

Kills, whicti are not rockjTf bat coveted with graft and heath 
in mofl parts to the tops of them. The higheft inout)t»n 
in the pari(h is Benmore, which is iituated by the fide of 
Lochdochart, in the pafs betwixt Glendochaort and Strath* 
fillan. Its figure is conical, and, by htobie's map of the 
county of Perth, its elevation above the level of the fea is 
3903 teet. It was in former times a deer foreft, but is now 
converted into a lheep*walk« 

There is a coiifiderabie qaantity of wood in the parifb, 
both natural and planted ; and it thrives very well in moft 
{)arts of it. i.ven in Stratbfillan, and in the higher parts of 
the parifli, where there is now rather a want of wood, it is 
Very evident it once abounded % the trunks of trees being fo 
frequf nt in the ground, that the natives within theft few 
years made a praAice of digging them up, and ufing them 
fo/'light and futh The natural woods confift chiefly of oak, 
afh, hazel, alder, and birch ( and the plantations of Scotch 
and filver fir, plane, beech, and elm. They are now moftly 
inclofcd, and taken fufiicient care of by their feveral pro^ 

Game, £5"^.— There is a great variety of gamef both in the 
woods and hills of the pariih. The moft numeroas wild 
quadtupeds are hares of both kinds, the white and common 
hare. Roes are in fome of the woods, but they are rare. 
Wild cats, martins, weafels, badgers, and otters^ are not uo. 
common. I he fox, which was formerly fo deitruAive to 
ihc iheep of the country, is now moftly extirpated. — Of 
the winged kind, tarmagans, dotterels, and plovers, are on 
the tops of the niountains ; grous and black game in the 
hills I and partridges in the corn fields. The ravenous birds 
that prevail ii oft, are eagle?, hawks of diflferent kinds, ra- 
.vens, crowS| and magpies. Ducks of various kinds^ herons^ 


li»»gii)ltj and wild geefe» frequent the lakes attd riven. The 
cuck6o, fwallow, and other migratory birds that are common 
in the reft of the internal parrs of the kingdom, pay thek 
annual vifit here. Some birds are found in this country, 
vrhkh arc reckoned rare 5 as the fcaup^duck, the water-rail, 
the ringouzel, the greater fpotted wood-pcck^r, the nul- 
hatch, the greater and iefler red-polls, &c* 

dimate and Difeofa, — The climate is varbus, but generally 
moift and cold. This is mncH owing to the particular fitu- 
ation pi the parifli. The diftrid of J3readalbane, in which 
it lies, is one of the,highcft in Scotland, and fartheft rcmo- 
Ted from the Tea * } and as it abounds m high mountains, 
the clouds, floating m the atmofphere, frequently break up- 
on the tops of them, and fall down in rain through the val- 
leys. The fnow, too, refts long upon the hills ; and, owing 
to thefe circumftances, the fpring is generally late and cold. 
But when fummer commences, by the rcfleAion of the fun, 
from the adjacent hills, the beat is much greater tk^n in le- 
vel countries, and vegetation advances with great rapidity. 
The difeafes that prevail mod among the inhabitants are 
fiich as are principally owing to the influence of climate, as 
rheumatifms, pieurifies, &c. The people are, in general, 
however, very healthy, which is much owing to their fober 
and indttftrious mode of living. Seventy and eighty years is 
not an uncommon age attained by them, and there have 
been more than one inftance of perfbns in the parrfb who 
have outlived their toodth year within the prefent century. 


* The height of this country is Intimated by its name, Braid- 
Alhainn being a Gaelic word, which fignifies, the highefl part of 
Scotland ; and as an evidence ot its height, it is to be obfcrvcd, 
thai at Carn-drom, in the weft end of the parifli^ the waters 
divide, and run partly into the eaftern, and partly into the wcf- 
tern fea. 

^74 StaiiJIicat Acmnl 

The great mortalityt occafioncd in former years bj the foian. 
pox among the childreni has been of late in a great meafure 
prevented by the introduction of inoculation. 

State of Property. — ^The landed property of the parifli it 
divided among 5 proprietors, who all hold their lands of the 
Crown. More than half of the land in the pari(h is the 
Earl of Breadalbane's property. Mr Drummond of Perth 
has one farm theretn, on which there is a ifeu of iome acres^ 
with a long leafei and the remainder's divided among three 
gentlemen, who have each of them a right to a freehold 
qualification in the county, have places ol refidcnce, and or- 
dinarily refide in the parilh. The valued rent of the whole 
pariih is 3115 1* 6 s. 8 d. Scots. The real rent amounts to 
about 3000 1. Sterling. 

Cultivation and Produce.^^As this parifli was never com- 
pletely furveyed, the exadl number oi acres it may compre- 
hend has not been afcertained ; nor the proportion that the 
pafture ground therein bears to . the arable. The greateft 
part of the land is evidently calculated for paflure-, but 
there is alfo a confiderable quantity of arable ground, whioh 
is kept in conftant tillage. The principal crops raifed in 
this parifh are oats, peafe, potatoes, flax, and bear or big. 
Oats and peafe are fown commonly from the beginning to 
the end of April \ bear and potatoes from the beginning to 
the middle of May. A confiderable quantity ot fl^x is raifed 
in the parifli, and fown about the end of April. The rota- 
tion of crops ordinarily obferved, is to fow oats in lea ground, 
or after fallowing ; potatoes or bear after oats ; and flax af* 
ter bear or potatoes. The increafe fro^ thefe diflercnt kinds 
of feed varies much, according to the quality of the ground 
?ind the nature of the feafon. Oats generally return from 


•f Mk. 575 

3 to 4 after tbe grain fown ; barley and peafe from 3 to 5 ; 
potatoes from i o to 16; and flax from half a ftone to a flone^ 
after the lippy of feed. Owing greatly to the fcarcity of ih« 
clofores, tarnips and Town grafs are little cultivated in the 
parifhy except by a few gentlemen, with whom they anfwer 
well, and who derive much benefit from them. The harveft 
ufually begins about tbe middle of Auguft, and the crop^ 
except in very wet and cold leafons, is fecured by the end of 
September or beginning of October. 

Price of Grain and Provtfions. — ^The grain produced in 
this pariOi itfelf is never fufficient for fupplying its inhabi- 

. tants with that article. There are, befideS| fome hundred 
bolls of meal imported into it annually. The average price 
of oats here is las. of bear 16 s. and of potatoes 4 s. per 
boll. Oat meal is ordinarily fold at 16 s. and bear meal at 
I2S. per boll; but in the years 1^82 and 17831 oat meal 
fold here at 1 1. 3 s. and it. 4 s. per boll ; and the difl^crent 
crops failed fo fari in this and the adjacent countriesi in 
thefe two feafonsi that the natives of this par<fli had been 
much at a lofs for meal at any price, were it not for fome 
peafe meal brought from the fouth, which fervcd greatly to 
relieve their diftrefs. The price of beef, mutton, veal, and 
pork, is generally regulated by the prices pf our cattle mar« 
kets, being about 3 d. per lib. of 1 74 oz. — Butter is 9 d. per 
lib. of 22 oz. troh weight. — Cheefc varies in Its price, ac- 

• , cording to its richnefs and age, being from 5 s. to 7 s. per 
ftone of 22 lib. 

Price of Labour. — ^Thc price of all kinds of labour is 
greatly advanced here of late years. The wages of men la« 
boarers are i s. a day firom the ift of March to the sft of 
Kovemberi when they furnilh their own provifions. Men 


^y$ Sfatifiical Account 

working at peats are allowed 8 d. per day, and women 6 d. 
with their meat. The wages of a carpenter and mafon are 
from I s. 6 d. to 2 s. per day ; of a taylor, i s. without meat, 
or 8.d. with it. Domeftic men-fcrvants'gct from 7I. to 
lol. Sterling of wages, and women from 2 1. to 3 1. Ster- 

VlHages^ Cs'r.^Kniin and Clifton are the only villages in 
this parifh. The village of Killin is fituated at the w^ft end 
of Loch-Tay, betwixt the rivers of Lochy and Dochart, 
which join a little to the eaftward of the village^ before they 
enter the lake. The windings of thefe rivers through the 
plain at the end of the lake, and the furrouoding hills, in 
many parts ikirted with wood, ferve to render the fitu^ion 
of the village both piflurefque and iJeafant. In fummer, 
particularly, there is a variety in the fcene that moft ftran- 
gers are pleafed with \ and it is one of thofe landfcaprs that 
Mr Pennant was fo much gratified with, as to give a view of 
It in his tour. The village itfelf is but fmall, and formed 
on no regular plan. It contains only about 150 fouls, but 
the diftriA of country that furrounds it, is for feveral miles 
clofcly inhabited. Moft of the villagers are tradefmen, who 
have an acre of ground, alongft wkh a houfe and garden, 
for each of which they pay rent to the Earl of Breadalbane. 
There are 6 fairs held liere annually, at which a good num- 
ber of cattle is ordinarily fold, with a confiderable quantity 
of woollen and linen yarn, befides a variety of other articles 
imported and exported out of the country. At Killin, too, 
the family of Breadalbane held their baron-bailte courts, for 
fettling any little differences which may occur, and for mam« 
tatning order among their tenants. Clifton is a fmall village. 
Which lies in the weft end of the pariih. It contains about 


2»oo pcrlbns, who hate hith^to earned their bread princi- 
pally in working at a lead mine in that neighbourhood. 

J/i/f/, AU'houfes^ {ff^r— There are fevcral houfcs in this pa- 
rifh in which ale and fpirlts are (old, but none that defcrvd 
to be termed inns except two* One of thcle is in the vil- 
lage of Killin, and the other at Tyndrum, in the weft ind of 
the parifh, being a proj^er ftage betwixt Killin* and Dalmaly 
in Glcnorchay. A diftillery, too, has been erefted latdy in 
the neighbourhood of the village of Killin, which is the on* 
ly one in the pariih. 

Soads and Bridges.— The diftridi of Breadalbane, Jn gene* 
raly in which the pariih of Killin is fituated, is well fui-plied 
both with roads and bridges. The military road from Stir* 
ling to Fort William pafics through a great part ojF this pa*^ 
x'iih i and the improvements made lately on that line of 
road, with the great order in which it is now kept, ferve to 
render- the communication of this country with the fouth of 
Scotland, and the weft and north-weft Higlilands, eafy and 
agreeable. The country roads through the patifh were ori*- 
ginally made, and are ftiil ke|.t in repair, by the ftatute la- 
bour, which is ex^dlcd in kind. « 

StaU of the Church. — I he Earl of Breadalbane is fole pa- 
tron of r he p;<r til). Ihe church was built in 1744, and, 
were it properly finiflicd viithin^ might vie with nroft coun- 
try churches for nratntfs and elegance. Bt-fic^es the panfli 
church, which is iituated in the village of Killin, there arc 
two other chapels in the parifh, the oneat Stfathfillan*, and 

Vol. XVll. 3 B the 

• There is a bell belorsrlng to the Chapel of St Fillan, that 

, was ia high reputat on anrioiig the votaries of that faint in old 

times. U fecms to be *>f fomc mixed metaL It is about a 

foot high, and of an obiong form. It ufually lay on a grave- 

. itons 

37^ Staitflieal 4ctom 

the other at Ardeonaig ; aad it was cuftomarv for the imnW 
fter of the pari(h to preach in the three places alteraatdj. 


ftone in the church- yard. When mad people were brought to 
be dipped in the Saint's Pool, it was neceffarj to perform cer- 
taiti ceremonies, in which there was a mistare of Druidiim and 
Poperj. After remaining ail night in the chapel, bound with 
ropesi the bell was fet upon their head with great folemnity. 
It was the popular opinion, that, if ftolen> it would eitricate 
itfelf out of the thiePs hands, and return home ringing all the 
way. For fome years pad this bell has been locked np, to 
prevent its being ufed to fnperfiitious purpofes. 

It is but juftice to the Highlanders to fay, that the dipping 
of mad people in 8t Fillan's Pool, and ufmg the other ceremo- 
nies, was common to them with the Lowlanders. The origin 
of the bell is to be referred to the mod remote ages of the 
Celtic churches, whofe minifters fpoke a dialed of that Ian* 
guage. Ara Trode, one of the moft antient Icelandic hifto* 
Hans, tells us, in his ad chapter, that when the Norwegians firft 
planted a colony in Ireland, about the year 87O, ^* £0 tempore 
«' erat Iflandia (ilvis concreta, in medio montium et littorum^ 
«« Tom erant hie viri Chrif^iani ; quos Norwegi Papas appeU 
** \zTXv et illi peregre profedt funt, ex eo quod noUent eiTe hie 
^ cum viris Ethnicis, et relinquebant poft fe nolas et baculos r 
•* ex illo poterat difcerni quod effent y'xn Chriftiani." NoU and 
hajula both figniiy hand.bells. See Du Canffe. Giraldus 
Cambrenfisy who viGted Ireland about the end of the 1 ath cen* 
tury, fpeaks thus of thefe reliAs of fuperftition : '< Hoc noa 
«' praetereundum pnio, quod campanas, bajulas baculofque 
«^ undorum ex fuperiore parte recuryosy auro et argento ant 
*^ acre confeAos. tam Hiberniae et Scotiae quam et Giyalliae 
«< populus et clems in magna reverentia habere folet ; ita nt 
«( juramenta fupra haec, longe magia quam fuper evangelia, et 
** praeftare vereantur et perjurare* £x vi enim quodam oq- 
•* culta« et iis quafi divinitus infita, nee non et vindicla (cujos 
*^ praecipue fandi illi appetibiles efle videntur) plerumque pan 
*^ niuntur coutemptores*'* . He elfewhere fpeaks of a bell in 
Ireland, endowed with the fame loco-motive powers as that of 
St FilJan. Topog. Hiber. L. 3. c* 33. & L. a. c. 13. For in 
the 18th century it is curious to meet with things, which ado- 
niihed Giraldus, the sioft crlednlotis of mortals, in the I2th. St 
FtU:in i*' faid to have died in 649. In the loth year of his 
letgn, Robert the Bruce granted the church of Killin in Glen- 
dochart to the Abbey of InchafFray, on condition that one of 
the canons fbould officiate in the kirk of Strathfillan* 

if KUiifu 5^y 

But a miffioftary b now eftabUflied In each of thefe (htions^ 
with a falary of 50I. Scerliogy arifiog chie% from fandt 
monificd by the late Lady Glenorchay, and left under- the 
Bftanj^ement of the Society for Propagating Cfariftiao Know- 
lec%^ together with a manfe and glebe from the Earl of 
Breadaibane. The miffion at Strathfillan^ in the weft end 
of the parifb, comprehends alfo the adjacent parts ot the 
parifii of GlcncNTchay } and that at Ardeonaig to the eaftward 
takes in the nrfghbouring parts of the pariihes of Keomore 
and Weem. The legal ftipend of Kiilin is 55 h lis. tj^ d- 
Sterling, with a foaaiei office-houfes, and glebe The heri* 
tors give befides 35 L i8s. 8d. Sterling ot a gratuitous do- 
nation ( and the patron allows 6 L Sterling tot diipenfing 
die iacrament annually. The prelent incumbent was or- 
didned afliftant and fucceflbr to his father in the year 1780^ 
fncceeded him fai t^Bff and is the fourth that has been in 
the living fince the Revolution. Excepting one family of 
Koman Catholics, there are no fcilaries of any denpminatioa 
in the pariflu 

Schools.^^Thc parifli fchoolmafter here has a falary of 10 1. 
StcrUog from the heritors, whichi with fchool does, and 
fbme perquifife3 as feffion-clerk, makes his living a little bet- 
ter than 20 1. Sterling annually. He has alfo a houfe and 
garden, and has ordinarily about 70 fcholars, feveral of 
whom learn Latin, Greek, and French with him. There 
are 3 other fchoolmafters in the pariih, who teach only the 
reading of Englifli and Gaelic, with writing and arithmetic s 
and 3 fchoohnifirefles, for teaching fewing and knitting of 
ftockings. One of thefe fchoolmafters has a falary of 14 1, 
Sterling firom the Society for Propagating Chriftian Elnow- 
ledge^ and each of the other two has 8 1. Sterling from the 
Society, and 5 1. from the Earl of £readalbane ; and the 


38q Staiifiical Accmnt 

fchoolmifirefles have each of them 5 1. SterlxQg from the So* 
ciety annually. 

Foor* — ^The average number of poor receiving alms in this 
pariOi, and the adjacent p^irts of the parifhes oi Kenmore 
and Weem, is about 8o. The annual fund for their relief 
is about 301. produced by the coiIe£tions inthurchupoo 
Sundays, mort-cloth dues, fines on delinquents, auxl the io- 
tereft of a fmall fum appropriated ior rhcir Me. About fo 
of thefe are confined to bed, who receive the greatett part 
of their fubfilience from the charity of their neighbours iH 
more afiluent circumftances. Here it is but doing juftice tq 
the inhabitants to obferve, that they are, in general, remark* 
ably charitable. The noble family of Breadalbane, in parti- 
cular^ deierve much praife. For many years pft, they have 
been in the uic of giving meal annual :y to the poor of the 
pariChes ot JCillin and Kenmore, to the amount of above ioq 
bolls, A great number of beggars from the neighbouring 
counties infeft the parifli, particularly in the fiimmer and^ 
harvcfH: months, many of whom are, neither needful nor dc- 
ferving of charity, 

fopuiotkn. — By a late furvey, there arc at prelent 236a 
fouls in the pa^-ifli, 1135 of whom are males, and 1225 fe- 
males. Among thefe are 36 weavers, 22 taylors, 19 ihoe» 
makers, 14 wrights» 9 flazdrcflers, 7 merchants, 6fmiths, 
and 2 bakers. There are 1 1 36 inhabitants in the adjacent 
parts of the pariihes of Kenmore and Wcem. It might be 
apprehended that this parifli has been greatly depopulated 
within thefe 60 years, by the union of farms, and the num- 
ber of flieep introduced into it } and it muft be admitted^ 
that, owing to thefe caufes, ^he number of the people has 
depreafed confiderably in the higher parts of the pariih with* 

■■■:■■■■ ^ 

efKUUfu j«^ 

in that period. But| fo far as the population of the parifh 19 
to be judged of from the fe£BoD records, it may be concluded^ 
that it has increafed in the lower parts thereof, and particu- 
larly in the village of Killin, with the diftriA of country 
that furiounds.ity nearly in the fame proportion in which it 
has decircaicd in the higher p^ns. The regifter of births in 
the parifh h»s been kept with much ezaAnefs during the 
period fpeci&d. from which it appears, that the totjd num^- 
.ber of births in the pariih for 60 years, preceding the year 
]790> ampunts to 6916, at the annual average of 115, with 
Uttic differrnce. An abftr'iA of the births and marriages in 
the pariih, for 10 years preceding the year 1790, is fubjomed* 
Owing to the number ot places of interment^ no regiltcr of 
deaths has been ever kept in the pariih. 

Teart^ Births. Marriages. 













J 784 




















Sual/Hcat Aeauttt 







a s 












































^ CO m m m fo m fo en c*i <o g 

IT '5^ 


k4 P4 |i« M M m H 




OV Ci 00 0\ n M M O Cri - 

M M M M P« ^ M 




c« «^ » 0\0 O roo^co 





O 00 00 t^ TT^O O t^OO V» 

O O\oo t^^ to ^ eon "^ 


C«lOKO^00 o\0>o O^r«*oo 


S.-2^f2 i^S v> ^ CO M *. 











ISu^alif^ Jhrfii^ {9^r.~The number of horfes in the part 
sifli is comtwted to be about 400, and of black cattk firon 
1780 to i8oo« Tbey are moftly of the Highland breeds 
except a few of the lowland or mixed breedi kept by fboie of 
the gentlemen and better farmers. Stocking with (beep if 
now become lb prevalent, that all the extenfive grasings iia 
this country are laid under them. The number of Iheep 
fuppofed to be in the pari(h, at prefenty is from a6,ooo to 
97»ooo, and all of them of the Linton breed* Since pota* 
toes have become more plentiful, fwioe have become mort 
nnmeroos. There are about 15a of them at prefent in this 

Mines^ Mimrah^ isfe — ^The only mine in the parifli if a 
lead-mine, which has been wrought at Cam»drom, in the 
weft end of it, for thefe 40 years paft. But it is given up 
for the prefent, which proves a temporary inconvenience to 
a number of poor people in the village of Clifton, in its 
neighbourhood, who depended chiefly for their fubfiftence 
upon the employment they got in it. There are no mineral 
fprings of any note in the parifli. . Search has been repeat- 
edly made for coals, 'but hitherto without fuccefs. Peats, 
and fome barren timber, are the only fuel ufed. Lime*ftone 
abounds in moft parts of the parifh. 

Mifcillaneoui OtJervatMM.^^Tc^nrds the beginning of the 
prefent century, the people of the country were rather averfis 
to. indttftry« The fpirit of clanfliip which prevailed was 
Tery un&vourable to it. The difierent clans fpent a great 
part of their time in avenging thcmfelves of each other j the 
man who could beft handle his fword and his gun was deem- 
ed the prcttieft. fellow $ and the attentive induftrious man 
was a charailer held in a degree of contempt. The people, 


1^4 Siatljlical Account 

in general, were confequeittly poor, rents*were HI paid, tod 
fometimes not at alU The family of Breadalbane*, who were 
fuperiors of the country, adopted very wife plans for ks im- 
proTement. A SheriflF-fubftitute was got to KiUin for fet- 
tling differences ; a check was giTcn to knavery ; the fober 
and induftripus among the people were fupported and en* 
couraged ; and the rurbiilent and irregular expelled the coun- 
try, to which they wcfc fo much attached, that it was rec- 
koned no fmall punifhment by them. Thefe means, toge- 
ther with the happy change in the times, have had very 
good cffcfts. The people ot breid-lb.»nc arc now fober, re- 
gular, and induftrious. They are, in general, rather in cafy 
than affluent circumflances They pay their rents punAiMU 
ly, and live comfortably. Mod of the farms in the lower 
parts of the parifli are divided among (everal ten<ints. The 
arable and pafture ground being feparated, each has his $}Wq 
divifion of the arable, and their catrle feed in common in the 
pafture ground, ki this manner they live har'monioufly to- 
gether-, and pofTc/Gons defcend, particularly on the BreadaU 
bane eftate, from father to fon. Gaelic is the language gene- 
rally fpoken in the country ; but moft of the younger ncople 
underftand leis or more of the EngTifh l^inguage^ and can 
converfe in it. They make a pra£lice, when young, ot go- 
ing for feveral years to fcrvc in the low country, principally 
for the purpofc of learning the Engli/h language. I he ge- 
nerality of the people are lively and intelligent, without lie- 
ing turbulent, have a competent Ihare of knowledge, and at- 
tend religious ordinances regularly, and with great decorum. 
Scarcity of fuel, and diftance from markets are the principal 
difadvantages to which th'is parifh is fubjeA ; but th^ h\\ of 
thefe difadvantages is now greatly alleviated by the gooduefi 
of the roads leading into it| and pailing through it. 


Parish of arbuthnot. 


i>UN.— Synod of Ancits and Mearns). 
B) a Friend to Stattfiical Inqmrifi. 

Situation^ Name^ and Extent, 

THE name of this pariih was ancientlf written Abef- 
botbenoth, as appears from federal old writings extant 
in the neighbonrhood ; but whence it could be derived is un- 
certaitti as there is no ritcri or riTulet, whofe influx within its 
bounds could haVe occaiioned it^ if we except one call<:d Fo* 
thy or Forthy, which falls into the river Bcrvy, on the wef- 
tern boundary of the pariih i but that rivulet has born its 
prefent name above 600 years in the bounding charters of 
fome neighbouring cftates* Perhaps the river Bcrvy, of old, 
may have born another name, which occafioned the name of 
Aberbuthenothi by its influx into the fea, which is about a 
quarter of a mile below the extremity of this par fh. 

The parifh is nearly of an oblong tiiangular form, with the 
exception of two firms which form a pro)t.^Ion fouthward 
of the water of Bervy, which is the boundary of the reft of 
that fide, dividing it from the parilhes of Bcrvy and Garvock^ 
five miles in length. 

Upon the weft fide it is bounded by the parifties of F or dun 
and Glenbervyi or the great hollow of the Mearns, the rivers 

VOL, XVII. 3 C Bervy 

386 ^ Staiijllcal Accwnt 

fiervy and Worthy forming this line of divifion, for the mod 
part about three miles in length ; and on the north eaft fide it 
Is bounded by the parifhes in Glenbervy and Kinneff, about fix 
miles in length, back to the river Bervy, where the fouthem 
boundary commencedi forming a fliarp angle near the mouth 
of that river, 

Surfacf.'-^Hht furface is unequal, preienting particularly 
two fifing grounds or ridges, with hollows or valleys* betwixt 
them, and the boundaries of the parifli on each fide, whtre 
the ground again rifes to ftill greater height. The one of 
thefe ridges commences at the eaftern angle, running weft- 
ward about two miles, where the other begins a little ob- 
liquely upon th^ one fide toward the Bervy river, forming a 
wide hollow betwixt it and the northern bbundary, which 
reaches to the weftern boundary^ and joins the hollow of the 
Mearns. The narrow valley in which Bervy river runs, is 
highly piAurefque and beautiful, containing the manfions of 
Arbuthnot and AUsu-dyce, with the church (Ituated between 

S9f/.^=-The foil is various. Along the fouthem valley it' 
is llrong clay s upon the rifing grounds above mentioned it 
is light land ; and in the bottom of the northern valley it is 
wet and fwampy, being moflly in rough pafturc } but the 
fields toward the northern boundary, where the ground again 
rifes, are more dry, and of a lighter foil. 

Tlie air, in general, is moifl, owing to the nature and po« 
fition of the furface, its natural wetnefs and exhalations from 
the ftreaopis with which vit is watered ; yet it has never been 
obfervcd to , be particularly u!.favojrabIeto beahh} and the 
inhabitants, in general, are of good fize, and nuiny of them 
live to a great age. 

p/Arbuthnd. 387 

JftTm^fl//.— Within this parifh there are fcveral freeftonc 
quarries of excellent quality. In one fpot there is a rock full 
of pecblcs, with fomc green jafpcr, of confiderable beauty. 
No coal nor lime-iione have ever been here diicovered ; but 
fome chalybeate fpringa indicate the prefeoce of iron. 

FueL-^Thc common fuel of the farmers is coal brought 
from the Frith of Forth, and landed at fdme of the neigh- 
bouring creeks upon the coaft. The fuel ot the poorer lort 
is a coarfe fort of turf from the moorSi and ftiil a worfe peat 
fod dug &om the morafl^ grounds. 

- Heritors^ £5*^.-— The proprietors are four in number, of 
whom only one is refident, the Vifcount of Arbuthnor. By 
a map of the county, executed in 1 774, it appears that there 
arc in this parifh 77S5 Scotch acres, or 9893, Engliifa, of 
which about one third may t>e fuppofed arable, the rell being 
wet rough pafture and moor. The moft of the land lies 
•pen. The rent is various, according to the diflferent foils 
and progrefs of improvement, from i I. to 7 s. 6 d. per acre» 
arable, with the pafture gratis. The rent of the whole parifli 
is about tpool. Sterling, of which a coniiderabie part is 

P/dtfgi&/.— According to the old manner of eftimating the 
extent of fi^-ms by plpugbs of four horfes, there are here 
reckoned 54 ploughs ; of thefe there are 14 poffcffions rated 
ac 2 ploughs each ; twenty*two of one plough each ; five of 
half a plough ; and 6 of a quarter each. At prefent, moft 
part of the ground is tilled by the common foot-plough, with 
four horfes, or fix oxen, and fome of the improved ground 
with tifo hqrfes. 3ut oxen are little ufed for the plough, 

• though 

368 Siaiiflkal' Account 

though hfanf , are reared for fale* The whole nuoiber of 

oxen ploughs is 13. 

The number of draught horfes is ,228 

Satddle, ditto • • - 4 

Carriage, ditto • « • ^ 

Oxen and fteers • « - 610 

Cows and queys - - ^ 449 



Sheep - - . , a68 

Produce. — The produce of the parifh is more than fuf- 
ficient for its own fupply. The nioft general crops of grata 
are oats and bear, with a little barley and wheat, Turoif^ 
and potatoes are likcwife very general. A cpnfiderable quaiu 
tity of clover and ryc-grafs now begins to be fown, though nel 
fo much as is neceiTary to good farmings upon even the im- 
proved lands ; the ground not being fuffirienfly refted, and 
the horfes chiefly fed upon draw. Upon the eftatp of AI- 
lardycc, very confiderable improvements have taken place ua- 
der the dircaion and encouragement of Mr Barclay of Ury, 
now proprietor of thefe lands. By the Icafes granted by him 
for the laft fourteen years, the tenants are bound to a mode 
of cropping the improved ground \ to divide it into a courfe 
of four, five, or fix crops, with a rcftriaion not to take more 
xrops of grain than the rotation pf fix admitted, viz. turnip, 
barley, and grafs, not lefs than two years, to be broken up 
with two fucceflivc crops of grain of difierent kinds each 
year ; and if any of thefe be wheat, it muft be the firft after 
grafs. As might be cxpefted, the tenants have chofen to 
bold the courfe of fix, preferably to the four or five years. 
' (The information in this article is farniiOied by Mr Barclay 
hiijifcU). By thefe judicious rules the value of th^ cftate is 


rfArbutbmt. ^f^ 

fi> increaiedt that the tenants at prefent would be able to pay 
nearly four times the rent that was paid twenty years ago. 

A great bar to improvement hi this parfh, is the want of 
roadsy there being hardly a track in it which deferyes that 

Of late, the pra£lice of farmers letting ground to cottagers 
who do their work begins to be here laid aiide, as eTery 
where dfe through the country ; by which| in a ihort time^ 
there nmft be a great deficiency of hands properly trained to 
agriculture ; and fervants drawn from town^ neither poflels 
that hardj vigour, temperance, nor induitry, i'o requiiite to 
the employment of the hufbandmaa* The ordmary wages 
of a farm fervant, or ploughman, living in his matter's family^ 
is from 8 to I o 1. per annum. The wages of a labourer i s» 
per day, without vidluals, or 8d. with thtm. The womoi 
are much employed in fpiuning coarfe fl<\x to manufaAurers 
in Montrofe-, by which they have^ for fome timci gained 
from 3 s. to 4 s. per week. The wages of a woman farm fer- 
vant is from 3 U 10 s. to 4 K per annum, with a coofiderable 
difficulty of procuring them fronx the increafied profit by ma« 

There is a fmall quantity, from 400 to 500 yards of th« 
coarfeft linen manuta^red here, and bleached at home^ 
Likewife a Imall quantity of ticking and lacking, from 20q 
to 300 yards, at 10 d. and i s. to j s. 3 d».pcr yard. Thefe 
are for home ufe, and ipr fale at the fairs through the coun? 

There are no villages 10 the parifb^ except abopt ao houfes 
in one place, moftly occupied by. tradefmen. Tradefmen^ 
^agesi fuch as mafons and carpenters, is i s. 6 d. or 1 s. 8 d, 

^^»Ai//^.-~-With regard to populatioi^ there has nevet 


5.$4 ' - StatiftUal Jccoimi 

been any exaft reglfter of births kept here, and no ref^iOcr 
of biiriak at all. 

The total number of fouls in the year 1774 was 1040 1 
and three years ago it was precifely the fame* At prefeat 
there is only one more. 

The number of males is « 494 

Females ^ «r - 547 

Of thefe under xo years of age, males 104 
w- ■ ' females 147 



Bachelors, houfeholders, • 15 

Widows • •- r « 47 

Widowers - ^ • |^ 

Gardeners ... 4 

Wrights and houfe carpenters • 7 

MafoQ^ - »> •> m 2 

Taylors . - . • 5 

Shoemakers «-' * • 8 

Weavers • •- . 20 

Dyer . - • i 

Millers (at 3 corn.miUs) .. 4 

Smiths (fmiths (hops being 5) r 7 

Shop< keepers ' - . . a 

Wheelwrights r * • 2 

Cooper « ' • « - « X 

Carrier • • - • f 

There are inhabited houfes . 23^ 

Of which inhabired by iingle peripos 2J 
Houfes of 2 inhabitants, chiefly old 

people, and newly married ^ 3 j 

Of 3 inhabitants • - 29 

Ale*houfes - • • 2 
Uliinhabited houfes (eaufe, removal of 

cottagers) - • .. ^ . 


of ArhuthntA. 391 

The general charaAer of the people is indaftrioat and fi>- 
ber, little diQ^ofed to change of place or emplojment. 
Hence the population has been io ftationary. / 

Efckjiajlkal State.— With refpeA to the ecclefiaftfcal ftatc 
•f the parifh : The Vifcoont .of Arbuthnot b patron of tht 
church. The clergyman has a living of 64 bolls of meal 
and bear, and about 4 a 1. Sterling, befides a fmall glebe of 
little valae. The prefent incumbent was fettled in the year 
1780. The church is a very anticnt fabric of aOiiar work, 
but now in very bad repair. The manfe is. almofi ruiuQUS, 
but is about to be repaired. To the church is adjoining an 
ayle of beautiful antique workmanihip, which was built by 
an Alexander Arbuthnot, (defigned, in the appendix to Spo« 
tifwood*s Hiftory), brother to the Baron of Arbuthnot, and 
parfon of Arbuthnot and Logic Buchan. He was clewed 
the firft Proteftant Principal of the King^s College, Aber- 
deen, in the year 1569. The lower part of this ayle was in« 
tended, and has been ufed as a burial place for the family of 
Arbuthnot. And in the upper part was a well finifhed a« 
partment, filled with books chiefly in divinity, many of 
which remained there till of late. This was Mr Arbath- 
DOt's library, which he bequeathed for the ufe of the clergy 
of the Meams. There are 42 Epifcopalians in the pariib| 
and no other diflenters. 

fmr. — The number of poor in the parilh is about 2o« 
The provMion for them confifts of the coUcftions at the 
churchy amounting annually to about 16 1. and the intereft 
of fome mortifications and feat rents, amounting to 1 1 h 10 s. 
making in whole about 27 1. los. 

&:ioo/.— The pariih fchoolmafter has an'endbwmchc of 
5L 17s* id. Sterling, together with 10 bolls 3 firlots of 


iQi Staff/iitai Account 

sneal. This fchool was formerly noted as a much £re^ae^^- 
cd leminary for boys from all the country round, who wcit 
here boarded with the fcboolmaficr. At prefect both fchool 
and fchool- houfe, like all the reft of the public buildings 
here, are in fo bad repair as to be unfit for the reception of 
any perfon. 

Antiquities. •^XSnicT the article of antiquities and antient 
I'ecords, it is generally believed tbat fevei'al interefling parti- 
culars might be had from the old uritings of the family of 
Arbuthnot, if accefs could be got to them. 1 here is in ge- 
neral circulation, in the neighbourhood, a pa])ep, of which 
the original remains with that family^ bearing to be a judi- 
cial proof led by an ecclefiaftic^l fynod in the year 1^06, 
irith refpcA to part of the property now belonging to them, 
in which feveral circumftances are dcferving of attemiooi 
particularly, therein mention is made of water corn^miUs 
having been of a date prior to that period, which is contrary 
to the opinion of fome of our late hil^orians. 

There is no Tifible remain of antiquity within this pariAi# 
except fome lines of a rampart thrown op in a regular man- 
ner upon a projeAing point near to Bervy river, which is (aid 
to have been the refidence of a family of the name of Get 
lendris, who bequeathed the property to the Axchbifhop of 
St Andrews, to whofe fuccefTors a feu^duty is fiill payabk by 
the prefent proprietor. But this fortification has as much 
the appearance of being Roman, and bears the general lasat 
Df the Caftledykes to this day. 

Eminent Men. — In former times this parifh was not defi* 
cient in producing men eminent in public life. The family 
of S'bbalds of K'«ir was onr of the molt antient in the coun- 
ty, poficfled of very eztenfivc property there. Among the 


if Arhuihrmim. ^93 

laft of them was Dr David Sibhald, who having been pre* 
ceptor to the Duke of Gloucefler, ion to King Charles L 
fuffered much on account of his loyalty in the civil wars^ 
Was ini])rHoned in London, and had his eftate forfeited. 
However, he lived to fee the reftoration of King Charles U. 
and died in his own houle of Kair, in th&year i66i« 

It alio deferves to be mentioned, that the celebrated Dr 
Arbuthnot^ phjrfician to Queen Anne, and one of the trium* 
Vh*ate with Mr Pope and Dr ^wift, derived his birth and 
early education from this parifli. He was ion to Alexander 
Arbuthnot minifter here, who was deprived for non-con* 
formity in the year i^iiy. Dr Arbuthnot received^ the^firft 
part of his education at the pari& khobl of Arbuthnot^ 
from whence he and his elder brother Robert (<tftcrwards a 
banker at Purib) removed to the Marifchal College of Aber« 
deeci) about the year i68o. 

Language.'^k% the names of the di^erent farms in this pa^ 
Ti(h ai'e, for the mod part, of Gaelic original, it would leem 
|hat« in former times, the Gaelic languige had geoerally pre- 
vailed here. To ptrfons acquainted with that language, 
tbeie names all appear to be descriptive of the fituation and 
cbcuaiftaoces which diftinguilh the feveral places. Much in«. 
Ibrmation might poffit>ly be derived from this fource, joined to 
the written evidence coiine<Sted with the diArdt, where pro* 
perqr has been more fixed than in moft parts of the county. 

VoL.^tVn. %ti NUM. 

394 StMi/lUal Accoura 


(Prbsbtteht of Turrepf.-^tnod and CouNTtol 

J?^ Alexander Simpson, Schdotmafier^ King-Edvfard^ 
Now one of the Alintjfers of OidAherdimn 


AFTER a courft of many miles from weft to caft, the 
Doveron, by altering its dircAion to the north-weft» 
forms an acute angle ; and, winding through a beautiful and 
fertile vale, continues to flow in that direftion, till it falls in- 
to the Tea at Bmff, which is about lo Englifh miles diftaot 
from this place. On the fouth and eaft Mes of this aflgtei 
lies the panfh of Turreff, that of Forglen of Old Towiian 
being contained within it, on the oppolite bank of the riva. 
,Near the angular point, where the Burn of Torreff falls ia* 
to the Doveron, ftand the town and kirk of Turreff, from 
whence to the extremities of the parifli, the diftaiKe on all 
fides, except weft ward, is nearly the fanne,- and no where ex- 
ceeds 4| EngliQi uiiles i fo that a circle, of which the town 
of Turreff is the center, and the radius 4 J mile?, will io^ 
elude both this parifh, and a great part of that of Forgleo* 
The other neighbouring pariflies are Alvah, King-Edwardi 
Monquhiter, Auchterlift, and Inverkeithing. 


•f Turreff. 395 

TSofM^ AntiquHieSy Isfc. — Ac(;ordiog (o fomei Turrefi> in 
the Gaelic languagei iignifies towers. According to others, 
it figDJfies a mount pr height. The iituation of the town, 
and the vulgar pronunciation! Torra, an old law term iigni« 
fying a mount, favour the laft fuppofition. But the former 
IS no Icfs probable, becaufe near the church.yard gate, and 
on the fouth Ode of the ftreet betwixt it and the crofs, part 
of the vaults of an ancient tower is to be feen, from which^ ' 
or fome building of that kind, the weft end of the cqwn Is 
ftill called the Caftlehill. 

It is highly probable that Lathmon, the Piflifh prince, 
whom Offian celebrates, had his feat in this pctnlh* Not 
only <lo Lathers and Durlatbers bear a (Irong reitmblance 
to Lathmon and Dunlathmon, but the landfcape drawn by 
nature exa£lly correfponds with the dcfcription of the pocr. 
We may obferve on the bank of the rtvcr, " the green 
«< dwelling of Lathmon/' We may wander, with «« the bluc- 
^< ey*d Cutha in the vales of Dunlathmon ;'- and the halls of 
Nuath are only wanting to realiie the dcfcription ot the dy- 
ing Oithfna. <* High walls rife on the baiik of Durranuiiy 
<* and fee their mofly towers in the Itream." A rock aiccnds 
behind them with " its bending firs." On a iarm adjoining 
to Lathers are the remains of a Druid temple. 

A fpot of ground on the fouth fide of the town called 
Temple-brae, arid a houfe called Temple feu give reaion to 
fuppofe, that the Knights-templars once had a footing m this 
place. This is the more probable, as foroe oi the old pro- 
prietors of this houfe, neld their charters from the Lords 
Torphichan, to whom a confidcrable pirt of their lands had 
been given by the Crown, after the order of Xaights-tem- 
j>lars was diflblved in the beginning of the 14th century. 
— Some hoiifes* called Abbey»land| Maifon^Dieu^ or houfe of 
refuge, point out the fituation of an hofpital or alms- houfe, 


399 ' SiaiijiUal Aamni 

founded here in T272, by Alexander CumiitEarlof Bnctuui, 
This hofpital was, among others, dedicated {^anBo Congano) 
to St Congan, fuppofed to be the tutelary faint of the place, 
from whom one of the annual fairs held here is called 
Cowan Fair. It was endowed with an yearly payment of 5 
chaldrrs of ^riin, inOead of the tvthes of the Caftle of Ke- 
sedar, and a piece of land called Knockaibie. This piece 
of land, according to the defcriprion of its fitnation and 
marches, in the charter of fonndarion, comprehended all the 
lands, except Baline11ie» prefently aftriAed to the Mill of 
Turreffl The hofpital was to contain a maftcr and 6 chap* 
lains, whofe office it was to fay daily prayers for the fouls of 
the dead, and who were to appear in the dre/s of fecuiar 
monks. Out of its revenues the mafter was appointed to 
furnifli with a dwelling- houfe^ and to maintain 13 decayed 
hufbandmen fron the country of Buchan. The hofpital was 
to be a fanfbiary for criminals } but the mafter was bound to 
deliver up for trial all manifeft malefaAors ; and if any of the 
people of the lands belonging to the hofpital (over which the 
Earl of Buchan retained the ri^ht of criminal juriidi6bon) 
fhould be capitally convIA .d, their ef(;heat was to belong to 
the hofpital. This charter is dated at Krllie, on Sunday af- 
ter Candlemas 1272, in prcfence of Wilfiam Earl of Mar, 
Lord Allan Hoftdar, Lord Regenalde Chen> Lord Andrew 
of G»rmack, Lord Philip of MelgrcdUm, Meldrum of that 
ilk, (equfftrated by Urquhart of Meldrum, Lf rd John of 
M*lville, Lord William of Mtlgdrum, Walter, reftor of the 
church of Fovcrne, and Robert de Lyiie, re£tor of the church 
of Slains, &c. By another chr^rtcr, dated at Kenkell »hc 
i6th of Oftpber 1328, in prcfence of Randolph Elarlof Mo- 
' ray, Alexander Frafer, Robert de Keith Marfliall, Gilbert 
|Iay Conftablc, &c. it appears that this hofpital was farther 


endowed* by King Robert Bruce^ with the land of Petts \ 
for the mamtenance of a chapbin to fay mafs for the foul of 
his brothcf NigcU Bruce« who was taken prifbner by the 
£n^liih| about the year i ^06^ when the Caflle of Kildrum- 
inie, where he cheo^ refided, fell into their hands, and was 
by them afterwards put to deahf. 

Except (onie traditionary reports concerning a bead-houie^ 
which was a rcli£t of it, thrre is no farther mention made of 
this holpital as a 1cp<irate tftabiifliment : Nor is it of- much . 
importance to krow how far its revenues were applied to the 
original purp^les < f its inditution. From a claufe in the 
charter of foundation, there is reafon to fuppofe, that the 
hofpital was intended to be under the admimftration of the 
parion of the parifti* And K is the njore probable, that thfe 
parfons or prebends of i urreff bad been always the maAers 
of the hofpital ; as it appears from fcveral records, that the 
landfr with which it was endowed by the Earl of Buchan, 
continued in their pofleffion from the beginning of the I jth 
century to the time of the Reformation {• 

In 151T, by a charter under the Great Sea], James King 
of Scots, out of love and favour to Thomas Dickion prebend 
of Turrajy and for building and improvements about the pa- 
rjfh kirk of Turray^ and the accommodation of the Jieges 
reforting to the iaid kirk, with confent'pf William Earl of 
£rr0l as patron, creates the whole kirk lands, village, and 
glebe of the faid kirk of Turray into a free burgh of barony ; 
and gives power to the inhabitants to have bakers, brewery, 
butchers, &c. ; with power alfo to have in the iaid burgh, free 
burgeffes, and power to ihefe to choofc yearly, with confent 
, of the prebend, bailies, and other office bearers, for the go* 


• In the parifli of Fyvic. 
f Buch. lib. 8 30. 
. X Sec Chaimcr's DtAionary, at the word Hofpital,. 

2Sl^ Sta^Uat Aecfuni 

vcrnment of the faid burgh ; with power alio to the borgeflctf 
and iDhabitantSy to hold weekly markets at the market croff 
on Sunday, and public fairs at the feaft of St Peter, called 
Lammas, and of St CoQgan, with the whole tolls, liberties, 
and privileges of free markets.— «< Ac cum poteftate et li- 
** centia praefato magi (Ifo Thomae et fucceflbribus futs prae- 
*' fatae ecdefiae praebendariis, ailidancii terras luasccclefiafti. 
*' caSy villam* et glebam antedidam in toco vel in part^i in 
^* particulas burgales haereditarie» pro aedificacione iuper eiC- 
<< dem fiicicnda in proficium diftae eficleiiae et pracbenda* 
«< riorum ejufdem, vel faltem fine detrimento eoruiidem." 

Among other privileges, the feuers had the ufe and bcne« 
fit of feverat pieces of land, viz. a piece of land on the banks 
of Doveron, called Dundabby \ another called Feerward ; 
another called Feuer-fold $ another called Dargs-iold, or 
Monks- land ; the haugh cilled Partyokc-vale ; two lots of 
barren ground, called Back hill and Common- mires, and the 
black Elden mofs for fuel. Some of thefe they Aill enjoy. 

Churchy School^ Poor^ fafr. — A new church has been built 
here this feafon (1794) in a fituation removed from the bu- 
rying ground, and of a conftruAion more commodious for 
the ppople, as well as ornamental to the place, than the old 
church ; the latter, 1 20 feet t^y 1 8. The eaii end of it, in- 
cluding the quire, chancel, and veftry, bears fome marks of 
antiquity, and was formerly divided from the -reft of the 
building by a row of balliflers. 

'Since the admiffion of Mr William Stuart, the prefent in- 
cumbent, in 1 767, the manfe and ofBce-houfes have been all 
rebuilt ; and are at prefent in good repah*. 

The living, cxclufive of the glebe, is 50 1. in money, and 
80 bolls of meal and bear. 


rfTurref. 39^ 

^Tht pefent fcbool-houfe was the Epifcopal Chapel in 1 74 j^ 
ivhen a partj of the Duke of Cumberland's army demoltib- 
cd the feat5; and pulpit, and were prevented from letting fire 
to the bouie itteif by' the interceffion of Mr Andrew Ker, 
wUo was ihenminiAer of this pariih. 

About the beginning of laft centiiry, in compenfationi it is 
fup()ofed of foine privileges of which the feuers and inhabi- 
tants of Turreff had been deprived about the time of the 
Reformation, Lord Errol fettled an yearly falary of lool. 
Scotch, and 14. acre of land, for the maintenance of a fchool- 
toafter to teach their children. This falary has been rcgu- 
larly paid by the proprietors of Delgaty, who have the right 
of prefenting to the office^ As none o# the other heritors 
contribute in any manner to its fupport, the fichool cannot 
be denominated parochial. As (efnon-clerk, the fchoolmafl 
ter receives an annual falary of 2 (. 4 s. 5 d. ; for regiflering 
a baptii'm 10 d. of which the kirk officer gets one third $ 
and for proclaiming a purpofe of m^rria^ei ao d. of whick 
the kirk'( fficer Itkewiie gets one third, when the bride re- 
iides in the panfh. The Ichool is at prefent attended by 30 
fcholarsi who are taught to read Englifh at the rate of 2 $• 
and Latin and arithmetic at 2 s. 6d. per quarter. * 

About the year' 1 727, Mr William Mcf^on, formerly one 
of tho profeff )rs of rfie Mar»k:hal College^ but obliged to 
give up that place in 171 ^, on account of his political princi- 
ples» commerced an academy in Turreff, for inflruAing 
young gentlemen in inch fciences as were then taught in the 
univerfittcs. This academy, which was quite unconnc£led 
with the fchool, continued to flourifh for Itveral years. la 
an account of the life of Mr .Mefton» prefixed to his poems^ 
a duel fought by two of the Audents attending this a^a- 
demyi viz. Mr Gordon of £mbO| and Mr John Grant of 


iid» StatyUealJc^ouni 

Dentergas, afterwards a major*gencral in the Pruffian fenhif 
is mentioned as one caule of its diflbiurion. , 

The poor's fund^ are managed by the kirk-feffioOi which 
ttieets every fourth month, to diftribute to the poor a fum of 
money proportioned to their neceflitiesy and the ftate of the 
fund. A difpoiition to his effl:&^ is generally required of 
every penHoner, previous to his being entered Upon the roll: 
At his death, they are fold to defray the ezpence of his ii> 
neral -, and the balance, if there be axj, is added to the ge* 

The number and neceffities of the poor were fo much iD> 
creafed by the bad crop in 1782, that, to lup^ ly them, bciides 
the ordinary colIr(EVions, fome meal fent by governments and 
ao 1. fent by an unknown hand, the ieiSon found it necefifa^ 
ry to take 40 K from the capital ftock. fiy tiicans of more 
liberal colledions in the church, and partly by two legacies 
of 20 1. each| and one of 5 U which, agreeably to the wili of 
the donors^ were given to poor, people not on the liftof peo* 
fioners, but who would otherwiie have become fuch, the 
fiock is now equal to what it was before the year 1782. 

State rf the Receipt and Expenditure qf the Po^r^i - 

Money in j 


Colkacd in the churth 




For the Infirmary at Abei^deen 


Vw a Chapel of Eafe at New Byth 3 


Vot the ufe of a mort-cloth 

: a 



Penalties -^ — .^ 

. S 


Intcreft of 60 1, at 4 J pit cm. 



Rent of houfes *-« -^ 




Effeas of a penfioneir — 


Carried forward 

^luS^ 6 § 



Brought over 
Given to 30 poor -— L. 3 1 3 

To the feffioDy prefbytery* and fy 
nod clerks, kirk-officer, and 
prcibytcry burlary — . 411 

To the infirmary and chapel at 

New Byth •— . — 73 

Repairiog boufes, &c. — i 15 

L.58 6 # 

44 li S 
L.13 13 7 

Number of PeopU^ C^r.-^The parifli, at prefent^ contains 
2029 foub| of whom there are 

Epifcopalians —-3 2o 
Koman Catholic$ 
Surgeons ' •— — » 
Dyers . -^ — 

Shoemakers -— 
Square-wrights & coopers 
Weavers . — — 
Taylors — — 
Shop-keepers — 
Mafons — — 
Excife-officer — 

Plaifterers — — 
Sellers of ale and whiiky 
Butchers — — 
Carriers — — 
Slaters — — * 












Flaxdreflers -- 

G<Ardeners -« — • 
Bakers — — 

BlackOniths — - '• 

Barber — -« 

Sadler — ~ 

Bleacher — — 
Whilky diftiller — 
Families in the town of 

Turrcff — 187 

Number of fouls in ditto 701 
Families in the country 

part of t:)e parilh 264 
Number of iouls in ditto 1328 








Apprentices are included in the above liiSs of tradefmea 
jand artificers. 

Vot. XVU. 



•0> Stayiieal^ima 

jtfOimi ■and Pnfem PtoprkUfs^ Riftty fsfc^Tht eftate of 
'Durlaithers, which had been long in the pofleffion^ Di^p- 
iicr of Auchtcrles, aiferwJiiyix)f Meldhim ot Laithers of the 
fiiinily of Meidrum of Fyvic, was afterwalrds the propeny of 
John Ramlsqr of Barri ; whkh, by judicial falc ita 17a 2, was 
fwrchafed by Alexander Gordon of Auehintnol a ^nctA in 
in the Ruffian iervice ; wfaofe grand tiicce, Miia Catharine 
Gordon of A«ichintoul» is now the proprietor, bi 1723 the 
eftate of BalquhoHie was fold by the Mowats, the propheton 
of the antient Muunt Alto, to Alexander Duff* of Hatton, a 
tnan of ^reat charaAer in the country- Lady Ann Duff, who 
«ra$ marrred to Alexander his fon»i$ iiterentrix of BalquhoUie; 
And hisgrandibui Captain Peter Diiff*, in the prcfeot proprier^>r 
, of Hatton, 

In 1 726 the eftare of Fiatray, tben the property of the 
lPorbei& of Toiici)6n» tras bought by the late Lord BraccOj, 
Either of James Eairl of Pife» tile preTdnt proprietor. 

The eftate of Torrie, which had rcinained ~ih chepofii^ 
iBon of the Barclays (br 40O fe^s and upwards. Was lold by 
them in 175 a to the late Earl ot Findlater^ «t 10,000 1. 
'whofe fon fold it to the managers of Gordoh^s hofpital and 
the infirmary of Aberdeen In 1792 at '21,000 1. "Sterling. £x* 
'cept the lands of Fintray already mentionedi part of the 
cftate of Cafiletown, which is the property of William Ur- 
quhart of Craigfton, and part of the eftate of BalquhoIlTey 
idi that part of the parifli to the north of the burn of Tur- 
reff, and eaft of the Doverne, called the eftate of Delgaty, 
Is the property of Captain Francis Garden of Troup, and 
was bought by his father, Peter Garden^ £fq; from the late 
XiOrd Errol in 1762, at 20,000 1. and is now of rent about 
1400 1. yearly. In f 767 the eftate of Muireik was ibid by 
James Brodie to Jklexander Dirom, Sheriff' fubftitute of Banff* 
Qiire^ a^t 5700 L whofe fon^ Major Alexander Dirom, is the 


jprdcot prdprictor. TheeftateorGa<)c»«hiclibirki«ge(|ofQl4 
lo the Forbercs» and more latelj to tbe Fordycest W3s ib|d I9 
the daughters of Joha Fordyce of Gaik to James MaQlue ifi 
1 769 ; who fold it to George RobinfoD now of Gaik, writer 
to thefignet, the prerent proprietor, in 1781*. This cftaCft 
has been an independent barony of itfelf for feveTal centnrieA 
It appears upon record, that in 1375* it belonged to the T«* 
rins of Foveran, who flourifhed iq Aberdeenfhire, in the dafi 
of King Robert Bruce. Afterwards it came mto the bmilf 
of Burnet of Leys. Thomas Burnet of Gaflc was killed at tht 
battle of Flowden ; and King James V. renewed the gift of th« 
lands to his Ton William, then, and 00 ^hat account, declared % 
9I land of old extent ; on whofe retour, A. D. t5 14^ doe$ th« 
prefent proprietor of Gaik hold his freehold at this day« Oa 
this place Is lately built a modern houft, in a pleal'ant £U 
tuation, beautified with planting. Within the laft 40 years| 
the land rent of the pari(h is fuppofed to be doubled, and t# 
have increafed more within that period than for 200 yeart 
before. This, among other caufes, may be aicribed to the 
practice of giving an additional yearly rent at the commence*' 
tnent of every new leafe, inftead of a graflum, which wti 
Che general praQice before the middle of this century/ 

The valued rent of the parifh is 5459 Las. 10 d. Scots ^ 
and the real rent, valuing meal and grain at 10 s. for each 
boll of 8 ftone Amfterdam weighty is about aSooJ. Sterlings 

Services, or work done by the tenant to the heritor la- 
harveft, and on various other occafions, not improperly called 
bondages^ alfo the payment of Iheep, poultry &c. called 
cuftomsi ftill constitute a great proportion ot the rent 
ctf fome efiates. The commutation of thefe into money^. 
which has aheady taken place in the eftates of Fmtray and 
Torvic, it is hoped will hp foon univerfallj adopted. £xac- 

:|o4 Statljlkal Acc$ura 

tioDS of this kind, particularly the firft^ are burdenfome tm 
the tenant^ without producing any adequate ad?antage to the 

ExUntt, Soilf Agrioiltun^ b<V. The parifli contains 

libout \6A^6 Scotch acres^ of which one third at leaft is co- 
vered with heath. The hills and heath ground being ridged^ 
appear to have been under cuhivation at fome former period; 
at leaft that partial kind of it, called balk and burral, which 
confifted of one ridge very much raifed by the plough^ and 
• barren fpace of nearly the fame extent* alternately. A 
much greater quantity of this fort of land was in tillage be- 
fore, than fince the years of famine in the end of laft ceotu- 
ry } when many entire farms* of a wet or late foii* were allow* 
ed to lie wafte and uncultivated. Since the inttodu£kioD of 
lime and agricultural improvements, the above method of ou^ 
waging out-field land has been relinquiflied ; and fmall black 
oatS| which was the only fpectes of grain fown in this kmd 
of land, have given place to white oats. 
. The current of the Doveme being lefs rapid below than 
above the town of Turreff*, the haughs and meadow ground 
along its banks are more eztenfive and fertile. Though the pa- 
rifti contains almoft every defcription of foil, that (pecies cal* 
led a light loam is moft common. Part of the lands in the 
vicinity of the town lets at 40 s. per acre. The medJum 
rent of land in the country gart of this parifh is nearly the 
fame as in the neighbouring parifhes, and may be known by 
confulting the ftatiftical reports of them. 

Compared with what it was 20 years ago* the ftate of a- 
griculture is now much improved i at the fame time* the 
want of inctofures, the prevailing praAice of keying too 
great a proportion of land under crop, and the extent of bar- 
ren ground, {how that much remains to be done. 

That improvements have not made greater progrefs, the 
iimUftock of the greater paut of tenants^ the ihdrtnels of 


4fTurreff, <»|^ 

leafe»(of whkh the impoveriflied ftate of Und at thp begin- 
ning and ex|Mration of them i» the natural confequence,) 
the price of labour, and the diftance from marlcet, may be 
affigned as the principal csufes. Under all, or a few of thefe 
difadvantages, it muft require the firi^eft economy, and the 
greateft exertions of indufiry, in the tenant to (ucceed at all } 
his improvements at firfk muft be very ciitumfcribed ; and» 
as every future effay muft depend upon the fuccefs of the 
preceding, their progrefs m ift be flow. 

Fof many years paft the powers of lime in promoting ve- 
getation has been known, and the quantity put upon land, 
. for that purpofe, is annually increafing. But, long after its 
fcft introdoaion, the method of cropping land, after the ap- 
plication of lime, retarded rather than promoted the melio^ 
ration of the foil. For a field alter being limed, by having 
three or fometimes four crops of oats in fucccffion, without 
the affiftance of du..g, Was nec.ffariiy reduced to a more im- 
poveriflied ftate than before. But experience loon taught 
the impropriety of a praftioe, which no doubt arofe from 
confidering lime not as a ftimulns, but as a manure, and is now 
adopted by thofe only of narrow circumftances, and whofc 
views reach no ferther than a little prelent profit, or an in- 
demnification for the price of the lime. 

The quantity ufually given to an acre varies from 40 to 
8b bolls of powdered lime '. It w, ptraaps, a fortunate cir. 
cumftance, that lime has hitherto been applied to land fo 
fparin^ly; for 80 bolls, which is not more than what is ne- 
©cffary to have the defired cStd when accompanied with a 
proper rotation and interchange of green crops, would, by a 
contrary management, render the la«d unfit for producing a 
irop 6ranr kind. For (ome years paft. the importation of 
ftell lime from England has been gaining ground j which 


• Each boU of Rocked lime \% equal to two comfirlots. 

at 6\ d, per boU is fbimd to be cheaper tb^m vhat is manif^ 
feftured at home of ftoaes carried the di(iaQce of 12 or 14 

Upon the wbote, though a regular aod jqdsdous rotation 
of crops is not generally eftaUilhed, and though much of 
the old fyftem of farming remain^, it gives pleafure to ob«. 
ferve» that the fpirit of improvement is rapidly extending its 
liappy influence. The advantages of fallow and green crops 
are generally known, and the number of acres under turnips 
potatoe, and &wn grafs is annually increafing. In different 
parts of the parifli, farads arc to be found, which exhibit (pe* 
eimens of extenfive improvement and (kill in the manage* 
ment of them. Of thefe none has a jufler claim to be par* 
ticularly mentioned, than that of Haughs of AOioglf , poflefV 
fed by George Gerard of Atidftrath. In the year 1780^ 
when his leafe commenced, the produce of the farni was hard* 
ly fufficient to maintain the fervants and cattle necefiary to 
work it. Since that time, upwards of 200 acres, of which 
a great part was formeriy entirely barren, and the reft in a 
very impoveriflied ftate, have been bronght to produce weigh* 
ty crops of corn and grafs. The rotation adopted by Mr 
Gerard, is oats, turnip, and fown grafs for three or four years* 
The poduce of this farm, which in the year 1780 was only 
900 threaves, amounted to 2700 threaves in the year 1790. 
iSy the melioration of the foil and pafture, the number of 
cattle has been increafed, and the breed improved in the fame 
proportion. In 1780 the hill pafture, which could then main* 
tain a flock of iheep of the Scotch breed only, the medium va- 
lue of which did not exceed ($s.a head, now maintains a 
flock of a mixed breed in the proportion of \ Englifh to ^ 
Scotch, the wethers of which give from 18s to 20 s. each. 

In a fimilar manner, the farm of Mains of Torrie is mana* 
fed by Mr Irvine $ and extenfive improvements begun by ; 

ihtf liite Mr DifMi, IbnAing n carried xm ivIA ^t! ffMt 

^ Mr Goraodi mrho occnpies the Mams tif M airdSi:, ifid thb 

h a good e«u(e ^hy ihe price of the eftate wis fe confidartf- 

ble. In no eiUte of the pariih is thbr^ a fit of more.chrMi^ 

tind iubilancial tenants, th^n \n that of Fintray } where agri- 

tuiturai iniprovcmentsi though lefs rapid ib liiehr firogrefs 

than in the inRances now nictitioncd, which cmpioy a greater 

capital than the majority of tendfots can coftimaAd» hi^te 'betn 

Ho leis iucceistul* 

The p^nlh is accommodated with 7 corn mills, to fbme 

one of which the tenants of a bertain diftrift, called the 
■fockcom or lockmcn, or fucken, are aftrifted. The midture 
tonfiits of tlircc kinds •, one called the thirlage, coHeif^ed lor 
.behoof of the heritor ; another called knavefliip. which {>ro- 
ncrly belongs to the miller for working and keeping the ma» 
chioery of the mill in repair ; and a tliird called dry or ab- 
ftrafted multure, colle£kcd for grain fold unmanufaftured. 
At fotoe mills, the two 6rft atitount to ^V P*" of the produce 
in meaU and the third is generally ,V ^^ ^^^ g"in fold', and 
this is tlie prafticc generally through Buchah. Some of the 
heritors, confidcring this thirlage and abftraiSted multures as 
too heavy a tax upon improvement, have allocated them up- 
on their tenants, and fixed the knavefliip at :^ part of the 
grain brought to the mill and taken 4 s Ad. on the pound of 
real rent for abolifliing the mulfure-s Befides fupplying it, 
Xclf,, the produce of the parifli in all ordinary years leaTcs a 
cobfiderablc furplus for exportation. The latenefs of the 
harveft, and the early frofts in ^78?, gave reafon to fiippoft 
that the crop of that year would be defcftive j but, accufto- . 
sued to a plentiful fupply in general, that deficiency Wsfe not 
at firft fuppofed to be fo great as it afterwards proved. 
Upoft the ift of January 1783 * meeting of ihc propric^ 


4uf StaSiJUcal Aami 

tors of tbe diftrift of Turreff« or their factors, and of tbeiot 
nifters of the following pariOies, was held at Turreff for ttk- 

ing into confideration the ftate of the counuy, with refpeft 
to grain, and reported, that 

Bolls. M. 

Turreff could fparc 200 • 

Monquhiter needed a fupply of 9090 

Furgue could fcarcely fupply 

itlelC o • 

Fyvie 500 

King- Edward, fpare a little 

Drumblade o 8o« 

Auchterlefi * 2oe 

From which it was computed that thefe parilhes would 
need a fupply ot 1200 bolls. But, inilead ot Iparing aoy|it 
^as found that this parifli alone needed a lupply of 600 
bolts I and all of them, Monquhiter and Drumblade cKep- 
tcd, needed as much more than was reckoned. Gram horn 
JEngland, wbioh the peaice, concluded in 1783, gave 
them an opportunity of piirchafiog in greater plenty, anu at 
a cheaper rate, than had^ the war continued, was imponed by 
{bcieties, merchants, and gentlemen of landcU popercy. for 
the benefit of his tenants in this and the other pstriihes widi 
which he is connefted. Lord Jbife purchal'ea grain to the a* 
mount of four thoufand pounds, which was loid at a veryr^ 
duced priccp and his Lordfhip's example in ielling the meal 
paid by his tenants at i6 s. per boll, and giving 5 s. in the 


^ A Genrieman in the neighbourhood told me that he pD^ 
chafed this year from Mains of Oa(k, a confiderable qoantit; 
of oats for feed ; part of it gave tull meal for oats, was approved 
of by judicious fauners, and part of it applied for &cd did not 



jibikn j of dedu^Fion of rent, had tto Tmall efieft in regu- 
lating the price of that article, and keeping it within the 
reach of the poor that year. For many years paft, cattle 
have been the moft profitable part of the farmers ftock, and 
Uieftaple cojt.modity 6f the pariCh. ' The number of black 
cattle, antiually reared in the parifb^ is fuppofed to citttd. 
what it was 40 years ago, ih the pjroportion of 3 to i« Tur- 
nip and fown grafs,i which are more commonly applied to 
fearing for the drover and grafier, than feeding for the but« 
ther, together with a greater dediand from the £nglifli mar- 
ket, have been chiefly infirumental id pt'omoting the breed*^ 
ing of young cattle. The pariih can fpare frotn 300 to 400 
yearly. Though the breed, both with refpedt to fize and the 
quality'' of wool, is much improved, the number of flieep, 
kept at prefent in the parifh, is perhaps not above one fixth 
of the number which it contained half a century ago. 

The breeding of cattle, and particularly horfesi would be 
tarried to greater perfeAion, and attended with more profit^ 
were the fields more generally inclofed^ Though it can boafl: 
of producing many excellent draught and faddle hories, yet 
a great part of thefe, ufed in the parifii, is brought from other 
parts of the country. 

By a (Ironger breed of hof fes, aiid a more improved con- 
ftru£tion of ploughs, carts, and other implements of agri- 
culture, its operations are now gfeatly facilitated, and the 
Increafing price of labour in fome roeafure compenfated. 

llire of a ploughman per ann. 
Ditto of a woman farm fervant 
Ditto of a man for harveft 
Ditto of a woman for ditto 


L. s. d. 

L. s. i 

I 8 8 

4 10 

18 € 


II 4 

I 9 


17 t 


L. /. a. 

7*10 o 

2 15 o 

I 15 o 

I 3 o 

Corn fans and threihing machines, of which laft there are 
Vol. XVIL 3 F already 


Sictiidlcal Account 

already rhrec, one turned by water and two by horfeSi b»s 
gin to be introduced into the panfh. 

Peat and turf arc pr ncipally uled tor fuel. Though there 
is vrry linltr of it in the parith, moft of the people haves 
right to mols in lome ot the neighbouring panlhcs j a 
right which heritors were formerly careful to fecure to their 
tenants ; when the mofs to Which they had inch right is ex- 
haurted, which is the cale with relpeft to fonic cllates in 
this parifti, recourfe is had to co.ils, broom, or to buying 
peal at the rate of los.^d. for zjpade^s cajing, i e. for as much 
peat as can be laid and dried upon 480 ells fquare. The 
xbore expeditious methods of carrying on work do not oow, 
as formerly, make it ncceflary to employ the whole fummer 
in bringing home fuel ; nor, fince improvement in farming 
began, can Ko much time be afforded for* that purpofe ; but 
the time neceiljrily coniumed in providing peat, and the dif- 
ficulty of obtaining a iu^ciem fupply in wet feafons, make 
this a very expeniive article, and point out the propriety of 
the late falutary repeal of the coal tax. 

Mr Garden of Troup, who in many refpefts fhews a laud- 
able -define of encouraging agricultural improvements and 
promoting the good of the country, h^s lately iuclofed and 
planted with foreft trees about 600 acres of barren ground 
on his eftaie in this parifli. Plantations of the fame kind» 
though lefs fxtenfive, have been made on theefiatesof Laith- 
ers, Muin fk, and Gaffc. At BalquhoUic, called Hatton Lodge, 
there is a cor;fiJerable quantity of wood of a more advanced 
growth ; but it will be long before the parifh can fupply it- 
fclf with this article. 

One of the greateft difadvantagcs of this par»lh is the Want 
offtones; of which few are to be found above ground fit 
for building, ard of which, there is only one quarry of any 
confequence as yet difcovcred. Hence the want of inclofurcs, 


rfTurref, , 411 


and fubRantial houfes, for though they are more commodi- 
dus and fubQantial than in former times, except thoie of the 
more opulent farmers, very few houfes ip the country ar« 
built entirely of ftone. 

Manufaflures^ 55*r.— Next to cattl^ and grain, tl^c arti^lca^ 
for which money is brought into the pariih, are linen-yarn^ 
either made of lint of the growth of the country, or ot fo- 
reign lint given out to be fpun by manufaAurers ; llocki.'gs 
made of wool given out by manuta^turers, or of wool bought 
by the makers and fold to merchaots, called market op ^« 
go hofe ; cheefe and butter. For lonie years palt great quan* 
titles of the laft article have been bought up by mercUants 
in different parts of the country, and lent to iiainburgh, and 
Qther large towns* 

About the year 1 769, a carpet manufadlure was edabliihed 
here, which was carried on with luiccis tor leyeral ycarf, s^nd 
was not entirely given up till abuut 1780. 

In 17^^79 Peter Garden, Liq; ot beigaty and one Mr Ba* 
ker began a thread and linen maiiufaCture, and aiio laid out 
a field, and eredcd houfes and machinery for bleaching li- 
nen. The partners finding themlelves lofers, the linen ma* 
pufaAure was dropped about ten years after. A manuiadturc 
pf thread, which generally employs about 10 h<mds, is Hill 
carried on \ and about 400 or 500 pieces of cloth were whi- 
tened at the bleachfield laft feafon. In the year ending No- 
vember 179?! about 666 yards of linen, and 66^6 yards of 
ha^n or brown linen were (lamped here for fale. Of the 
firft kind, it is (uppofed that more than the quantity here fpe- 
cified, ar.d of the laft, Icarcely one third, was then made in 
the parifh. At prefent, one weaver only makes Imcn for lale on 
his own account ; the reft, as well as all the other handicrafif- 
incHjdcpend upon thecafualemploymentof the country around, 


^nd have foM piocct ef teod» which employ thegreat^ pan 
9I their time. 

Tbftt the attempts to cftaUifli maoufaAuro^ in this place 
have hitherto failed, cannot be afcribcd to any local dira4van- 
tages. Situated in a healthful artd pleafant country, furrouo* 
ded with a great extent of ficrtife and imprtjfveablc land, ha- 
ting the command of abundance of water, and the privilege 
of nmc yearly *|irs,Twrrefffecms to be wdl calculated for 
carrying on any branch of manufiadfaire with fucccls. Being 
diilant only ten miles from the ports of Banff and Macduff, 
the expence of fvel cannot be memioned as an oM^ruAoOji 
whkh a f^irit of kiduilry ami interprife mky not eaiiiy fur- 
mount • 

Mr George Robinfon of Banff has revived the manufac- 
tury begun by Mr Baker; and Mr Kerr)p, near Tufrrff, has 
begun a thread manofadlory, oa the eftate of Galk in tfyci 
ficifiif y of Turf cff. 



(CooMTT 01^ Bamf f.^-^Pessbttert of Steathbogib, 
Synod of Moeat.) 

^y the Rev. Mr Gecs ge Gor don, lately Minjfter tbert^ amf 
new one of the Mintfters of Aberdeen. 

Name* . 

THE name Is very aacieat. About 800 years ago, in the 
charter gives by Makolra the Second to the fird &f* 
hop of this early See^ — and how kmg before, 00 body can &y, 
k was called Murthdack or Miinfilac, miKh the fame a$ a« 
prefent, , 

-f/yi«d/(S5gy.— The ^ord is moft probaUy of Gaelic origin, 
derived from fomeching local. Becaufe the church is in a 
deep though narrow valley, fome naturally enough think it 
91 corruption of Morlay, Great Hollow. Others again chufc to 
bring it from mortis lacus, the lake of death ( alluding to a 
battle which was fought here, and which ihall afterwards be 
taken notice of. But this feems only a fancy of Buchanan, and 
is far fetched : More CQnjefiures have been made, and cm the 
whole the etymology is doubrffil : Luckily however, like ma^* 
iiy an obfcurity of the kind, it is of very little importance. 

Situation.^^Mon\wc\i is encircled by fix other parifhes, ha* 
tring Glafs on the eaft, Cabrach and Inveraven to the foutht 
Aberlour on the weft| with Boharm and Botriphny towards 


^14 Statiftkal Account 

fhe north ; an^ fcveral of thefe, it is not anlikelj, are tha 
pffspring of the HiOthcr church. It is in the county of Banff, 
in the Commiflariot of Aberdeen^ and in the province of Mo- 
ray ; lying nearly 50 miles to. the weft ward, but ahttlc to the 
north, from the city of Aberdeen, and about 30 fourh weft 
from the town of Banff, the capit il of the (hire. Since the 
J706, it. has been, by an aft of the General AiJcmbly, in the 
prefbytery of Strathbogie and fynod of Moray : Before that 
time, i^ was in the prefbyfry of Fcrdycc and fynod ot Aber- 
deen : And in a conncftion with Fordyce, the miqiftcr of 
Mortlachi it is faid, has ftill a vote for delegates, from that 
prr{b\ lery, to elcrft the proteffbrs of Divinity ot King's s^oilegc 
of A'^erdeen, and has alfo fome trui\ and managrment ia ccr^ 
tain lands or fuius of money bequeathed to that univerG- 

Mxtent^ Wr.-i— The form of the par (h is irregular, and not 
pafily delcribcd, fo as to be underftood. The belt idea ot it 
would be obtained by a map from aftual iurvey* Its greatcft 
length from the head of Glenrinnes to the oppofite end, near 
the Spey»that is from louth to north, is eleven or twelve £n« 
glifh miles ; and its greateft breadth from the banks of Do- 
yeron to the foot of Bcirinnes, that is from eaft to welt, ma; 
be about as much. It confifts of the lands of Edinghi&e and 
Glcnmarky, which are Lord Fife's, — of the Lordihip .^f Au- 
chindowiS, Glenfiddich) and the greater part of GlenrinneSi 
the Duke of Gordon's,— -of Dullanfide and a part of the 
Lordihip of Balveny, Lord Fife's again, — and pi the barony 
of Kinninvie, which is, and for centuries has been, in the 
poileffion of a branch of the old family of B*!quhan, and of 
which. James Leflie, Esq; the 'only refiding heritor, is the pre- 
fcnt laird, and makes a very good one, being kind to his tc- 
paiitSi an houeft hofpitable gentleman, and an ezcelicnt 


of Mottlach^ ^ig 

fitmtr, Mf Duff of Drumuir is like wife a proprietor in 
I^orr1acb» having a fmaU piece of ground in it* called Loch- 
end, near the kirk of Botriphny. 

The araWc fields, which, by a rough guefs, may be from 4 
to 5 ^honfand arres, lie chifflv pretty high along the Fiddich 
and DuUan, two beautiful rivulets ; or on the fides qf rills 
falling into thcfe \ or on the more gentle declivities of the 
mountains. The lands of Gledmslrky and EdinglafB^r nre rA- 
inote and disjoined from the reft of the parifh. A /mall flrr-arti 
called Markv, running with rapidity down the glen, meets 
with the^Doveron near the houlc of E.^ingl.ffic, inhere thatt 
river takes a plc^f^nt winding towards Huntly on the eaft. 
There are fome low or haugh ^rounds, but not very confide- 
rable. The extent of meadow grafs, coarler greens, . moo^, 
j^nd hills, — which hii are in general covrred with heath, and 
but little improveable except by planting, m^y auiouni to 
about twenty times as much as the cultivated field. 

Landfcape — The appearance of the country is very fine. 
Variegated with hill and dale, wood and water, growing corns 
and pai^ure covered with flo- ks, it looks both beautiful atid 
rich : And even in winter, the tree- ficirtirg the river hanks 
with their fnowy foliage, and the lofty mountain^: all in white, 
exhibit a div' rfity of view abundantly pleafi?''g and groteique. 
Fiddich-fide is one of the lovelieft ftrath^ to be feen in any 
country. There are fome landicapes. efpecially in Glet fid« 
dich, and about Pittyvaich, Tninvtr, and K'nninvie. which 
any one, who has a taf^e for fuch things, will not grUflgc a 
day's ride or two to come and fee They are a mixture cf The 
fwect and the wild ; ;md furnifh a great deal of pit^urefque 
and very rur^l fcen^rv : If \ fho-^nfon or an All^n R^tm- 
fay had lived hert*. t» ey «ould have been fa nou*^ in iong. 
One of the moft remarkable is the Craig of Balveuy, with the 


4t£ $tatijiual Amount 

old caftle tfaere» and the objcds which accompany theni: 
What goes by the name of the Giant^s Chair, formed by tk 
Wearing of the Water of DuUan manj an age ago, with a pret- 
tf little cafcade, called the linen apron, and theit furrounding 
drapery, is another. 

Srilatid Ain — ^The foil is almoft intirety of the loamy kiodi 
deep enough and fertile : Any exception of Its incliniog 
either to (and or clay is fcarce worth the mentioning. The 
air b pure and wholefome, though it is rathef moift than 
dry \ and fitir weather is fometimes enjoyed on the ferms b^ 
low, when there are fegs of rain, or perhaps fnow, on the 
heights around : But this is no doubt more or kfs the cafe 
in every highland fituation \ though many a remark mufl 
one make in an account of this nature, equally applicable to 
a (hire or even a larger diftriA, as to a parifh.' 

Healthy Spirits^ Agesy bfc. — The writer of this knows of 
no diftemper peculiar to the pariihioners of Monlach | oor 
of any, which can be faid, above all others, to be prevailing; 
a«d on the authority of a phyficiao, who has long known the 
country and the people well, he can with the greater confi- 
dence fay, that there are none^ Here, as in other places, whik 
many of the ailments of the more affluent proceed from 
their living in luxury and too freely, to colds and tooicaoty a 
fare, may thofe of th^ lower claft be frequently traced. There 
are no inftances of very extraordinary longevity : But many 
arrive at the age of 70, fome to 80, and one now and then, 
though rarely, to 90 or upwards. The inhabitants may be 
faid,on the whole, to be lively, a£live, and vigorous ; thoogh 
from the backwardnefs of the feafons for feveral years, and 
other difficulties in the way of their getting a comfortable 
fnbfiftence^ both the fpirits and ftrbngth of the ordinaiy fir- 

$f Mortlacb* 417- 

mer and the hbouring man are weaker and worfe than thef 
werci it muft be owned,-«-and owrned with particular regret % 
for fuch men, engaged with heart's eafe in the healthful pur- 
fuit of agricultural employments^ are the very nerves and per- 
manent riches of a country. - 

5^Vf||/.— Here are feveral fteel or chalybeate fprings \ and 
fame of them pretty powerful. Onei in particukir, near the 
old cafUe (rf Aochindown, has been found, on chymical exa- 
minatioui very miich to refemble the Peterhead water, and 
to be as light as it. They are of ufe in graveliih complaints 
«nd diforders of the ftomach. There is likewife, below the 
houfe of'Kinninvie, a fpring of a petri^in^ qualltyi on the li- 
mits between Mortlach and Boharm. 

lEJ^^/.^^Ftddich and DuUaa, the two little rivers of 
this pariflb, have been already mentbned. Dovern is much 
larger than either" of them. But Mortlach can fcarce claim 
any property in it ; as it only borders, for a few hundred 
yards, upon one of its extremities. Fiddich riies in Glen- 
fiddtch, towards Strathdon \ and Dullan, in Glenrinnes, on 
the boundaries of GlenHvet. They join a little below the , 
kirk, near the houfe of Tiniover, and fall into the Spcy a- 
bout 4 miles below. After their confluence, Fiddich is the 
name. Thtip whole run may be about a dozen or fourteen 
miles each ; and there is good angling for fmali trout, in p!en<«* 
ty, on them both. 

Lake. — From the public road, leading from this to Botriph* 
Dy, may be feen, onihe left, in a den confined by two al- 
tnoft. perpendicular hills, a fmall but deep lake, called Loch- 
park, the fource of the Ifla, which flows into Doyeron in the 
parlih of Rothieinay. It is frequented by wUd ducks^ and it 

Vol. XVII. . 3 G ' faid 

4iS SMipic^l Aamnt 

li|id to hx9t pk^s iQ it. It belongs to Druounoir, AmoDg 
tb^ ipoqnt^ins, which encompafs the (larifh, except an open* 
^ing to the north, Brllrennts towers coofpic|ious. tt> height 
above the Tea* from which it inakc:$ a good Und mark in 
failing into the Moray-trithj is abofc ^6^^ ie^ \ and At>m 
iti bafe, about i68o. 

Sfuadwpeds.^^^'dim fh« tame ud dQHicftic qcudn>pcd% 
which are every whrre, hete arc foies, weatcls* haref^^ (bme 
Isadgeri and ottcn. In the foreft of Gienfiddi^^ti, iberc if 
afaandance of red derrs^^-a thoufaad apd more wtib « 
frw rcet* Ibe farmers roupd ii think tliCA bf far 
too numerous T AxiAjtx ^o 4 r 50 of trhem fomerimes in one^ 
flock, with their ftateiy cacfiage and branchiiig« hpro^ 
00 the tops of thufe fylvan and romantic hills, make a noble 
%ytw. The Duke of G'irdoo has a tum^iier rcfidoioe iathii 
l^len, as a cooTcnieaqe |ar fowhng| imd takmg a ihot at tb% 

$k4tK^Tht (belter aiid accomaiodation pf the w^oo4b hriq^ 
together a great variety of ilnging birds, making an aviaf?^ 
nature, the moft innocent and melodious of all, bap(>y aad ifft- 
cenfined. Jke Uftck-bird and thrufli» gokkfincht bislUfiiiclk^ 
linnet, and rohio, blend their nou*t ^ compoft a delightfaA 
coQcert. ^any. other birck thqre are, b^t nonf of them na* 
commorv The migratory eackoo^ gieeii*pipver or lapwing, 
and the fwallow, pay their an.nual vifit, and are alwaqfs woU 
eome. For the rportfrnan, there are moorfowls pr grouie, 
patridge?:, and ^ few fnipe ; The black-cock alfo is tO be met 
tvith in Glenfi^dich, aqd fome ptarm9gans have been feen oi| 

Mm0'ali*—Thevt is a fefficiencyof moorfione for the pas* 
pefe of building, with foinq, ilate quarri^ pf a dack grey co* 

lour and pfefty good : And the vaft qnantities of llineftone 
here would be an extiauftlefs treafure to the huftandman^ 
if the expence of tuelwere nor fo h'^h, as nearly to prohibit 
the ufe of it. There is the appearance of allacn and vitriol^ 
and lifcewile of a lead mine, on the burn of Tullicb, which bCi- 
longs to KinninTie* In one or two places^ thcrcr is a lamina^ 
ted rork, which fome think of the nature of whetftone or hones: 
A kind of marble alfo there is. both on Dullan and Fiddich fide t 
And, in fetera! parts, the forface of the ground would ieeon' 
tb indicate, that there are qoA% below, any difcOTcry of which 
Knd judicfotily profecutcd would be of the greateft confe- 
^nce both to the comfort of the people, and the improve-' 
A«nt of the lands i for they are rather far from the fea, and 
adMiy of them too poor, to reap any genera! benefit ttom the' 
iBte'lrepcal ot the coal tax, the nearcfi port, at the mouth of 
Hie Speyv bekrg about itf oiilca dlAaiit firoA the centre of 

PefidaHm.*^ftm th< lift of bapeifiils, atd tbtfrecollcaion 
dFthe oidefk pcfidcottrt, it woold appeaf that Morthch waa 
aiore popolows |0 or 60 yeaes ago, than k ia at thia daj^. 
lo the I jiZf on an accurate forlrey tor the infbrmaf ion of the . 
Qaroniof l^achrquer, in the view of an approaching fcaftky of - 
gnin,4he hshabitaats of every age amoumed ro a 1 69 » of whbm 
there were about 560 under twelve. Ten years afterwards, 
in the 17^2, when agiin, in tike manner* exaAly uken by 
the fame incumbent for this ftatiAkaf accooht^ the number ' 
was found to be 251 fewer than in rhe tySa, being in wholef' 
bdt 1918— ^f whom 90t were msdes and 1017 feuialcs, dod 
of whom aUb there wcfc. 



430 Simi/Hcat Acmni 

Under lo years of age 

* — • 


From 10 to ao — ^ 



20 to 30 — 











70 to 80 — 





-— 90 to lOO — 



In all 1918 

Thefe occnpied 415 houfes, for every family had Iti own 
feparate dwelling, making between 4 and 5 at a medium in 
each, though very unequally dividedi fome as large as iS or 
2o, including hulband, wife, chidreiii land fervants, and fooie 
as fmall as one. Such folitary houfeholders^ however, and 
fuch numerous families Were both but few. 

Of the above 415 houfes, farmers might be find to poOefs 
176 } and crofters, or cottagers/ the remaining 239 : And 
on the lands of the feveral proprietors, the proportions of 
the people and their habitations were as follows : 

On the Duke of GordOn^s 927 in 193 houfes. 
■■ Lord Fife's -^ 761 in 176 ditto 

■ Einninvie*s *«- 226 in 45 ditto 

AndonDrummuir's — 4 in i hoale« 

As before 1918 in 415 houfes. 

The fubjoined ftatement of births, for 30 years, from the 
ift of January 1763 to the 3tft of December 1792 inchi- 
five, arranged in 3 equal periods, is taken from the parfih 
regifter, and is thought tolerably corre£t. An allowance 
may be made perhaps for 2 or 3 being omitted every year. 


.,of Mirtlaih* 


In 176} 







la 1773 


• «775 









In 1783 





Total 421 Total 473 Total 343 

So the average for the fiift »o years* k 4atV» *>' »•»« 
fecond, 47^. Here it may be remarked, that the rule 
for &iding the popolati<m» by multiplying the births by 26, 
feems from this inftance to be exceedingly erroneous, for the 
produA of fuch mnltiplication would not m the prerent cafe 
be the half of the reality. The decivafe in the laft 10 years 
is very obferroWe, and is probaWy to be afcribed to the cala- 
mitous eighty two. The difference betwixt the 1766 mH 
the 1788 in thi foregwng table, the baptifins in the one be- 
ing more than tliree times as many as thoife in the other, will al- 
io (trike one : And for this difference no fiuis&^ory reafon 
can be affigned. It is likely, that, in the latter of tbofe two 
years, the cSeEtt of the 1782, which reduced the country 'm 
seneral to much want and a train of confequent diftrefles^ 
were at their height i that aW greateft number of emigrants 
had then left the parilh, hi fearch of employment and main- 
taiance, among ^be formers towards the fouth or in the ma- 
nufeAoring towns } and that, after that period, they, began to 
icturn, to find home more comfortable, and to increafih 
Such is the attachment to one's native foil, that it is feldon 
deferted but either from necelBty or the gratification of an 
ambitious dcfire } and as foon as circumffances will permk, 
or the paffion is cored, it is commonly reforted to again. Of 


M old acipidntance, wliether an agrecalble ftfand or % Jto^ 
rite fcene^ it is natural to be fond. Early or eftaUiflied pn* 
poflcffiont are wlt}i difficulty removed, and it ia bard to be 
pat to the trial of eradicating in a diftaofi land^ the fwta n> 
membrance of happier dayt. 

Ia the regifter of marriagesi there if, throngh ibmc negS* 
gence or other, a chafm. which prevents from going &nhcr 
back, with any prectfion, than the laft 20 years \ vlt. ftoa 
the ift of January 1773 to the 31ft of December 179a. But 
this ihall be done, as under, in two equal periods. 

For ibe Jirft 19 Yiars. f^ thr fuond to ym^s. ' 

I»»773 ~ « I» iT^J — rf 

1774 ^ 15 ,^ ^ .. X ^-tij, 

1775 — «« I7i5 . u-f * • :»§« 
177^ — M t7W -• . ly 

1777 — ,3 ,7$,' — :-^ 

I77» ~ 21 >7<9 — 14 

177> — ' »7 ^^99 ^ 17 

1780 — 16 1790 *- ' 14 

17?' — 24 *79^l ~ ' ^17 

178a — 16 179a -^* .4'*^ ij* 

Or idf marrlaiges aniitialJy. Oi' l2| marrt^ Jtthi**^"^* 

Each marriage, a< a medium, inay prodtice 4of 5 AfMftB;' 
Thercisnoircgifterofdeathf orburials fctpt. * ^ '' 

The tminber of men femmsis 135, andof weroeh TttnM^ 
»o2 or thereabout > all fcr the piirpolcs of huibandry or tlrf 
care of children. Thi« number may fccm frnaH. But many. 
of the farmers have thciir fonar and daif^hters to afllft Acm { ' 
and fervams Wages have Hff-rt to fuch a hcigtif, that th<y' 
■rnft do with as few as pofflble. 

. The hafidkrafifmcn an^ 

22 Weavers^ 4 Coopers^ 

l\ MaroD9» 2 i^yccs 

10 Shoefiidcm» 2 SUtersi 

^ Houfc carpeoiters^ 2 Wheel- trrlghts^ 

f SmilhSt I Plough anU c^rt 

5 Tailors^ wn^bCi 

I Haracls maker^ 

!h whole 71 s And they have almoft all of them a few acrei 
along with their huules. Tue nuoioer ui appreutices » about 
20. Tncre arc iiktwilie 4 (bo, keepeis, 2 innkceper^^ s'dii^ 
tillers of whiiky, 3 garjdcoersi 3 meaUiuiilcrs^ t iiot»aiiiier^ 
•ad 1 f4w- miller. 

Agriculture, — Agricuhttre !s 00 the improving hand : 6uf 
fhort leaie^are the bane of every ioiproveinent. " Vvikain his 
lenics would m^ke 4 tarm more valuable* at his own dear ex- 
pence, oniy to inJucr another to covet and to bid tor ic ? or 
if no |uch offerer tbouid interferei to tempt the proprietor^ 
who in general it fufiiciently apt toyieid to tuulc cem^/taticn?, 
fco take the advanta^ and iq <teae loo high a rent iyom his 
tenanti grown k>nd of the pi'dc^ ju« and thus incaurioufly 
idanding on very unequal ground ? 5of|ie of the farmers are 
giving very good exan pie, by dr fling (heir fields wttn greea 
crops, often. in drill, or by a fallow j laying them down w-th 
grafs iceds, and introducing a proper rotation : But winter 
lierding is not yet much lelithed % and till it be the pradicr^ 
a man% fields, when m turnips or cloyer, are but half his oWo, 
There are very few complete inclofiires, though on feverad 
farms, and particularly Pittyvaich, a good deal is done in th^ 
wav of dikes and hedges too. The ploughs may be reckoo* 
td about 170, foine of them of 8 or ip good oxen, othen 
^ DMd horlips^ generally 4, but the greater part made op of 

iii Siafrjikai Account 

horfes and oxen mixed together, both of a very indiSei^nt 
^ind. There are 3 or 4 wains or waggons drawn by oxen, 
and ploughing with a pair of horfes is introduced. The gfiia 
raifed here is oats, bear, or barley and peafe : A very fmsU 
quantity of either rye or wheat, though for the latter, both 
foil and climatei in various parts of the lands of Balveoj 
and Kinninvie, are well adapted. It is reckoned good and fuf- 
ficient bear» which weighs about 18 ftones the boll Banfilhire, 
which is nearly the Linlithgow meafure or ftandard for Scou 
land : And 16 pecks or a boll of oats, in a favourable fea- 
fon, will yield about 8 Hones of meal. Potatoes alfo are raif- 
ed, and found very ufeful. And there is fqme flax ; the ex« 
periments of which fhpw, that it might turn our a profitable 
article, if the management of it^ after being puUed, were bet- 
ter underftood, and if there were a ready market. It is at 
prefent b^t a bye kind of a crop, and therefore n^teOed. 
For want of ikill and attention in the grafing, watering, and 
milling, it is often much injured. Failing in fuccefi through 
bad ufage, it unjuflly receives the blame ; and the fanner is 
difcouraged from extending his attempts. 

This pariih, which is a plentiful one, after fupplying itfclf, 
can, in thex)pinion of fome oFthe moft intelligent on this fub- 
je£V, rpare, in ordinary years, about a thoufand bolls of bear, 
and five or fix hundred of«oats and oat meal. The oat feed 
fcafon is from the beginning of March, or rooner,if the wea- 
ther will allow, tiil towards the end of April. And bear is 
fown from the middle of April, to near the end of May. Bar- 
ley harveft, generally fpeaking, begins about the fir ft or fe« 
Gond week of September ; and the oats may be faid to be 
reaped in the month of October, though fometimes earlier 
and often later. Early oats, which have been much and be- 
licficially ufed fince the 1782, ripen almoft in the fame time 
as the bear. After the winter fnows^ however^ or heavy rains, 


ff Morilath. 425 

there muft be the difference of « or 10 daySi at lead:, in the 
time of fowing, in the different parts of this extenfive coun« 
try ; and even the fame kind of grain^ fown in the fame day, 
will be ready for the hook feveral weeks fooner in Balveny 
and Kinninvie^ than in Glenrinnes and Glenmarky. In this 
view, Auchtndown and Edinglailie have an intermediate* 
place, being neither fo early as the two firft of thofe difiriAs, 
nor fo late as the other two *• 

« CaUle and Fajturage. — As to the live (lock here, there will 

'be about 2000 black cattle, from 300 to 400 horfes for 

plough, cart, and harrow, 4000 or 5000 fheep, fome goat^, 

abd a few fwine about the mills and difiilleries. The black 

^attie are of the middle fized and handfomc highland breed ; 

4he ox from 5 to 8 guineas, and the cow worth 4 or 5, as 

the prices happen to go. Many of the farms, having plenty 

of fiinHDer graft, are well fuited for cattle and corn too. 

There are al(b ibme very good fheep-walks, one of the bed: 

of which is in Glenmarky. The ewes and Iambs, which 

are moftly now of the black-faced Linton fort, fell from 5 L 

to 7 U the fcore ; and wedders much about the fame : But 

^\ fbch calculsltions nioft be underAood with a little latitude, 

and as only there and thereabout. It is iinpofllble to make 

them»t)thcrwifc. The whtte-ftccd (hecp, who may be ftiled 

thte ahriginis of the country, are wearing out ; and yet, tho* 

imaller,' they arc allowed by many to yield both the fwectcr 

mutton and the finer wool. Wool fells from los* to 16 s. 

per flone, according to the quality and demand ; but the 

ttone conilfts, it ftcms, of 4 a lib. ' Dutch ; one iiiftancc, 

among a thoufand, of the great propriety of fimplifying our 

Vol. XVU. 3 H weights 

* The average rate of an acre is about los. } and the farms 
arc of many a dijffcrcnt fizc, from a 5 1. rent, and even Icfs, to 
70 1. or 80 1. 

4^6 Statiftkal Jecowtt 

weights and mearuresi and making them tverj where allke^ 
by the fame general ftandard. The breeding of horfes is bat 
little praAifed here» though it would probably anfwer very 
well. As a r{)ecimen, fome have lately been reared to the 
value of 15 1. and 20 L Sterling* 

WWr.— There are ftvcral plantations of firs In Mortlach, 
and fome of them full grown, the property of Lord Fife and 
Kinninvie ; in whole from 300 to 400 acres ; and about the 
likr quantity of natural wood, chiefly alier and birch. The 
otdeft fir wood is on a piece of rifing ground, planted about 
60 or 70 years ago, then arable, and fo fertile as to be called 
the meal'girnel of Tininvcr, of which farm it was a part, and 
flill is.' It fcems it has then been the opinion, that a rich. 
mould, if not necefiaryi was at leaft very favourable for lucH 
a purpofe ; though it is fince known, that firs will profper 
in waftes fit for nothing elfe. Some elms, planes, and oaks, 
have thriven pretty well. One old oak, in particular, in t&e 
Craig of Balveny, though not a very large tree, has a refpec- 
table appearance. The a(b, too, appears very congenial to. 
the foil, and (hoots up Inx^uriantly \ and, amidol the trees of 
native growth, there n a great variety of Ihrubs, manf 
of ihem flowering. There is, however, an ample fcope 
for planting here ; and, when it is fet about, attention wiH 
no doubt be paid to the ufeful and beautiful Urix. If cAal 
be not difcovered, timber, as a fuel, will, ere long, in manf 
parts of /he parilh, be a mucb wanted fiKadamum for the 
exhaufted mofl^s. 

Lan^ua^e, — The language is a dialeA of the Scottifh ^mi 
Englifh blrnded together. i4iere is h<u>dly a word of Earfii 
now fprken in any part of the parifli : If any wh^ re, it ia ia 
Gkarinncsj where the iuhabitaotft do aUb laoft retain the 


tf Morilach. 427 

look, mannen, and genius of the Highland Caledonian, as 
a^'pcars from their drefs, their Yivacitj, their focial and mer- 
ry meetings, their warm attachments, their keen refentments^ 
their aAlvity on occafions, and indolence on the whole, their 
intelligence, and their love of their country, 

Karnes of P/acis.'^Thc nances of places, except fuch as are 
of Ute cultivation, are ail Gaelic, and commonly dekriptivr 
either of the fituation or ot fome noticeable circumllance. 
Of this, examples would be needlefs^ Let the two nvutets 
fuffice. ftddu'b^ or ttodhtdb^ means woody ; and its banks 

. are almoit covered with tree*. Duilan^ or Tuilan^ lignifies 
jrapid i and it toinbl^s from pebble to pebble almoft ail its 


jR^n/.— The real rent of this parifli, which arifes entirely 
from lands, is 2000 1. Sterling and upwards, borne neccfl^ry 
information on this head having been with- held, from a 
jealou/y of an improper ufc being made of ir^ it cannot be 
exactly dated ; But the valued rent, as taken in the year 
-^ X^V^t is 3V<^ol. Scotch. 

J'tfnw^^w^/.— There is neither town nor village in all the 

; parvlh ; The whole is country. The Kirktown of Mortlach 

V is only 2 or 3 houfes <vn the glebe, or about the church. 

^ Ihe farjQ-houfes are getting a more decent look than they 

had \ and it is to be hoped they will yet inend in this re« 

fpeA,^ They are buijt for the moft part of granite flone» 

and thatched with draw. A few, however^ are flared ; and 

- leveral gentleinen farmers, fome of whom have retired from 

^ the army, beating iheir fwords into plough-ftiares, haye both 

^ their dweUipg ^tl^ulcs apd offices very fubftanti/^l and com- 

v^siJW^iious. It were to be wifhed that heritors would be fome- 


423 Statijlkal Account 

what more liberal in granting an allowaQce for meliorations 
of this fort. Under proper limitations, much advantage 
would accrue from it, both to their tenants and chemfelves too^ 

Religion.'^Tht parifhioners are all of t|ie Eftabliflied 
Churchi except about 30 or 40 Roman Cathoiicsi perhaps 
as many Scceders, and i Epifcopalian. Any ill-will or vio- 
lence of temper, arising from a difference in religious fenti- 
ment, is rare. 

General CharaBer. — As to the charafler of the people at 
large, much may juftly be faid to their praife. Like the 
people of other diftrifts, they are not without their faults ; 
and there are fome inftances of great worthleflbefs, almoft 
in every pariih, to be regretted^ It here obvionfly occurs, 
that a minifter may be induced, from i^arious motives, to go 
to the extreme of truth, on the favourable (ide for his flock. 
His regard for them may blind and miflead him ; or, by 
condemning them, he may think that he obliquely condemns 
himfclf 5 at leafl", if another did it, he might perhaps be led 
too readily to think fo. Few chufc to depreciate their own 
imi)ortance; few to diminifli the happy effcfts of their pat 
toral care \ and fewer ftill are inclined to render ihemfelve^ 
ungracious. Thus it may often place a clergyman in a deli- 
cate fituation to be obliged to charafterize his parifhioncrs ; 
and, though a man of honefty and refolution would, in any 
neceflary cafe of the kind, immediately determine that he is 
to fpeak or write the truth, yet fuch charafters,- which in 
general will be found to be only an indifcriminate repetition 
of the fame and the fame good qualities, are furely to be re- 
ceived as probably partial. But, unlcfs there be an egregi- 
ous dclufion indeed, it can be told with pleafure and with 
the ftrifteft impartiality, of the people of Mortlach, that. 

gf Morilacb. . 48 j 

seith few exceptionsi thej are, and long have beea» indaftri« 
pusy hone(t, neighbourly, fober, and humane \ peaceable, or* 
derly, and afTcAionaccly attached .to the free and glorious 
connitution of Britain ; decent in obierviog the ordinances 
of religion, and rationally frnprcflcd with the great end of 
them all, as aiding and f ubi'ervient to piety of heart, upright- 
ncfs of condudl, and purity of life. If feme of them be ftill 
too much given to fnts^ or fuperftitious remarks, they arc 
commonly of the harmlefs kind. 

Inoculation. — One thing, however, truly to be lamented, ts 
^heir yet too great diflike to inoculatioYi for the fmatl-pox^ 
the negleA of which, though it is in ufe rather more than ic 
was, makes this very infedtibus and virulent difeaie frequent- 
ly mortal.^ and it is the more difficult to overcome lo unfor- 
tunate a prejudice, as,' in a great degree, it ha> its orig>n in 
confciencc, however erroneous and mifinforiped. Bnt^ it is 
to be hoped, bpth for tbe-fake of their children, and a., axx 
exprtflion of their thankfulnefs to God for fo gracioub a dil« 
covery, that they and others around them, for they are not, 
lingular, will loon fee this matter in another an<) juftcr light^ 
and chcarfuHy, with a dependence on Tuccels from Hejvcn, 
embrace the benefit of fo kind a mcun afturded by Providence. . 
They are, in gex^eral, much diipoii^d to chearfulnefs and eon« 
tentment, but keenly alive to a fenfe of injuf^ice, rigorous 
exactions, or any fpecies of oppreffion whatever. That they 
have a martial genius, there is little doubt -, but out- ordinary 
wars, it appears, do not call it forth \ for they are not fond of 
a military life : Indeed, the bufinefs of a foldier is held rather 
in low eftimation among them. They feem to confider it as' 
poor, diffipated, and Qavifh. As to fize, (trength, com- 
plexion, abilities, or any other perfonal or mental qualifica-' 
fiop^ there is hct^ nothing remarkable. 


43^ Staitjtical Account 

Minifiirs — ^Thc writer of this was minifter of MortTad^ 
being the fourth (ince the revolution from Auguft i7><i tp 
December 17931 when, he was traf^flate^i to Aberdeen or 
St Nicholas ; he i^ tnirried, and h^s four Ions. Mr George 
Grant, who was one of the mintfters of old M^ichir, has iuc* 
ceeded hinii a batcheloir. As to his predeceflTors, Mr Shaw's 
lliftory of the Province of Moray will inform thofe who have 
the ctiriofity to know* 

Patron and StifenJ. — ^Thc Crown. is patron. The ftipend 
IS 63 I. 2s. Sterling, including in that U m communion ele» 
mem monef « one chalder of bear and two chalders of oat 
meal at 8 Aones per boU. 

G/«fo.— There are five or fix acres of a glebe, with a pret* 
if good orchard and kitchen garden^ pleafantly fitiiated oa 
the bank of the Dullao, 

Manfe and-Cturcb. '^The manfe has been a Tpacions one iB 
it^day, but is now going to wreck, and muft foon be cither 
rebuilt, or have a thorough repair. The church is indeed ve- 
nerable, but it is only becaufe it is old j having none of that 
magnificence, nice archite^ure or elegant decorations, whi^h 
we fo juftly admire ip the more modern cathedr^Als of lifter 
times. Tradition reports that its walis are the very C^me as 
in the beginning of the eleventh century^ iinc) they art <b 
firong that it is thought they might ftand for hundreds *>£ 
years to come : But the roof, which it got ^about 8c years 
ago, IS ruinouf. The doors and windows, and the fimplicity 
of the whole edifice bear witnefs ^o its age. 1 he windows are 
long narrow flits of fix feet high, and 19 or 11 inclies 
wide on the outGd«* but fo much floped «^tQ meafure 
91 t4<Bir ittmofi projedtion ten or (welve icet within. And as 


its (hapct that of an oWong fquare of about 90 feet by 48, U 
i very incommodious one, as a place of public worfliip, both 
for tte fpeakcr and hearers, it will probably be found advife- 
able to get over the veneration for its antiquity, and new model 
it into a more convenient form. The choir on the eafte'^d, 
where the mufic was, and where the altar alfo would be. is 27 
feet lonjt, and a few feet higher than the rcil of the build- 
ing Here the door to the organ loft is ftill to be feen ; and on- 
the ridge of the choir, is what they call the Three Bifhops, a 
pyramid like ftone of little flww, with the femblance of a 
face on each of its fides, right rodely cut. If has bem faid that 
the effigy of Bifhop B*"yn is to be feen in the wall near the 
poprn dooTi whereabout it is imagined the tomb of t^e 
three firft bilhops might be found under a vault : But this, 
as to the eflffgy. •« n«>» the cafe And for the tomb, there 
.has been no learch j nor are there any effigies in the church, 
«a^ceptone at fall length, over the door which leads from the 
choir to the Leflies A flc or burying ground, with no infcrip- 
tiofi, but called a predcceffor of the Kmninvie fan«ly. and 
celebrated as a man of marvellous gallantry j and two half 
'lengths, Alexander Duff of Keithmore and Helen Grant of 
Allachie his fiwufe,* on the f6uth fide of the choir, a 
Latin infcription v all in freeftone and baffp relievo There 
i, another inlcription in marblcf, on a monument of Mr Hugh 


• Great grandfather and great grandmother of the prefent Earl 
of Fife. 

fCffiet (f tht tvM Ittferiptiii*' 

Hoc conduntor tumulo, reliqu!. Aleiandti DtilF de Keith- 
«,"e et Helenae Grant uxori. foxchnnflim.. Qu. qu-dnng.n- 
""nnoset ultra, felici er f«cunda '■■°°"«'>;V"?*i'f' rS 
iterque quidam ingcaue aaws, die ca aobdiffimu F.f* lh.n^ 


Statijlkal AcctMnt 

Inncs firft prcfbytcrian parfon of Mortlach after the Revolu- 
tion. It is in the wall, befide the minlAer's feat, under which 
he was buried *. There arc Ukcwife fome very ancitnt look- 
ing grave ftones with Saxon characters, below the feats and in 
the paflages ; but it would take a great deal of trouble to make 
but what is upon them, and, except to a patient and inquifi^ 
live antiquary, the labour would perhaps be very ill repaid f. 

School — The fchool is very ufcful ; but the fchoolmafter, 
> as 

per Tetuftam familiam de Craigfaeady paulo abbinc fuperftitem 
proxinie et legitime oriondus ; ilia ex fplendida et potenti Gran, 
teorum familia, eodem qiiaque modo origifiem trahens ortu non 
obfcuri, fuis tamen virtutibus illuftrtores ; opibus affluxerunt, 
ct liberis ingenoe edueatib, florucre pie, juftc et fobrie vixerum, 
et fic in Domino mortem obicre. lila ,anno Domini 1694, 
fetalis fux fexagefimo. 

M. S. 

Mri. Hugoitis Innes, filii honorabilis viri Johanuis Innes de 
Leichnet, qui, cum, annos triginta quatuor, facra in hoc tem- 
plo pcregifTet, obiit anno Chridt 1733, natus annos LXVllI. 
I^ofuit hoc monumentum pia ac dilcAifllma conjux Eliz. Abcf- 
nethie filia Domini de Mayen. 

• This gentleman, it is faid, was poflefled of a confiderablc 
fiare both of bodily ftrcngth and perfonal courage ; and, in 
thofe days, if various anecdotes which are told of him be true, 
ic (eems he had occafion for the exercife of thefe qualities^ in 
the difchargc of his clerical funiSUons. 

+ On ihe banks of the Dullan, a little below the prefent churcB 
or ancicni cathedral, appears the foundatioa of a houfe, orer- 
gfown with grafs, which would be walked over with little no- 
tice, if one were not told, that here was the bifbop's palace: 
And not far from thence is a part of the public road, on the 
oppofiie Ade of the fame rivulet, leading to the eaft, called Got* 
don^ crofs $ the iirft defi^n or ufe of which cannot now with 
ijertainty'be dlcovered ; and fuppofitions are endlefs. It might 
be for fome religious purpofe, or it may have been a market 
place. A round rtonc, which is thought to have been the pedcf- 
tal of the crofi*, remains to be feen. 

vf Mohilaib* ' 435 

Uifidoft dthef places^ is poorly rewarded for Kis troii- 
ble : Mr Alexander Thomfon, the prefent one, has been 
long much efteecned as a teacher,, and is a very defer- ** 
ving man. The xwhole emoluments, includirg falary, fees, 
a donation by Duff of Dipple, with perquilitcs as feffioQ 
clerk and keeper of the regiCtcr^ amount to but about twen* 
tj guineas, for which, beiides the other duties of oiEce, si 
moft faithtul charge is taken of 30 er 40 fcholarSj at leaft, 
through all the year. 

. Moires Burfartis, — There are four burfarlcs at the King's 
College of Aberdeen for boys educated here, an endowment 
which is a great encouragement, and has been of important 
fervice to many youpg men in the pariih, and merits parti- 
cular notice. It is. a privilege indeed, whicb^ for the fake 
of the parifliioners, will no doubt be always moft facredly 
preferved. They arife from 600 U Sterling, bequeathed to 
the above univerfity, between 30 and 40 years ago, by Dr Alex- 
ander Moir, an Auchindown man, and for fome time theparilh 
fchoolmafterj for the education of four boys annually at the 
College, from this fchool, to be recommended by the miuifter. 
If two or more boys fliould happen to be fent at the fame 
tlmd, thebeft fcholar^ other thirtgi equal, is preferred : Btit if 
only, one goes, he is entitled by ufe and wont, and writings 
explanatory of the will^ without any competiti()n, to the be« 
nefie of this legacy ; if found h^hite or fie for being received 
at a college at ail, and if atteiled by the parfon of Mortlach 
as a^proper boy and from this fchool, for there muft be one 
borfary to be gnrcn away every year. Dr Molr died in St ' 
Croix, where he had made h<s fortune, which was handlome, 
as a phyficiani 

It is (aid that Dr Lorimer of London, a native of tils pa« 
Jrifb and extremely fond of it| means to give a Turn of money 

Vol- XVII. 3 1 for 

434 SiatyUad Accwril 

for anoHier burfe to the boys of this fchool : And if al tW 
fame time he couM thtok of the fchoolmafter, and leave anf 
thing for bim>. it might be oi much utilitj* as an iodacemcot 
to a proper man either to come or to continue in the place. 

The Poor. — ^The number on the poors roll, at an averagei 
is from 50 to 60^ and the fand« for their relief, being the pro- 
duce of all the colledttons in chorch, except the yearly 
one for the infirmary of Aberdeen, and the intcrcft of ippo 1^ 
Scots, a bequeft of the fame -Duff of Oipple who left a thou^ 
fand merks for the fchodl, da not exceed twenty pounds per 
annum : So it is only a fmall affiftancci and not a fuppoxt 
which can be derived from thenk But even in the 1782 no 
body perilhed for want \ though many were on Oiort aiioir-- 
ance i With (bme favings of former years^ bud out in pur* 
chafing white peafe, almpd the oniy grain then to be got, 
and the help of fome meal from government, a fliift was made 
.to meet the iucceeding crop. And, moft luckily for the poor» 
the prices for ipinning linen yarn, the chief employment of 
tfie women in this part o£ the couniryj were then verjr 

Price ofPrawfions and Rate of Wages. -^Vroyntions of all 
kinds are conliderabiy dearer than they were about 20 or 30 
years ago, fome articles a thirdi and others a half^ and thejR 
are flill rifiog in their value. The prices at prcient are id 
much fimilar to thofe which will be mentioned in the neigh* 
bouring parilhes that it is neediels to . be particular : Aiidt 
.the fame may be faid of the rate of wages, whether for ar« 
tificers, fervants, or day labourers. Of the three, however^ 
farm fervants have come to the moft extravagant pitch. In* 
deed as to the labouring man at fixpence a day with his viduals, 
when married aiid with a few young childreni it is rather furs 


^ M^rilach. 4^£ 

lyrring bow he makes out at an, confidering that he cannot 
get work all the year round, iinlefs the winter icafon be un- 
commonly mild : Much, efpeciaHy for clothing, mud depend 
on the induftry and economy of the wite ; and after all» on 
their fmall and honeft earnings, one would imagine there is a 
portion of iuch a bleffing, as, in the days of oid^ there was 
in ihe widow's barrel of a.eai and cruiie of oil. 

Advantages and Difadvantages, — It may be remarked as a 
peculiar advantage to ttiis paiiih. that it js plentifully iuppU- 
td with timoer, both for tae purpuie ot oxmam^ ana for all 
farming utcnlils, chiefly witUm itidf, and partly from us vi« 
^inity to the Spcy, whicti flv>att> down conveniently and at an 
^afy expence, the trees of Glcnmore'and other highland fo- 
reftSy on the banks di that ftately river: And, as to its natu- 
ral diiadvantages, it has few or none, bat luch as are almojft 
infeparable from an inland and mountainous (ituation. 

• MeUoratiMS^^^Bv^f untloubtedly, the condition of the peo- 
ple nugfat in many rcfpe£ls be made better^ 

SrrvcTfl,— Services or bondag^^ as a part of the value of. 
their lands, do flill difgrace the rentals of fome of the heri- 
tors : And though they are requirc4 with great indulgence, 
and not nearly to the extent of the obligation in their tacks, 
jet they hang over the heads of the tenants, like a deprcffing 
weight, and ought moft certainly to be abolilhed. 

jUttA^w/*— Multures, or aftriftions in the way of thirlagcf 
to any particular milU fhould alfo be reai'otiably converted, 
and done away. The farmer would then go with his viftu- 
al, wherever he plcafed, and have nothing to pay but to the 
operative miller for his trouble and expence. Thus it would 
become the intcreft of the workman, and it is always fatcft 
to pake inicrcft and duty go together, to grind the corns well^ 

^ give 

45$ StQiiJlical Accent 

give reddy rerrice, and not to overcharge ; and it would alia 
be the intereft of the farmer to go to the neareft millj if pro* 
pcrly conduftcd. 

Liofes — Leares ought to be longer than they are : The 
longeft juft now is nineteen years. 

Roads, — Our bad roads are a great inconvenience and a 
great Ipfs ; and very bad they are jn general, except where it 
is ahnofl impofllble to make (hem fo. 1 hey are much ne- 
gkdledi and never will be tokrablei it is to be feared, till 
cither the ftatute labour be commuted, or turnpikes e(labli£h- 
ed, Thfc pe'^plc turn out to this work with reluAance, 
becaufe they do not cxpcrrjencc the benefit of It ; for, bj 
nnikiitul management, the roads are often worfe rather than 
better of all they do : And the oyerfeer, loth to impofc a 
hardlhip pa tbofe who arc -gener illy his neighbours, or to 
offend them, is too eafy in his duty ; and, on the whple, their 
tvork is a mere farce. The cliiEculty of providing fuel is aao« 
the evil. Cutting, fetting up, and leading home the peat; 
and turfs occupy the greater part of the fummer, from the 
end of the bear feed to the beginning of harveft. 

JFW^/.— Goals muft be the remedy for this. Even with our 
prcfent roads, it is allowed, by thofe who have made the trial, 
that they are the cheapeft firing \ And if the roads were 
good, or, which would be better ftill, if one might indulge 
the idea of a canal, there would be a moft comfortable re« 
lief in this requifite article. 

Game Laws, — The game laws, though not immediately con* 
Ticfted with agriculture or the neceflaries of life, are loudly 
complained of, by numbers in this part of the country, as a 
heavy grievance. It is thought exceeding hard^ that a man 

\ iff Motilach. 437 

dare not (hoot a hare or a |>atr]dge, on his own farm or ii| ' 
his own garden, but like a poacher or a thief ; and that o« 
thers oiaycome and do fo at his very door^ to his great mor^- 
tihcation, and perhaps to the injury of his crop. 

Surely the tax on liceixes of this kind can be no mighty 
objeA for the revenue \ and it aids in fupporting and rivet* 
ting this purfe proud and unjuft procedure. In truth, thofe 
arbitntrj a£ts are tb^ vilcft vefti^e of fcudalifm and ariilQcra* 
cy now remaining in our free and happy land \ and it is to 
be fufpeAed that Britain may one day ladiy mourn their cf- 
fedls : For notning C411 have a ftronger tendency to ener- 
vate and enflavc tbe mnabitants of any country, than a prohi« 
biiion of the ul'c of arms, to which thefe laws eventually dp 
amount, in the time of need, they will neither know how 
to load nor tire. And, it ever an invasion ihould come upoq 
us, we will be able to do but little in our own defence. In- 
ftead of lounging over the coals in an idle morning, inactive 
and fpiritlefs as he now muQ do, when the operations of huf. 
bandry are arretted, by the froll and fnow, the pealant, fportf. 
man,>nd there is no inconfiftcncy, eipecially in the highlands, 
in one's being both, was wont to range over the fields and 
hills, with his dog and his gun, in manly cxercifc, which 
gave health to his body and vigour to his mind. On this fub- 
jcft, it is frequently obferved, and the obltrvation fcems juft, . 
that there was greater plenty of all forts cf game before thefe 
confinements than fince. And the reafon is pretty plain. 
Every body almoft then had an intereft in deftroying hawk* 
.and other ravenous animals, and likcwife in "taking care 
of the eggs and young in the fprirg ; whereas now, as they 
are to have no (hare either of the plejlurc or profit after- 
wards, to ufe no ftronger language, tficy are entirely carelcfs 
> and indififerent about the matter, 

JMsfcelldneoui.'^Thcrc was an uncommon mortality in this 


4t^ SiMiJlkat Aecmnt 

jprifli in 17(^3, occtfioned by a potrid fever; and, daring' 
the rage of the difeare, the firoft was fo very intenfe, that it 
was neceflary to kindle fires in the charch-yard to foftca 
Che ground for digging the graves : In the month of January 
Mr Walter Sime the minifter was one of thirteed corps on- 
buried at the fame tiuie. 

Balveny houfe may be admitted here, a large and mo- 
dern manfion, one of the ieau of Lord Fife, and boitt by hk 
fitther, about a quarter of a mile below the old cattle, which 
Will be mentioned ibon. It has a flat roof, and is covered with 

It is a pity that this houfe ts fo ill fet down, and that it 
]has no inhabitants. Lying naturally too low, the archifeA^ 
lias contrived to fink it' lower ftill : And yet, with the aflb.* 
ciation of life and plenty and chearfulnefs within, tt would 
comn tunicate the fenfation of a very fliewy and plcafant dwd* 
ling; but, as it U, it looks fblltary and forlorn. 

Wir hin ^hi* century, the mode of living is much altered herCt ' 
and not tothebfrtter: On the whole it is not fo firengthen* 
tng. The drinking of whiiky inflead of good ak is a m]« 
ferable change, and fo likewiie is the very general ofe of tea« 
Thefe put together have been exceedingly hurtful both to 
health and morals. Hence too many become tffpterst ne» 
gWA their bufinefs, and go to rum : And hence it is thought 
that confumptions, ftomiich complaints, and a mohiplicity of 
diforders, which go under the name of nervous, are more fre« 
quent than they were. It will probably be confidered as 
a pretty curious faA, that inftead of two Or three tea kettles^ 
about 60 or 70 years ago, perh ips one for the laird, another 
for the par (on, and a third for the fador, there are here now 
two hundred at leaft. But while thefe remarks muft be made, 
as impartiality rrquires, it is agreeable, on the other hand, to 
observe a circumftancc of a very diflfcrcnt afpeA. Srme time 
ago, the country hereaboot was too much given to the indoU 


^eme of a Ihigious fptrit, a fpirtt> which, wherever it (Mwaib^ 
will not fail to four the temper, waftc the fubftancei and cotw 
rapt the principles of bonefty : But now a law fait is fcarce« 
ly heard of among them ; and when any little difference a« 
rifes, they refer it to a friend or two in the way of amicable 
decifion. This happy alteration is owihg partly to dear bought 
experience; and partly to the removal of a judicatory at 
Keith, a Tillage within a few miles of them, where a fubfti* 
tute of the (heriffof Banff{hire was wont to hold bis meet* 
ings and difpenfe the law, and whj^re fome pettifogger or o* 
ther was never wanting to foftrr, if not to infill, an inciinft* 
tion to a procefs, as often as be could. A bleffing when a^ 
bufed is converted into a curfe, and now the people : 
find» tba^ though they are farther from the court, they arer 
nearer to juftice. To Keith» they bad frequent occafious for 
the poft office, or the (hop or the market, and if the lmal« 
left djfpotable trifle happened to be rankling them at the 
thne, the coal was blown ^ and they came home, buoyed up* 
by their counfeU with the afforance of ample Utish6i\on and 
all their ekpence, though the aSair generally ended in their 
pockets being picked, and their peace and good neighbours- 
hood deftroyed. A caufe not worth a groat, on either &de» 
has been knows to be contefted for years, through all the 
rounds of the moft quibbling and tedious forms, and to coft 
each of the contending parties pounds inftead ol the original 

Mortlach, though it has not much to fliow that it is a &« 
vourite of the mutes, cUims a relation to two Scotch fonga 
of no little togue, Roy's wife in Aidcvallach, and Tibbf^ 
Fowler in the Braes. There arc fome old men yet alive who 
remember to have fcen the heroine of the latter, ^he lived 
in the &ae$ of Auckiadowo, and was a plain looking Ufs 


440 Siaii/lical AccowU 

'with a fwinging tocher. The Ghicks of ^allachi irftntioiie^ 
as the fcene of the former, is a narrow and remarkable pa($, 
near the old caMe of AuchindowDi between this parifh aod 
the Cabrach. Bo(h ballads are faid to have been compofcd 
by diiappointed woers. 

Antiquities *and Families of Note. — ^Therc are two old 
taftles, in this pariQi, well worthy ot notice. Auchindown^ 
or Auchindune, and fialveny : And when a ftranger is 
travelling through this part of Scotland^ for curiofity 
or pleafure, they deferve his attention, and wHlcontribute 
to' his amufement. Lefs than an hundred years ago, both 
were inhabited. When they were firft built^ it is not 
kno^h, or by whom, i he caftle of Auchindune /laods 
on a green mount of conical fhapc, over the Fiddich : 
Its fituation is bold ahd commanding. In the central apart* 
ment of the building, there is a piece of admirable workman- 
fliipi in grand and gochic ftile. It has been in the pofleflion 
of the family of Gordon fince 1535; and of that name^ 
there have been both Knights and Lords of Auchindune* 
Before that period, it belonged to the Ogilvics 5 and, with 
all its barony, was a part of the Lordflilpof Defltford.- Bal- 
veny caftlc is another very magnificent rirufture. It is pla- 
ced on a beautiful eminence, on the banks of Fiddich like- 
wife^, a little below its confluence with the Dullan, and has 
a variety of charming fcenery in its view. Tradition calls 
the oldcft part of it, for it has ^videptly been built at diffi:- 
rent times, a Piftiih tower. In days of old; it fucceffively 
owned as its matters the Cummings, the Douglafl^cs, and the 
Stewarts 5 and, after them, pjfling through feveral other fa^ 
milies in the i6th and 17th centuries, it became the proper- 
ty of i>ufF'. t Biatro ii^out the year 1687, and is now the 
Earl-ot Pu'c'a* In the 14461 there was a Lord fialveny of 


^ h/lortlath. 44f 

the taatnc Sf t)daglas. In the front, abd high over its irod 
and mafly gate, which ftill remains, is a motro of the Stewarts, 
£arte of Atbbl, deicriptive of the favage valour and unhap- 
py circnniftahces of the titocs. FVR TH. FORTVIN. AND. 
FIJL THL FAJTRIS. The fituations of both thfcfe ancient 
fertalices are wdl chofcn for defence. Thfcy have alfo had 
their walls, their ditcfaa, and their ramparts^ and have been 
flrongly fortified bj art. For prints of them, and more mi- 

^ note obftrvations, fee Cordioer's Remarkable Ruins, No, 1 1. 
and li. Slich objdSli, prefcnting ihcmfclvcs to the eye, lead 
the mind to rcfleft on the tranfitory nature»of human things, 
ind infpfte a contemplative and melancholy pleafure. AU 
though rio# they arc ruins, they were once the fcencs of 
feftivity and triumph. Many of diftinguiflicd fame, though 
chiefly ail warriors, have dwelt within them, for warlike feats 
^erealntbft tht only accomplifhments, which,, in the days of 
their glory, conferred renown* 

There was another- old fodilding here, though of inferior 
note, at ^dinglaffie : Oncf occurrence about it, however, is 
very memorable. In 1690, the year of the engagement out 
the haughs of Cromdale, fome of the highland claos, on 
their march from Strathfpey, through Mortlach to Strathbo- 
gte, and in a connexion with the pbbii^ diflcntions of the 
day, burnt thhr hdtife : For which, the laird, whofe name wa^ 
Gofctdn, tortt his bpportunity of revenge, in their return a 
few weeks after, by feizing eightech of them at random, ani< 

hangkig tkem all on the ti^ces of his garden • : A /hocking 

ikiftanee of the n^ifef'ies of a civil wslr, and silfo perhaps of 

the t^fanticial and detiftabie powci* then too often exerci- 

Vol. XVIJ. 3 K fed 

♦ There is a piece of on the cftatc of Edmglaffie, 
caUed the HigUandmaa's mofit^ wliere it is currently faid they 
wercall buried. 

44 i Staiiftical AuWfit 

fed by chieftains or haughty landholdersi over the propeitff 
liberty, and lives of their fellow men, for either without any 
trial at all, or with a mere (hadow. of one, they condemaed 
oven to death, by pot or gallows. It is well known, that the 
abufei of tfiefe hereditary jurifdiflions became To intolerable, 
that they were put an end to, by an aft of Parliament, in the 
reign of George II. and a gpeat and happy reform it was. 

On the declining fide of a hill, bordering upon this p2U'ifh, 
betwiiit Glenrinnes and Glenlivet, the battle of Gtenlivct 
was fought, on the 3d of OAober 1594. The Earls of 
Huntley and Argyle were the leaders of the two armies, of 
whom the Utter, according to (ome accounts, brought io,cod 
men to the field. Huntiy was viAorious, though his nucn- 
bers were, it is faid, but as i to to* Many a gallaillt man 
was killed. Adam Gordon^s cairn, on thefixleof the bnra 
of AUonlachao, is a teftimony of the place on whicSt he feUl 
He was Sir Adam of Auchindune, and Hnntly's uncle. Ar^ 
gyle was only 19 years of age, of a refotute and noble /pint, 
and felt feverely on the defeat. For the caufe of t&is battle, 
and its more particular circumftaoces, fee the Hiftory of the 
l^amily of Gordon, Sec. 

Battli of Mortlacb.^Avk i\» jt9f loto, Malcbim 11. ob> 
tained, ih this parifh, that fignal viAbry over the Dane^ 
which has ever fince given the place a fuperior degree of 
£ame, and makes it refpeded as claiEc grounds Human iii« 
ture is inclined to regard, with a 'peculiar reverence, the very 
ipot of earth on which was of old tranfii£ked any remarkable 
event. Makolm had been beat the year before by the Daaesi 
and was obliged to leave them in poffeffion of the lands of 
Moray. Anxious, however, to expel fuch intruders, he now 
returns upon them from the fouth, with a powerful' forc#) 
«td the Danes^ having ioteUigeoce of hss nations, came'ioib 


rf Mwllacb. \4*S 

'ward to give Um battle. The armies get % 

one another not far from the eharcb of 
▼erj little to the northward of it they eoga^ 
ginning of the attaci;, while puihing on wit 
itopetuofityy Kennethi Thane of the Ifles ; 1 
of Laodian } and Graeme; Thane of. Strathert ^^.n^-' 

natelyflain. On the lofs of thiwe of their generals, the 
Scotch are ftnick with a panic, and go into confufioo. Every 
thing was isow in a moll doubthil fufpen(e, and too lilcely to be 
decifive. The King, who has t,he character of a brave^ fenfi- 
\At, and pioqs m^n, it moft reluAantiy borne atorg with the 
retreating croud, till he was oppofite to the church, then a 
chapel dedicated to Molocus, The narrownefs of the paflage 
here abated a little the career of the pui'fuing Danes \ the 
%ing army got a minute to breathe \ and, from the very fi« 
tnation of the ground, were again almoft neceflarily col(edl« 
cd. On a mere incident, a prefence of mind, or a happy 
thought, under providcncci often depends the fate of war. 
The monarch was feized, perhapt from the very appearance 
of the cottfecrated walls in that aera of fuperititiod, with a 
devotional impuUe. He prays, pays his homage to the Vir- 
gin Mary, and the tutelary faint, according to the manners 
of the times, makes a vow^ is iofpired with a confidence of 
the sjd of ifeaveo, and addreffes himfelf, in an animating 
Ipeech, to his countryn)cn and fellow foldler$. It was the 
crUicMl moment — his crown, his all was at flake, and the 
Danes were a cruel et:emy. He immediately takes the lead ^ 
preflea on the foe ; throws Enetus, one of the Danifh gene- 
rals, from his horfe, and kills him with his own hand. Wfth- 
out a certain degree of enthufiafm^ there is nothing great to 
be done. The charge, without delsy, is generally and vigo-. 
roufly renewed \ and, under the mingled influence of patri* 
^tifioa and rcHgioo^ the Scotch ca^ry, every thing before them^ 
I -- an4 

win the day : And a bipodf day U w r^fKir^^ tci^ ^wir 
been, tboogh a glorioifs on(e» fov Idakol^i ao4 1^ yi^Amm 
tro^s. SoiDC think th^» fpr ^opv^iDg i¥ ^iebr^V l» ipn 
tore ages, was ereAcd the ftatcly oteUfk fliU ftaftding ?t iFor* 
res. Certain it is« that foon after the Dasfs finally iett the bu^. 
^sn. There is an appearances that the fepond apd finiftiiiif 
coofliAt ^ft^ rallyingf happened a few hundred ya»ds tQ die 
feuth weft of the Caftle of Baiveny | and probaUy the mom 
ancient part of that building was then in exiAence; Car t 
fort is mentioned as near the field of l|attle. Perhaps k 
will be expeOed, that thearaUgem of ftoppingtli&cQiufe 
of Dolha for a night ihoold be taken notice ctf here^ %w^' 
the letting it down in a prodigious, torrent «a tk^ fiwpri/fd- 
Danes^ thought to ha?e been drawn iijp o» calk ide^nf tk|in ^ 
little rlver^ by which thf ir army is faid to have b^^ di«W^ .: 
ed» and to ha»re become an eafier onqqiieA^ &nch n ^^ 
mzj have hteiv aa4 from the prefent face of -Uk gpound, is 
not incredible \ iot the riyulet niosi ahoitt an EnglUk nihl • 
above the church, in a very contraQed chaiineU feetw^en 
high rocks ; aqd beyond that there is araoftcapACiWiMBDs 
for the water to flow quietly bad^ for a \»% %\iM kMMiiU 
But if fuch a manoenvre w^ praaifdj at oU^ it ia^qte likd^* 
t^at it had been.on fowe o^her oceafioor thniy that of 4k« e0»* 
gagemcnt |uft now related. 3ee FoirittO^ B^ecc^ t^c: . • 

As traditional and pretty fore meaoi^xiila'offtfels lamflW' 
battle, are pointe4 out ; 

1. The vcftiges of an iotitxkbtnmit, ^ttj WiktiSi at this 
day, on the fummit of the litfle* Conval^liiUi xadled by the, 
neighbourhood the Daniih Camp* 

2. A number of tumuli, or c^na^ (iippafed to have beea 
collected over the bodies of* the fallen* 

3. A hug^and irregnlarlytoundifb ftone, Uxn^lf, it i|. 
faid, on the grave of £ncttis^ btit now relM a ftw <^, toi% 

ttt ftliliim aM»llIirca#ple, and xnsdea part d£ ii It^KWlAfout 
a fiirtd di tim ; i><iare ir » deimiMkat^d ike A|oai4tae Stono; 
To'icodmtftirtbtf^^fipdbtioB, aad t« prevent amiqii^i<M>» 
^pofli tmstSmg tfcfii' brains imh. dtirk a»d hwrp^d bf |^btie» 
ipl^Mfttlopwir, fl»«a»y <l9t fcc iqapropcr to uUt tlwt ,tb« 
ipfH^ tto^fo hm«»jr ftmngth . rcwovcd UiU vicncrahlc rciym, 

arww* tllf -fti>9#f ^tvor tpok a iuarty draia. JEycry IkkI^ 

k^WV Ih«t4 ixi ScQtl9iHi» MkiO^f and 9/qu%vit^ jV'cthf G^nif^ 

yih A^fiywffi Wl orgrom^ *lwrtt covered i^iib wiiim^ 

5« Ikhc^l^mtt^ «(f. HJbkoWs fpc?ur 9dded to the cli»i;cht 
^l tbe weft cod, in perforoui^ic of a part of l>i« vow*. iK 
has been the fpear of a Goliab, 23 or 24 feet long. 

6i-Tluiee holes, ezaAfy of the fliapc of fltulls, in this ad- 
dUional and \qtive part of the houf^, yet to be lec^n ^ where 
tM to^^pi lduml)4nc»tf;digii^y^^ h^di with too k^arbai.; 
rem! ttimnfh^ been ori^niaiy buili in the waH. At what-- 
ever time, or in wbatevet way, thy^e fltwUs may hate firft 
been pot thcre^thetb they fiireiy. were ) and* not longer than 
alwttt 30 ywrs ago^was.the laft.o* thepn picked out, and 
tofied about by the fchool boyt. 

.7* A ft^adteg Ao»e ^^ *e gkbe, having on two of its 
oppofitcfidea foxne rude altd naioteUigible fculpture. 

Human bones, broken fobres, and other miUtary armour^ 
liave beea at different tk^ea accidentUly difcovered in this 
part of the country : And in plowing the glebe, about 40 or 
^Qi years ngo, there was a chain of gold turned up, which 
loQksA lil^e ao ornament for ^ aeckof one of the chiefs. 

44$ StadflkalJiMna 

Stfitprie of Mortkeb.'^lt is clear, from die erideoce cf 
biftory, that oi^lhis occafioo, bjr the piout gratitode of Mat 
C0I1D9 and io fulfilment of a facred engage Aeot, 'Mordach 
was exalted to Epifcopal hononrs« One Beyn, or Bcan^ wai, 
hf Pope BenediAt made its firft bMho^* who, about 30 yean 
after, died, and was baried here. Donortios was the Tecood, 
and next to him came Gormac. Thefe two, betweekithcm, 
enjoyed their preferment ipore than 80 years, and, on the 
* death of the latter, TtKceeded Btfliop Ne£Un, the fourth and 
hit of Mortlach \ for in his 'fourteenth year, h,e was tranflit* 
ed by Emg David L to Aberdeen, which foon got the name, 
and became the feat of the diocefe. And thus Mortlach, 
from a dignified biihopric, funk into an humble par/bnage. 
Hie fee was at Mortlach 119 years, from loio to 1139 *. 
Bilhop Ramfay of Aberdeen, in the year 1146, appointed 
13 prebeiidariesi of whom the 7th in order was ti|c pasfup 
of Mortlach. 

* Its. jorifdiAion and revenues were but fmall, conpre&end* 
ing no more than the church of Mordach, the church of Cfo- 
veth, and the church of Dulmeth with all their lands: fiot, tn^ 
regard to precedence, it was the fecond in Scotland, that of St 
Andrews being the only one before it, which extended over all 
the kingdom, and whole btlhop was then defigned Eflfbefm^ 
8c9tiae^ er Efijcopm S^orum. 



(CouMTT OS BANVv.-.ParsBTTBaT or FoEast.^ 


By the Riv. Mr Jobm M'DomnsLi MimSir, 

Sittkttion and Name* 

FRRCS, a royal borgh^ fituated upoi^the Monj tikh, 
gives oamc to this parilh. It lies in the fjnod of Moraf , 
and is the ieat of the prclbyterj Of Forres, Forres, as aiw 
ticntly wricteoi is of Celtic origin, Hgnifyiog its fituation up« 
•a the'fea. 

. fynmt sni B<mfiJarks. — The form of this parifli is irrega<i 
laTj approaching neareft to a triangle^ with a ftripe of moor- 
ifh and hill ground^ about three miles In length, ftretching 
from one comer. It is four miles m length, and about two and 
one half hi breadth ; boondcd upon the north by the bay 
of Fsadhom, a large bafon of fhaiiow water, formed by the 
aoeetiog of the tide and the river Fiodhorn y on the north* 
caft by the parifh of Kinlop i on the eaft and ibuth by tba 
pariih of Raffbrd. On the fouth-weft and noxth north* weft^ 
by the river Findhorn, which divides it from the united pa« 
lilhea of Ujke and Moy. 


|Sit StatifikHAtcoUfU 

The fottth and ToutK-eaft parts of this pari (h are hilly, cc^ 
vered with (hort hratfa and fttnie* The ^ft is one continQed 
rich arable well cultivated field. 

Climatiand 2*r^^A— Forres, io point of fituation and 
climate, is inferior to no part of Scotland. The air is drj, 
ferene, and healthy* T&e town, being baiU trpbn a rifing 

^ ground, about a mile ffom the B^ of Findhorn, commands 
an extenfive profpeA of a rich and well cultivated country, 
interfpeHbd with the feats and imprcjvemetlts of ihafiy of the 

' neighbouring proprietors. Lefs rain &lls here than in moft 
other parts of the kingdom, the (bowers being attraAed by 
the Moray Frith on the north, and on the fouth, by the lulb 
which divide Moray from Strathfpey. 

Cliifcb and &^|W.-^Tbe tsdue of th.e IMng ii p% boOs 
pf bear, 20 boQs of meal, and 490 pounds. Scots, a ^ebe of 
4 acres, and' manfe and office-hoa%. The £ari of Moray 
it undoubted patron. The church was built 10 1745. Its 
dimenfions, within walls^ are 72 by 36 feet ; and il containa 
1800 people. 

The heritors of the parHh are the Earl of Mbray^ Sir 
James Grant of Grant, Robert Urquhart of BandfTartfs^ 
Alexander Penrofe Cumming of Altjrre, John GorAmof 
Grrufliop, Dunbar of Grarye. L^flie of fialnegeith, Urquhart 
of Ttnnachy, and Mr Strahan of Druimduad, «rith fome 
finall proprietors, holding of the town of Forres. 

All tfarfe, except Lord Moray and Sir James Grai|t, hove 
their, refldences within the parilfa. 

' P9pulafi<m,^^tcm an a^hul furv^ lately made, the mun- 
feerof inhabitants was found to be. 9987 1 of wl^ieh^mimber 
tiliere arej 


tf Forres.. 44^ 

idales 1341 2398 rcfidc in the town 

Females 1646 589 rcfidc in tke country. 

2987 2987 

The number of inhabitants in 1774, appears, from aftual 
Furvcys, to have been 2793, fo that there is now an incrcafc 
of population of i(p4. 

The number of births, during a period of 1 1 years, from • 
1779 to 1789 inclufive, is 895 5 4S3 males, and 442 females, 
being In the proportion nearly of 41 to 40, and the average 

Upon an average of the laft 1 1 years, the number of mar- 
riages of perfons re&ding in thcpsuriih is 15 annually. 
, X here arc many perfons now living in the parilh of 80, 
but none whofe age exceeds 92. 

iThcre arc 18 farmeJrs refiding in town, and 43 in the 
country, many of whom, eipccially thofe in town, hold very 
Tmall pofleffionst 

56 Shoemakers 4 of whom rcfidc in the country. 
33 Weavers 8 ditto. 

25 Taylors 2 ditto. 

6 Blackfmiths 
58 Journeymen and apprentices. 

Trjiif.— There arc in Fofres 60 merchants aqdl fliop- 
keepcrs. Thefc were formerly principally fupponcd by tra- 
velling and vending their goods in all the villages and mar- 
ket towns to the weft and norths "particularly Sutherland, 
Caithnefs, and Ilofs, and as far as Orkney. But this inter- 
courfc is in a great meafure now rendered unnecciTary, as in 
all thefc countries they have got fiatiodary ih4>|cccptrS| who 

Vol. XVII. 3 L can 

450 Siatijlicifl Account 

can reuil their goods nearlj upon as low terms as the ifitf- 
chants of Forres, 

Manners. — About 50 years ago there were only 3 to- 
kettles in Forres ; at prefent there are not lefs than 300* The 
blue bonnets of Forres were then famous for good crediff 
^nd at that period there were only 6 people with hats in the 
town ; now above 400. Happy for our country did ve 
l;eep pace in virtuous improvement, with the extravagant r^ 
finement adopted in drefs and manners. About 30 yean 
ago, 30 s. would have purchafcd a complete holiday fdit of 
clothing for a labouring fervant ; according to the prefent 
mode of drcls, it will require at leaft 5 1. to equip hlta. 

' Rate of Wages, — About the year 1750, a fervant engaged 
for harveft had 4d. a day with his vitals; now lod. with 
two meals. For the whole time of harveft then^ be had lOii 
toow ^5 s. A journeyman mafon had then i merk Scotch, 
without viAualsi now 20 d. A labouring man fervant had, 
at the above period, 15s, 4d. ; now from ah 10$. to 
3 I. 10 s. in the half year. A woman fervant then had 
8 s. and 4d. and fome 10 s. half yearly; now from 18 s« 
to 21 s. 

EccU/iqftUal State, — There are no feflaries in Forres, ci- 
cept a few Seceders. They are not upon the increafe. 

ProduBions of this Pari/b.^Tht foil and climate of thii 
pari{h will produce any crops that can be raifed in any pti 
of Scotland. Harveft begins the firft week of Augufti ^ 
towards the end of that month, even during the late rainy 
feafoDs^ it becomes general. It is ao uncommon thingi ^ 


of Forres. 451 

this ne!ghbonrhood| to cut down barley in 12 or 13 weeks 
after the time of fowing it. 

Poors Funds. — About 125 perfons receive charity from the 
church and poors funds, many of whom are heads of fami- 
lies. Amongft thcfe there is annually divided about ^o\. 
arifing thiefly from the coUeAions made at the church doors. 
Biit the poors funds have been lately confiderably augment- 
ed by a donation left by the Rev. Mr Alexander Witt, late 
ininifter of this parifh, of about 200 h Befides the above 
fums, there is 15 1. annually divided amongft the poor of For- 
res, being the intereft of money left under the dIrcAion of 
the Town Council. 

Price of Proviftons. — About the year 1750, beef and muti- 
ton fold in the markets at i d. per lib, and fifh' for i d. per 
dozen ; oat meal for 8 s. per boll of 9 ftone ; wheat for 1 1 s* 
and barley for 10 s. Our market is plentifully fupplied with. 
every article of proviCon, beef and mutton at 3 d. ; fifh, at 
an average, at 6 d. the dozen of haddocks, and falmon at 
^ 4 d. the lib. ; pork, from 3d. to 4 d. j lamb and veal from 
4 d. to 4j. d. ; butter, from 7 J d. to 9 d. per lib. \ and cheefe 
4s« to 4 s. 6d. per ftono -*The lib. of butter 24 oz. and i(S 
lib^ to th^ftone. ^ 

Schools. — In the town of Forres there is a grammar fchool, 
^ . with a falary of 20 1. ; and, from the abilities and attentioa 
. /of the prefent teacher, it has acquired a great charaftcr. 
Latin, Greek, French, and the various branches of the ma- 
thematics, are taught with great fuccefs ; and a young gen- 
tleman may have board' and education for 20 1. per annum^ 
Befide^the falaries given to the public teacher^, the Magl- 
» ](lrate|;give fome fmall donations to thofe «who keep private 


451 Stati/iical Account 

fchools, to encourage them in their attention to their charge^ 
There is likewife an EogHQi fchool, feparate from the gram- 
mar fchool \ the teacher has a Qlary of 1.5 Lfer annum, aikd 
cverj encouragement from the magidrates that can render 
his fituation cocnfortable. The price of education in thii 
town, as in every other part of Scotland, is very low. The 
learned languages are taught for 2 9. ^4* P^r quarter; £ng- 
lifli for I ^. 6 d. per ditto; 

There is likcwile a boarding^fchool for young ladies, where 
the various branches of needle work, roufic, and other parts 
of female educatroui arc taught with great fuccefs. The 
miftrefs has a falary of 16 1. per annum from the town ; and 
a young lady may have every accommodation for 15]. a 
year. Dues per quarter, mufic, los. 6d.; plain work, 2 s. 
^ d. ; tambour, 5 s. ; guirflowers, a guinea. Particular at- 
tention is paid to the morals of youth in thefe different le- 
minaries of learning ; and from the abilities of the prefent 
teachers, and attention paid to the fchools by the Magiftrates» 
and the healthy fituation of the town of Forres, there is not, 
perhaps, a more eligible p)ace for the education of youth any 

Rivets and F\jh^ — In this pari(h tjicre arc no freih vatcr 
lakes, anft the river Flndhorn and A^e burn of Forres ar^ 
the only ftrearas in the parifh. The fifli found in the river 
and bay of Findhorn, are falmon, trout, eels, flounders, and 
abundance of haddocks are taken in the Frith, which fup.. 
plies the town of Forres and the neighbaurhood. The quan* 
tity of falmon exported from Forres, upon an average of 10 
years, from 1773 to 1783, was about 300 barrels annuallyi 
befides the home confumpt, which is not. very confiderable. 
Since the 1783, the quantity of falmon taken is confi^erabiy 
Ufsrl>ut lad year, 17921 the fifhing of the Findhorn has 

" been 

l^eofi tnuch more productive than for feveral years preceding, 
The price of falmon is 4 d. an4 for tront 5 d. per lib. 

'Navigation. fs^f^-^Thc riYcr Findhorn is ns^vigable for 
boats no farther th^n the tide flows* ^Bnt did the increafc 
of commerce and manufaflnres require it^ there is no place 
where a cans^i might be more eafily made. From Forres iq' 
the mouth of the Bay of Findhorn, which is the feaport of 
Forres, the Jiftance does not exceed 3 miles, anu the tide 
Bows in the balon more than half that diftance ; and the le- 
vel of the groundj at the foot ot the eminence on which the 
town of Forres Itands, docs npt exceed the level of half tide 
l^ 14 feet ; and tbat^ depth of 'a canal ^ould carry boats 
and lighters at high water to the town ; and fuch a canal 
would have the advantage of the burn of Forres to keep it 
cfear. The ()aibn already mentioned is a triangular piece of 
}qw ground, partly of that kind ot Aiffclay ioil/ called carfi; 
jjrQimd ; and partly of fine compa£t fand, mixed with light 
particles of earth waihed'down by the floods. It Is all dry ' 
at low water, except the channel of the rivefi and a little 
fpuce at the inlet at high-water. Its circumference will be 
at leaft 7 miles, and contains more than 2 fquare miles of 
ground, all of which might be recovered from the fea, ex- 
cept what is necefiary for a channel to the freflt i^lter ftfeams. 
A bar of fand, which ftretches acrofs the mouth of the ri- 
verj prevents an^;^ furge from entering the bafon ; fo that an 
embankment would have no weight of water to fufiaio^ but 
the fmall fetch of the Ispce itfelf, , ^^ 


Litnefione^ is^c, — In all this parifli there is only one quarry 
pf limeftone, uppn the eftate of Mr Cuming of Altyre. It » 
U DQt ufed in any great quantities. There is only one fmaU «.^ 
patch of coarfe moor-ftone; and no detached fiopes arc 
* ' founi 

454 Statiflical Account 

found of any confiderable Czei either above or below 

Inundaiions.'^Thc lower part of this parifli is very much 
fnbjefV to be flooded by the rivers. In September 176S, and 
Auguft 1 7821 there were a remarkable inundation. The ri- 
ver Findhorn rofe to fuch a heighti that mere than a mile 
in breadth of the fined lands was laid under water^ and the 
crops either carried away or deftroyed. 

ManufaBures.^^Tht inhabitants in general are difpo(ed to 
induftry. No manufaAures of public importance are carried 
on in or about Forres, except what fupplies the town and Its 
vicinity. The fpinning of linen yarn iias for 20 years back 
brought a confiderable lupply of money to this country. The 
fpinning of yarn, and manufacturing fuch of it as may be 
lieceflary for domeftic purpofes, has employed a coafiden^Ie 
number of women, whofc earnings have been of great advan« 
tage to themfelves, and beneficial to the public. The mer- 
chants are in the ufe of buying the yarnj and fending it to 
Glafgow, where there is generally a ready fale, unlcfi thd 
sharket is overftocked with Irifh yarui which, only on ac- 
count ot its ^heapnefs, at certain times is preferred. But 
iince the yftr 1784, the yarn trade has been gradually de- 
diniDg, owing to the increafe of machines for fpinning cot- 
Ion in the fouth country, and the great quantities of yarn 
from Ireland imported into Glafgow, by which the price of 
yarn in thi^cpuntry has been greatly reduced. Many of 
thofe formerly employed in fpinning yarn for fale have of 
late taken to the fpinning of Dutch flax for the manufaClur- 
^g companies at Aberdeen and Invernefs. 

A merchant of this town, in the year 1784, fent to Glaf- 
|ow 23,190 fpindlcs of yarni which was coUcfted near this 


tf Forres. 45 j| 

place. The other dealers in that article fent at leaft 47,000 
fpmdiesi which, at the rate of 2 9* per Tpindle for fpinners^ 
produced 7029 1. Sterling. The TruAees for Manufafturea 
and Improvements have given Tome encouragement for the 
ere^ng of lint-mills in this neighboorhood, and thefe pro* 
iDife to be of great utility ; amd while they provide a proper 
and expeditious niode of manufaAuring the flax, they will at 
the fame time encourage the raifing of that article in thp 
country. Too much attention cannot be paid to this ufeful 
branch of trade, which employs thofe, and makes them ufe- 
ful to fociety, who would otherwife be a burden to the ftate. 

Rent. — In the neighbourhood of the town, land let fo high 
as 50 s. and Tome of the fields clofe to the town at 3 1. an 
acre* Thefe are farmed by horfe-hirers, who lay them down 
ingrafs; and^- by the high wages they get for letting out 
their horfes^ are enabled to pay this enormous price for the 

Plantations. — ^To the fouth of this town, upon a rifing 
ground, commanding a view of Forres and Findhorn, and 
thc'Moray Frith, lUnds the houfe of Burdfyards^ reckoned 
one of the bcft fituations which any country can afford. 
Upon this eftate are very extenfive plantations ot^ firs, in a 
'very fiourifliing condition, planted by the prefent proprietors 
and others, and which now yield a profit of lool. a year. 
There are likewife confiderable plantations of firs upon the 
eftate of Cuthall, belonging to Alexander Penrofe Cuming 
of Altyre) fituated to the fouth-weft of the town, about 3 
jniles upon the road leading from Forres to Yverttown. 

N U M- 

45^ StatiJlUal Act&uni 



LING. — Presbytery of Dunkeld}. 
" By the Rev. Mr Colin Macvean, Mimjltr. 

Name^ Situation^ Extent^ is^c* 

THE name is evidently derived from the Gaelic Cean 
tnor^ (pronounced Kenmore) in that language fignify- 
iog great head; and is probably fo called from a beautifixl 
headland projeAing into the eaft end of Loch Tay» and on 
which the village and church of Kenmore are built. This 
parifh is fituated in that diviilon of Perthihire called Bread* 
albane, in the prcfbytcry of Dunkeld, and fynbd of Pcrtli 
and Stirling. On the eaft it is bounded, about two miles 
below the village of Kenmore, with the parifhes of Dull and 
Weem; on the weft, by a part of the pariihes of Killin and 
Weemi on the fouth and norrh» by rhofe hills which rile 
to a confiderable height from the fides of the loch^ and bor» 
dering on the Couth with the parifl^e^ of Comrie and Mo^ 
nivalrd, &c. and on the north with the panfibes of Fortin« 
gale and Weem. This pirifh is about 7 miles in breadth, 
and extends to the, irom the village of Kenmore^ on 
both iides of Locl< T:,; , about 8 miles, without any other 
parifti intervening -. . >' • . t^r.'cfted, lor a very fhort 
fpaccj with Cr :' : , : :( n Arucrnaig, in the pariihes 


ef Kenmore* 4jjr 

iDf Wccm and Killin ; after which it continues on both fides 
to the weft end of the loch, on the north fide ; and nearly 
as far on the fouth. In a north* weft dircQion from KiUin,' 
which is fituated at the weft end of Loch Tay, there is a 
beautiful and fequeftrcd vale, called Gienlochay, a confider- 
able part of which is in the parifli of Kenmore, although fome 
places of it are no lefs than 28 miles from the parifh church. 
Such of the inhabitants of this ^leOi and other parts ot the 
parifliy as are adjacent to Kiiliin, attend divine fervice there^ 
They have feats in.the church of Kiiiin \ and when any repairs 
are wanted I either S6t church or manfi^, they perform car« 
riageS) &c. as were they pariftiioners. Their elders have a 
feat in the kirk-fefiioo, and their poor are chiefly rupplie4 
firom the funds at Killin. It does not, however, af>pcar, 
that their lands were formerly annexed, qtwad facra^ to that 
pariih. To Kenmore, alfo, belongs a fovall part of Gien- 
^uaich, which lies to the fouth of the parifh, and is feparat* 
ed from it by a hill 5 miles over. The inhabitants of this 
glen depend for church privileges on the mii&on of Amul- 

Lakes and Rivers. — The only lake worth mentioning is 
LoehTay^ which is 15 miles in length, and» in general, a 
mile in breadth, but two miles where broadcft. It is faid to 
be in many places 100 fathoms ^eep. This lake> whicH 
feldom or never freezes, abounds with falmooi pike^ pcrcbj 
eelsy charr, and other trout?. The falmon are of an excel- 
lent quality, and, are found clean at all feafons* Lord Bread- 
albane has the privilege of fifhing them in the Idch the 
whole year *. The principal river is the Tay, which liTues 

Vol. XVII. 3 M from 

• The w^tcr of Loch Tiy foflFcrs, at times, violent and un^ 
common agitations, occafioncd, it is believed, by a fobterra- 

4j;8 / Siatyiical Account 

from the loch on the north fide of the village of KcnmorQ,^ 
and, after a courfe of 60 or 70 miles, dlfc^iarges itfelf imp 
^he fca, bclow" Dundee. It is navigable as far up as Perth. 

. Roads 

pcous impulfc. The following copy of a letter, written by Iblr 
Fleming* contains a particular defcripcion of a phenomenon of 
0iis )cind, which happened in the ye^r 17 84, 

Manfe of Kcmnore^ Nov* 4. 1784* 

*' I did not return from the excurfion on which I was when 
1 had the plcafure to fee you at Dundee, till iaft Tuefday night. 
Qn my arrival i found your letter r<rfpeding the phenomenoft 
that lately happened in this neighbourhood. Although i/J qua- 
lified to give you fati^fa^^lion upon this fubje<5t> 1 ^^\ however, 
comply with your defire, and give you the moft accurate ac- 
count of that phenomenon which I have been able to obtain. 

^< On Sunday the 12th September, about 9 o'clock in the 
xnnrning, an unufual agitation was obferved fn Loch Tay, near 
the village of Kenmore. That village Aands at the eaft end of 
|he Jake, having the river^ which there iffues from the lake, on 
the north fide, and a bay about 460 yards in length, and 200 
yards in breadth, on the fouth. The greater part of this hay 
is vciy (hallow, being generally no more than 2 or 3 feet deep*; 
bpt befoie il joins the body of the lake, it becomes fuddenly 
very deep. At the extremity of this bay, the water was ob- 
ferved to retire about 5 yards within its ordinary boundary, 
and in 4 or $ minutes to flow out again. In this manner it 
ebbed and flowed fucceffively 3 or 4 times during the fpace of 
a quarter of an hour, when all at once the water rufhed from 
the eafl and weft in oppolite currents, towards a lake acrofs the 
bay, and about the ed^e o{ the deep, rofe in the form of a great 
wave, to the height of 5 feet above the ordinary level, leaving 
the bottom of the bay dry, to the diftancc of between 90 and 
100 yards from its natural boundary. When the oppofite cur. 
rents niet, they made a clafhing noife, and foamed ; and the 
flronger impulfc being from the eaft, the wave, after riQng to 
its grtateft height, rolled weftward, but flowly diminifliiog as it 
went, for the fpace of 5 minutes, when it wholly difappeared. 
As the wave fubfidcd, the water flowed back with fome force, 
^nd exceeded its original boundary 4 or 5 yards; then it ebbed 
again about 10 yards, and again returned, and continued t9 


hf Kenmre. 459 

Roads and Bridges. — On both fides of Loch Tay are good 
roads from Kenmore to Killin, The out on the nonh fide 

ebb and flow in this manner for the fpace of two hours, the eb^ 
bings fbcceeding each other at the diftance of about 7 minutes, 
and gradually leflening, tilt the water fettled into its ordinary 

** At the fame time that the undulation was obferved in the 
bay on the fouth fide of the village, the river on the north was 
feen to rtin back i the weeds at the bottom, which before point- 
ed with the ftream, recetTcd a contrary diredlion ; and its 
channel was left dry about 1 2 feet from cither edge. Under 
Ihe bridge, (which is 60 or 70 yards ifrom the lake), the cur- 
rent failed, and the bed of the river slppeared where there had 
been 1 8 inches of water. 

*< During the whole time that this phenomenon was obferv- 
ed, the weather was calni. It could baxely be perceived, that 
the dire^ion of the clouds was from ^. £. The barometer 
(as far as I can recoiled) (lood the whole of that and the pre- 
ceding day, about 29 j. inches. 

'< On the hext, and the 4 fucceeding days, an ebbing and 
Rowing was obferved, nearly- about the faine time, and for the 
fame length of time, but not at all in the fame degree as on the 
firft day. A fimilar agitation was remarked at intervals, fome 
d^ys in the morning, other days in the afternoon, till the 15th 
of Odober, fince which time no foch thing has been obferved. 

" I have not heard (although I have made particular inqui- 
ry) that any motion of the earth was felt in this neighbour- 
hood, or that the agitation of the water was obferved any 
where but about the village of Kenmore. 

**• I hope the above account will fufnifh an anfwer to moil 
of the ijueftions contained in your letter. If there be any other 
circumfiance, about which you wifh to Have farther. informs- 
tion, it will give me pleafare to be able to communicate it. 

«« I am, &c. 

(Signed) " THO. FLEMING; 

« N. Bi The village of Kenmore is fituated nearly ip the 
pfarallel of ^6 deg. 38 fee. and about i degree weft of the me- 
ridian of Edinburgh. Loch Tay extends from thence fome- 
T^hat more than 15 miles W. S. W. Its medium breadth is 
zvot much lefi than a mile, and its depth muft be very confider. 


45($. Staiifiiml Aamnt 

was made a confideraUe tiino ag<) ; that cm &e &«tb fide 
WHS made by the prerent £ai-l of Breadalbane, fi>on after he 
fuccccded to the cftatc, and folely at his own cxpeoce. 
Thefe roads have hitherto been kept in repair by the (t». 
tote labour ; but a propofal is naw made to convert it into 
mopey. A more pleafanc ride than that between Kxnmorc 
and Killtn, on either fide of the loch« is ' very fcldom to be 
met with. Each of thefe villages is furnifbed with a good 
inn. A handfome bridge, of five arcbe<» is built over thA 
Tay at Kenmore } and a great number of faiall ones are 
thrown over the torrents which defcend from the mountain^ 
ifito the loch, on both fides*. Ok thefe moontaios, Bcch 
LawerSy on the weft fide, is by far the highefty being 40 r 5 
feet above the level of the fea, and is fald ta be the (ecood 
higheft moonlain in Scotland. While I write thb^ being thd 
1 6th of May 1795, it is covered with new ^id fnow, a con- 
fiderable way down its fides. It abounds with many care 
pbnts, and b frequented by a great varietj of ipaAtn^^Aa 
and fowls •. 


able, if one may judge from the height of the adjacent moun- 

On the 15th July 1794, Loch Tay experienced agitations ^* 
milar to what are defcribed abovCy although not fo violent, nor 
of fo loDg continuance* 

• Many rare alpine plants may be clafTed amongft the natu- 
ral produ^ions of this mountain, as the Aftragalus uraiefifis ^ 
Arenana fa;catilis ; Juncnsjaqutni ; AcroRicum i/vm/e; Ceradium 
alpinupt ; (Linn.) Erigtron a /pivuwi Gent iana ir/vif/r/ ; Cares r/- 
gida; L^chtn croreus ; la* fufco luteus ; DrsLbz/iel/ata ; VtwiMSk 
Jkxatiiu } Phleum alplnum \ Cherleria fedoideu &c, ^m^ of 
thefe plants have not, it is believed, been difcovered on Ben* 
Ipmond, or, perhaps, any other motmtain in the iiland ; aacL 
ate omitted by Dr Lightfoot, and other, writers on Briciih 


^aU of the Church and School. — Tlic value of the livings 
txclufiyc of the glebe and afmall farm annex d to it, wbkk 
the incumbent enjoys by the beneficence of the Breadalbanc 
family, lor the rent of 5 s. yearly, i» about 75 I. The church 
and K6!&a{t were rebuilt in the handlomef) manner about 3} 
years ago, and are ftiii in good repair. The church is ea^ 
eeedingly neat and plain ; it is built in form of a crofs, and 
is ornamented with a fine tovrer fleeple. The manfe is large^ 
handibme, and commodious, it is fituated on a riting 
ground on the iootfa fide of the locfan and commands % 
charoiing profpeA. Beneath is the village^ church, bhdge^ 
loch, and the difebargt of the river out of it. Oppofite is 
Drummondhill; rifitig almoft perpendicular, and reaching 
to the height of about 50O feet above the level of the loch. 
This beautiful hill begins two miles below Kenmoce, and tx^ 
tends weft ward 5 miles. It is covered, from one end to the 
other, #ith oaks, pineS| larches, &c. and forms a molt de- 
lightful and piAurei^ue objcih The pr>;ipr£t N>tiie eaft of 
the manfe comprehends a confiderahle part of Lord Breads 
idbane's pleafure ground, and plantmgs about Taymouth ; 
and is terminated by ditiant hills, lo the weft is a view of 
the loch for about 5 miles, where It makes a bend to the 
footfa* Its fides exhibit a pleaiing variety of woodland 
<orn fields. The view beyond this is terminated by thft 
lofty hilf oi Lawers, already mentioned. 
- Having made mention o^ Taymeuth, it may pCfhaps be 
expcAed that 1 fhould give a particular account of that place* 
This, however, is a tafk to which I confefs myjelf unequal. 


plants. A flton-defcfipt grafs, probably of the Poa genus, U 
found growing near th^ foot of the mountain. It is a beautiful 
graft, and grows to the height of about 4 ftet This, with 
fonae of the above mentioned plants, wa& lately difcovered by 
Mr John Mackay, an expert botanift, now in £dinburgh. 

4&1 tiaUJlkol Accbunt 

Accurate and beautiful defcriptipns of this jplace Have btai 
given to the' public, by Mr Pennant and others, to whidi 
defer iptions the reader is referred, 

Befidcs the parifli church, there is a chapel at Lawers, oa 
the north fide of Loch Tay, where the minifters of Kca- 
inore and Weem preach occafionalljr. Here the Society for 
Propagating Chriilian Knowledge eftabH£hed, in the year 
1 7 go, a miilion, on a fund mortified by the late Lady Gle- 
Borchy, of which they hate the managensent. Out of this 
fund one half of the miffionary's falary is paid ; the hearers 
'pay the other. Lord BreadalbsTne gives a ftianfe and glebe* 
In this mifHon the prefent naipifter of Kenmore officiated^ 
for about three years previous to his fettleoient there, whicll 
was on the 13th March 1794. In this parifh are no fcAa- 
ries of any denomination whatever. 

Schools, --^lYit parochial fchool, which is kept in the vil* 
lagc of Kenitiore, is generally frequented by about 100 fcho^ 
lars, except in fumn>er and auttimn, ' when many of the 
youth, being neceifarily engaged in hofbandry bUfinefs, can* 
not attend their education. The Society for Propagating 
Chrifti^n Knowledge in Scotland tfiarntains four fchoob 
within the bounds of the parifh. Private fchook are alfo 
occafionally kept in different parts of the parifh, and their 
teachers fupported folely by the fcholars parents. At pre^ 
fent there are no fewer than four of thefe private fchodls^' 
but thennmber of fcholars. is not great. 

State of the Poor. — The number of poor upon the parifh 
roll amounts to 40, exclufive of the poor of thofe parts of 
the parifh that are connefted with Killin and Amulree. The 
funds for their maintenance in this, a^ weU as in all the 
neighbouring parifhes, arife chiefly from weekly coUcaions 


of Kenmorep 4(53 

in the cliurchi which, in this pari(h| communibus annis, a- 
mount to 32 1. Bcfides this, they have 5 1. yearly, being the 
intcreft of lool. which was mortified, about 60 years ago, for ^ 
their behoof, by a near relation of the nobie family of Bread- 
albane. They have alfo another fmall fum at intereft, which 
^hjC kirk-ftilion have been enabled, in times of plenty, to favc 
out of the funds. The noble proprietors already mentioned^ 
iiave, befides, been long in the 4)ra£tice of diftributing yearly^ 
10 the diftriA of Breadalbane, from between 90 to 100 bolls 
of meal, to widows and orphans, and to aged and infirm 
perfons in indigent circumfiances, though not on the poor- 
roll. This meal has lately been converted into money, at 
16 s. the boll. X 

Population. — This pariih Teems to have undergone no con* 
£derable change, with rcfpcdl to population, for fop:ie time 
^ft« The didrifh along the fides of Loch Tay have, from 
time immemorial, been remarkably populous.- In thcie 
places, the tenants, in general, have but very fmall polTef^ 
fions, feveral of them being crowded together in the fame 
farm. And although it is certain that the noble proprietor 
might increafe his rent-roll confiderably^ by enlarging the 
pofleffions and leilening the number of tenants, yet, know- 
ing their attachment to their country, he allows them to re- 
main in the abodes of their forefathers. The only villages 
in the pariih are Kenmore and Stronfernan, the latter of 
which was built a few years ago, and confifts of about 24 fa- 

Jt appears, by the return made to Dr Webfter in the year 
1755, that the population of the pari(h was then 3067. By 
a furvey taken in J794-S> the population amounts to 3463. 
Of thefe 1520 are males, and 1943 are females. The ave- 
rage nutnber of marriages yearly is 24, and of bkths 6o. 


4^4 Siatiftical Accma 

The number of burials is uncertain, as there are no left diia 
6 burying places in the parifli } and no rcgifter of burials 

In the parifli are 63 weavers, 38 taylors, 36 wrights, 26 
ihoemakers, 20 fiaxdrefiersi 10 fmiths^ 9 mafoos, 8 coopers, 
4 hofiers'» and i dyer. In the above lift apprentices and 

journeymen are included. 


Agneuliurt and Hu/handry.^^The aicheft and beft cultival- 
^ land in this country extends nearly a mile in width on 
both fides of Loch Tay. The foil, which is of a loamy tex* 
turei has» in the courfe of time, been carried down by the 
rains from the higher grounds ; and is enriched with she 
fpoils of decayed animals and vegetables. The hiliy Jand 
cluefly confifts of a light mofly kind of foil, which naturally 
is not unfriendly to vegetation. Heath, bent, and coarft 
grafles, are the general product of the hills and muirs ; but 
the vallies and water carried foiU in the glens, fyjc. produce 
good crops of excellent grafTes. The grains chiefly cultivat. 
cd are oats, bear or big (four-rowed barley;, beans, peafe, po« 
;atQ€s, and lint, . X^^c average ^return of oats is 3 or 4, and 
of barley 4 or 5. The return of lint is commonly a ftooc 
of fiax from the Hpfie^ Potatoes in general make a good re* 
turn. The old iyftem of rotation, namely, the infield lan4 
with oats and bear alternately, and the outfield with oats and 
]ey, is in general contini^ed. Each farm is commonly fub- 
divided among fevcral tenants, a practice which does nol 
merit the higheft approbation *• Thefe tenants have each a 
feparate leafe or verbal bargain, the duration of which is 
pioftly firom year to year, at the will of the proprietor. Un- 

f fe MarfliaU^fi Survey of tic Central Highlands, p. js. 

^ k^nmori. 463 

dcr fuch a iyfte Aj agriculture cannot be expelled to maloe 
great "progrefs. 

Hor/es^ Ccfos, and Sheep.'^Thc horfesi with which thi^ 
and the neighbouring parilbes are (locked^ arc of the High- 
land breed, and of about 1 2 or 13 hands high. They are 
very hardji and cafily fupported. Their number, in this 
pariih, is 926. The cattle are alfo of the Highland kind ir 
are kept princ4>ail7 for breedings and amount to 3028.~« 
The number of ifaeep in the parifli amounts to about i i|48o. 
They are of the black-faced breed, which, for about half a 
century paft^ have gradually fucceedcd the antient High- 
land, or native kind, a few of which yet remain in fome 
places in the neighboiirhood. The above numbers of the 
live ftock are ezclufive of followers. Some trials have 
lately been made to introdnce the Cheviot breed of fheep* 
Lord Breadalbane, a few years ago, complimented ibme of 
his principal tenants with a few of the Cheviot iheep, by 
way of trial. But none of the fheep graziers have difcover- 
ed any inclination to fiOck their farms with them, in prefe- 
rence to the black-faced kind. 

Rentals — The real rent of the parifli may be about 2S00 1. 
Sterling. The value of land has rifen coniiderably thefe 
laft 12 years, m couiequence of the rife in the price of ibeep ^ 
and black cattle. The produce of the parifh is fuppofed to 
be rather more than what is fufficient for the confumpt of 
the iiahabitants. 

Antiquiiies.'^Otk a fmall ifland, at the weft end of Loch 

Tay, are the ruins of a priory dependent on the religious 

cfiablif^ment of Scone. It was founded in the year 1 1 22^ 

.fey Alexander I. of Scotland, in which were depofited the 

Vol. XVIL 3N remains 

4$^ StatiJIical Accdunt 

tem^ins of his Queen Syb'ill. That it was founded By Alexii^ 
ander appears by a grant made by that mona^chi of the ife 
in Loch Ts^y, dircfted Epifcopisy bfc. Ut Ecchfia Dei Mfrv 
fHiy it pro anima Sybi/lae Regittae ibi defunBae^fahricatur^ ^c. 
Several Druidical temples have, in this pariih^ forviTcd 
the wafte of time ; and the more deftruAive delapidations of 
the incurious and avaricious* Onei perhaps the largeft and 
raoft entire of any in Scotland, yet remains about two mUes 
down from Kenmore, although not in that parifh. It is 
about 60 yards in circumferencei and confifts of three con« 
centric circles. The ftones in the outermoft are not To large 
as thofe in the inner circles, and are not, like them, fet on 
end. In this parifh are (everal Tiobaits, or wells, the wa« 
ters of which were, of old, fuppofed to be poflefled of heal- 
ing qualities ; foroe were good for the toothach ; fome for 
fore eyes, &c. Now, however, they are very feldom vi- 
fited •. 

* Several articles have been purpofely omitted in this ac* 
count, having been already mentioned in the accounts of KiUin». 
Fortingale, &c« 

The following Copy of a Letter^ ^^fp^Bing the Stati/fical AccounP 
of the neighbotsrifig Parifh of Fortingale is^ by tl^ Rev. Mr Ma- 
caray and fome other Gentlemen^ requefted to be annexed to tht 
Statjftical Hi/kry of the Parifh of Kenmore. 

*^ Imagining that the clergymen in the Highlands of Seot. 
land would have been more particular in dcfcribiog the man- 
ners and circumdances of the inhabitants of their pariihes, dur- 
ing the feudal fyQem, which formerly prevailed, I in that per- 
fuafion reprefented the (late of my pari(h exadly as I found ic^ 
which I now regret, iince, by my having done fo» it may be in* 
ferred, that the inhabitants of the parifh of Fortingale were in 
a peculiarly barbarous and miferable fituation, which was by 
i¥> moans the cafc» as from finular caufes the manners and cir- 


flcmnftances of all the inhabitants in the remote parts of the 
QElighlands were, during the period alluded to, much the fame. 
«^ Being confcious c2f having adhered to truth in the (latifti^ 
cal accoont of mj parilh, 1 will make no apology for it ; and 
^my only intention in ordering the publication cf this is to re- 
4nove any unfavourable imprefSon the readers of the Statidical 
Account of Scotland may have received, from my having been 
anore particdiar in the account I have given, than my brethren 
-in other remote parts of the Highlands of Scotland have thought 

(Signed) « DUNCAN MACARA." 


^^ Stdiijlical Account 

N U M .B E R XXXI. # 

(County of Perth.— Stnod of Perth and Stir- 
ling. — Presbytery of Dunkbld). 

By the Rev. Mr John Brodie, Miniver. 

Name^ Extent^ Situation^ Surface^ &i/, &V. 

KINLOCH takes its name from its relative fituatton to 
, the loch hard by it ; the word, in the Gaelic lan- 
gu...i , fignifying the head of the loch. The parifh is about 
9 iiJiics in length, from the north-weft corner to the U>uth^ 
eaft corner ; and one mile and a half is its greatcft breadth 
from eafl to weft. The parifh church is diftant from Pertht 
on the fouth, about 1 5 miles ; from Dunkeld, on the weft, 
about 9 miles ; from Coupar- Angus, on the fouth- eaft, about 
4\ miles \ and from Blairgowrie, on the eaft, about a aiile 
and a half From the lakes and flat lying grounds tb the 
fouthward of the church, the ground rifcs in elevation for 
frvcral miles to the northward. The fouthcrn expofurc, the 
fhelter from the high grounds to the northward, the beauti- 
ful lakes in the valley below, the plantations of wood on 
the*eltate of Marlee. and the other plantations and gentle- 
mens feats in the neighbourhood, all confpire to 'render the 
lower part of rhis parifli a beautiful part of this country* 
T^e foUj though in general goodj is of various qualities and 


if Ktrdoch. tift% 

^nominatioDSi from rith to poor^ mortary^ loamy, and fan^ 
dy foils. 

Lakes, Brooks, is^c. — ^Though there is a great number of 
fmall brooks in this pariihj there are only two large ones^ 
viz. Lornty-burn, and Lunen-burn. The former cuts the 
pariOi acrofs from weft to eaft. On it there is one corn- 
snilU The latter is the boundary of the parifh on the fduth« 
eaft. On it there is another corn^mill in the pariih. There 
are three lakes or lochs in this parifh^ viz. the Loeh of 
Drumeliei the Rae Loch» and the Fenzies Loch, all the pro- 
perty of Mr Farquharfon of Invercauld. Drumelie Loc^ 
Is (ituated a little to the weflward of the houfe of Marlee s , 
the Rae Loch about a quarter of a mile to the eaftward of 
it ; and the Fenzies Loch about a mile to the fouth-eaft of 
the houlc. Thefe lochs abound in pike, perch, and eel. la 
Diumclie loch are alfo to be had trout ot a fuperior fizaand 
fjuality. In this loch, and in Lunen- brook which' iflues from 
it, and which communicates with a number of fine lakes to 
the wcftwardi are to be found trout in good order, that it 
fat, earlier in the feafon, than in any other brook, river, 6x 
lake in this country. This brook has a rich muddy bottom,. 
in which there is plenty of flick-worm, (a fpecies of food 
which the trout peculiarly delight in), and as there is very 
little current in the brook, that food is not fo apt to be fwcpt 
away by the fwelling flood, as it is in brooks and rivers where 
there is a ftrong current. 

Marl, {ffr.— In two of thefe lakes, there is a valuable 

treafurc of rich fliell marl. In the mofs or marfli which is 

. conneaed with the Rae Loch, there is a marl-pit, the firfl: 

that was opened in this country. It was partially drained, 

and opened for public fale, about the year 1734. The drain 


0j(y Statiftical Account 

has been deepened by the prefent proprietor at diff^nt pew 
riods of time, and at very great ezpence. The Fenzles 
Loch has alfo been partially drained, and a great qaantity of 
marl has been taken out of it by means of boats and nets* 
This loch has every where a marly bottom, and the marl is 
in many places of a very great depth. The fales of marl at 
thefe pits have been very exteniive ; and the advantages de- 
rived, not only to the proprietor of the marl, but alfo to 
all the proprietors of land in this neighbourhood, and to 
their tenants, have been very great. And thefe advantages 
would have been much greater had the proper method of 
cropping lands, when they were firft marled, been rightly un- 
derQood. Let it be obferved, that there feems to be a natu- 
re and neceflary connexion betwixt fpring water and fheli 
marl : For, with refpe£): to both the marl- pits above nam- 
ed, and all other marl-pits which the writer of this ftatiftL 
cal account has feen, a much greater quantity of water ifibes 
from the refpe£tive pits than the quantity that runs into 
them } at leaft than the quantity that runs fuperficially into 
them ; atad becaufe, notwithftanding of repeated trials, this 
writer has never yet feen marl found in any pit, marih, or 
lake, into which as much water is obferved to run, as that 
which runs out of it. With refpeA to th^ fituation of marl* 
pits, let it alfo be obferved, with refpe£t to thefe in this p^ 
rifb, with refpeft to all the marUpits in this country, and 
perhaps in every other country, that the circumjacent ground 
rifes from the pit on all fides, excepting that one by which 
the water ififues from the pit. By attending to thefe two 
6b{ervationS| a great deal of trouble may be (aved in the 
courfe of fearching for marl % and marl may be eafily foimd 
|n countries where it is not yet known. 

Marl, as a manure, operates chiefly upon the earth by fi^ 
parating its parts^ rendering it more penetrable td the roots 


of Kinhch. 471 

of plantsi and thereby giving them accefs to draw nourifh* 
ment from many particles of earth which did not contribute 
to their nourishment before luch feparation. Therefore, the 
more thoroughly that marl is intermixed or incorporated 
with the foil to which it is applied, the more extenfive and 
powerful muft be its cffe^b/ 

Marl can, with more cafe or difficulty, be pulverifed and 
incorporated with the foil, in proportioii as the marl is rich 
or poor. The richer the marl is, the lefs it has of a cohe- 
five quality, and therefore will be the more ealily incorporated^ 
andi the pooler the marl is, the more it has of a coheiive 
quality, and therefore will be with the greater difficulty pul« 
Teriied and incorporated with the foil to which it is applied. 

Marl, though fpecifically lighter than the foil on the fur- 
face of which it is laid, does, by feparating the parts of the 
circumjacent earth, foon fink below the furface. And if it 
be allowed to fmk in lumps, that is, before it be pulverifed, 
a great proportion of that marl will never afterwards be got 
thoroughly to incorporate with the foil. The moft advan« 
tageous method, therefore, of applying this valuable manure, 
in order to obtain the full benefit of the quantity applied, is 
to lay it on the ground while under a grafs crop, and leavfc 
it cxpofcd on the fiirfacc over the winter feafon. The 
thickly interwoven roots of the grafs will prevent any confi- 
derable body of it from finking below the furface, till it be 
reduced by the winter frofts and rains, and, in fmall parti* 
cles, walhed into the earth. . 

If marl muft be laid on ground under fallow, it fliould 
be pfcvioufly put into a compoft hill with earthy and, by 
mixing and turning, thoroughly pulverifed. 

Marl put into compoft with hot dung, will, by the juices 

of the dung, be rendered more clammy and cohefi#e than it 

was before, and more unfit for incorporating with the 



472 Siaiijlical Ace^tmt 

If you fow flax feed for the fecond or third crop on taaA' 
ed ground I that is, while the iufluence of the ground is rooft 
powerful, though the crop will have a promifing^appearance 
till the beginnings or towards the middle of July, when the 
plant is about 7 or 8 inches long, about this time, (under 
the ftrong influence of the fun), the fwelling and agitation 
of the earth, occafioned by the powerful operation of the 
marl, break the tender fibres of this plants while in its 
^uickeft growth^ and caufe it to decay. 

Agricukurey Cs^r.-^This parifli produces wheat, barkyi 
oats, peafe, flax, potatoes, and turnip. Clover and rye-grafi 
feeds are fown exteniively. Potatoes are planted in mock 
greater quantities, than they were a few years ago, Befidcs 
their great utility for the table, they are found to be excel* 
lent food for horfes and black cattle, and are nfed as fuch. 
A Bght, dry, or fandy foil, is bcft for potatoes. The pot»- 
toe called the London Lady is the beft of the early fpedes 
of potatoes yet known in this pari(h. The red- nofed- white - 
kidney pot^toe, and the long-white>kidney potatoe, which, 
are equally great or thick at both ends, are the beft eating 
of the late fpecies of potatoes ; and the laft mentioned of 
thefe Is equally prolific with the common4ate- round* white 
potatoe. The dark red Lancafliire potatoe, if planted in a 
very dry fandy foil, is more prolific than any other of the 
fpecies above mentioned; it is alfo more folid, a meafure-fuH 
of this fpecies, outweighing confiderably the fame meafare- 
IttU of any of the others. The above mentioned difiPerent 
fpecies are the beft of all the variety of potatoes cul(ivated 
in this country. It has been found here by repeated expe- 
riments, that the beft method of preventing potatoes from 
degenerating, and of rendering them more prolific, is to raife 
potatoes now and then from the feed that grows upon the 


tf Kinlocb. 47^ 

plant. The procds is eafy, viz. take 3 large ripe apples froia 
a ftcm of your favourite potatoe. Prcfervc them carefully 
from the winter frofi$. About the beginniog of April pre* 
pare a bit of good rich garden ground; With a wooden 
pole form fmall drills in it about an inch deep. Pick the 
feeds out' of the apples^ and fow them as reguhrly as poffible 
in thefe diills, and cover the Ucd with about half an inch 
depth of earth, in the mean time prepare another piece of 
good rich ground; and when the potatoe feedling plants 
have grown about an inch high above the ground, cai dully 
raifc them, with as much earth about the plants, rcfp. ft»yc- 
ly, as poffible, and transplant them into the other piece of 
prepared ground, at the diftance of 10 inches betwixt the 
plants in the row; and the diAance of , 14 inches betwixt 
the rows. Hoe them when needful, and take them up 
when ripe. If they have been thus cared for, you will have 
many of them as large as imall hen eggs the (irll lealon. 
And, if you plant thefe feedling potatoes in good ground 
next fpring, give them plenty of room^ and take good care 
of them, you will, againft next autumn, find their produce 
arrived at the full fize of potatoes planted in the ordinary 
way. And fronr the feed of thefe three apples, you will 
ba\e, the fecond year, upwards of 4 bolls of potatoes. And 
thefe potatoes, thus raffed from the apple- feed, will continue,. 
for feveral years, more prolific than potatoes which have not, 
for many years, been railed from tl^e apple-.iecd. 

li you plant the early potatoe called the Londonrliady, or 
the early potatoe called the Glory of England, in rich, dry^ 
warm lying 'ground, in the beginning of April, your crop 
will be ready for the market by the 20th of July. And if 
you then drefs the fame ground, and phfA it with the fame 
fpecies of potatoes, which have been kept over the winter^ 
wd$ ^ ^ying in a dry wcIl-aired place, aqd by being fre« 
YoL, XVII. 3 O quently 

474 Stati/ikal Auotfai 

qoentlf ttimed, have bem preTcpted from Ifirtngteg ton 
nmch doriog die precMipfc fnrt of the fodiner, you wiB 
htve ft fetood crop of poutoet oil' the fitme grotrnd^ vlpe 
againft the middle of 0£kober ; and the fecond crop wiU 
\^ mu^h richer kh«ii the fiirft, though^ in point of qualkyp 
the potatoes will not be fo dry and meaUy. The above di- 
reftionf are fouaded on ftriA experimeiit and obfervaUon. 

Improvements in agrkolture began a confideraUe number 
of years ago to make their appearance m this parifli and 
neighbourhood. For foine ttfne they advanced bitt ftowljt 
being nnder the dircAion of only a few individuals % bat a 
few years ago they became more general, and are now ad- 
vancing with rapid progrefs. Befidea the defire and Jtop^ 
of gain, a laudable fpirit of emulation fbllf appears now ac- 
tuating the public nrindi and opetis the (air proTpeft of tool- 
' tifarlous improvements. 

Roais^ ^c. — ^There are two public roads in the pariOi ; 
' the one 'paffing through the partQi from fouth to north, 
leading from the Boat of Kindeaven, to the Bridge of Gaily, 
where it joins the military road which Itads from Bbirgow- 
rie to Fort-George. The other croffing the forefaid road at 
the churchy ainl .paffing through the psriOi from eaft to 
weft, leadjng from Blairgowrie towards Dnnkeid. The far- 
mer of thefe roads was made many years ago, principaUy by 
the ftatute labour, under the diredion, and by the affiftance, 
of Mr Far^uharfbn of Invercaold. The latter is now mak* 
ing under the direction of Mr Campbell of Achatader. The 
ftatute labour is here now converted into money, and the he- 
ritors fcem determined that that money fliall be properly ap* 
plied. They 'fix upon a proper plan, and when the pabtic 
fund falls fhort of defraying the expence of executing that 
|)iafi, th^ make up the deficiency out of theif own private 


rf Kinhch 475 

pockets. The particQlar intention now paid tp the roa^ bjr ' 
the heritors of tbis parUb» 9d4 indeed by the other gicm|fr- 
meo 10 the neighbourhood, doe» them mnch honoiuv n it 
muft redound to the unrpcafcable advantage of the p«blic» 

PUmuaians^ (0V.-^There ii a good deal of hac^ wx^ 
fuch as a(h, &c. in the pari(b» partieulariy on Mr FarqHhan- 
fon's eftate of Martee, and Mr CampbeU's eQates of Glail^ 
dbne and Balleid. There are tlfo plantations of Several fpe- 
ctes of firs en the eftate of Marlee. and three confid^craUe 
plantations on the efiate of Glaflclunc. Of all the jfir tribes 
the larix takes the lead* in every foil and fitoation^ Being 
a qnick grower^ a^d of good quality^ it has become a £ii- 
^ourite obje£l of tlie landed gentlemen^ whd ioclbe to improve 
their property by the pUnaation of wood. There are larix 
trees now growing at Marlee, which were planted by tbp 
prefent propietor about 36 years ago, fgoie of whkh mea^ 
five 5 £Mt 5 inches in circumferencei $(od aboye 70 feet in 
length* Thja gentleman has, for a great ovmbcr of fts^ 
back, raited here from the feed, annually^ a great nulmber of 
ihoufands of plants of this fpe^ies of fir, and annnaUy tranC- 
mitied many thoniands of them ro the north eonntry, to 
dotbe and ornament a few pf his lojity mountains of Brae- 
mar, to ftand a beautifiil moniiment of perfevering induftry^ 
and to ferve futnre generations^ with that valuable wpod ! 

Mr Caoipbell of Achalader^ whp is ihbftantially improve 
sag the farm of Bsllnd, which he occuptest» has introduced 
the larix as a (nbftitute for the thorn bedgieu The larches 
are pbnted in double rows, at tlxe diilance of abont 1 8 inches 
betwUt the {dants iu the raw, and the.diflance of 14 inches 
betwiau the rows, the plants in Uie one row fianding oppo- 
fire to the vacancies in the other. As the larix t|uriues in 
every foil ; as thorns do not thrive in very dry poor ibils, it 


47^ Staiiftical Atcount 

muft be a great improvcfrient 'to plant larches infteaddT 
thcfmsi -for fences, in all thefe kinds of foils which canoot 
afford a fufficient quantity of moiflure to make thorns pro^ 
per. And even in rich foils, and thole which afford picotjr 
of moifture for thorns, it will be found, that larches viH 
fooner become a fence than thorns, and with much Icfs troa« 
We and expcncc. 

jFff///, Futl^ Game^ bfc — 'i'hcre are no hills irt* this ymBU 
excepting the hill of Cochrage, belonging to Mr Campbdl 
of Achal'ader ; and it merits rather the names of a mair and 
mofs, than that of a hilL h is of aconfiderable extent, and 
contains a great quantity of peat-mofs. On" this mo/s, the 
inhabitants of this country, to the diftancc of a confiderabic 
number of miles to thfe fouth-eaft of the mofs, ufcd princi- 
pally to depend for their fuel, peat and turf. But now that 
the attention of the farmers is much taken up in the fum- 
mcr feafon, with improvements in agriculture,' the* inhabi- 
tants of this parifh and neighbourhood, (excq>ting tboftrc- 
fiding near the mofs) principally depend for fuel upon coals, 
driven from the Ihorcs of Perth and Dundee. 

In this hill of Cochrage, there are a good many groiifc or 
niuir-fowl, and a few heath-fowl or black-cock. There were 
no heath'-fowl to be fcen in this parilh or neighboofhood, 
till within thefe few years. They came from the woods and 
rouirs in the neighbourhood of Dunkeld, and are now tote 
fcen in almofl every muir in this neighbourhood, where there 
is plenty df heath for food, and wood for fliclrer. Ihe na- 
mcrous rifing plantations are alfo bcginnmg to invite tixc 
roe-deer, which, till within thefe few years, had not,. for 
fome ages paft, made theii' abode in thefe lower parts of this 

- * 6f KinlocL 47^ 

Jn the lower parts of this parifli, hares and partridges 
abound. And about the latter end of autumn, a vaft 
number and variety of water-fowl, particularly the wild 
duck, and the different fpecies of teals, repair to the lakes 
before mentioned, and there continue to gather occafi- 
onally the gleanings of the neighbouring corn fields, till 
thefe fields are covered with fnow, or bound up with froft. 
Then they depend for fubfiftence on the open lakes, marfhes, 
and Tprings. And when thefe are all (hut up except a few- 
powerful fpriogs, they betake thcmfclves to the open rivers,, 
and there continue till the increafing frofts drive them, e- 
maciated, bsck to the Tea fhores. A few of them> remaia 
here over winter, and hatch in the fpring feaibn. The 
wood- cock, alfo, who vifits us about the miodle or end of 
Odober, feeds in our woods till the winter frofts fet in, when 
he cannot, with his feet or bill, turn over the fallen leaves : 
Then he takes to the woods and thickets where fprings mott 
abound ; and when the frofts have long continued very in- 
tcnfc, Inftigatcd by ncceffity, he wings his way to more fou- 
thern climes, where the loole lying leaves of the woods, and 
the open marfhes and fprings, admit his long tender bill^ 
and invite him to pick up, and fuck firom their open ftores, 
the fcaoty pittance of food which he demands. He revifits 
tis about the middle of February, on his way to a more'noc- 
^thern climate, where he fixes his place for propagating his 
fpecies.-^But why repair to thefe northern climates to pro- 
pagate thy fpecies ? Do the Norwegian woods afford tbj^ 
tender young ones a more plentihil fupply of food, and eve- 
ry other thing fuited to their nature, than could be found in 
more fouthern climates ? In thefe northern climates, is the 
year far advanced before the fnows are difiTolved ? Docs the . 
diflblution of the fnows and frofts afford plenty of iprings, 
attdmoifture in the woods ? If thou delighteft in the fmall 


47$ StdiiJUcgl Account * 

feeds of vegetables^ doft thou fiad that| againS tbe feaToft tf 
bcubatioo> they are not, by vegetation, readered unfit for 
thy ufe ? Againft tSxe time whea thou haft got thy brood 
under thy fvings, has the animating fun produjced^ by his iu- 
fluence, plenty of animalculi and inieAs amongft the fidle* 
leaves of the woods^ and encourage many fmall reptiles to 
come up to the furiace of the earthy and mix among the 
leaves ? Doft thou find thein in plenty for tbyfelf and fior 
thy brood? and plenty of food alfo among the fprings? 
Yes thou doft \ and with that plenty thou cpntlnueft, till 
thy young ones are grown up to full fize and ftrength, and 
are fully fledged. And when the JcUUng frofts fet in* and 
the falling foows threalien to cover up thy favourite haunts, 
thou leaveft thy native woods, and betakeft tbyrelf to thofe 
in more fouthera climates. 

Antiquities^ {5V. — There is one Druidical temple in the 
pari(h^ on the road leading from dairgowrie to Dunkeld. 
There is an old caftle at Glaficlune, fituated on the pronlon- 
tory of the fteep bank of a deep den. It appears from its 
fitoation to have been a very firoag hold, before the ufe of 
fire arms was introduced into this country, Sfr C?mpbfH 
of Achalader is the prefent proprietor ; Itf r Blair was his 
predece&r; and Mr HeroOf Mr Blair's.^ As to when it 
was built, and by whomi even tradition itfelf is Cknt. 

A pair of very largie deer^s horns were found t few years 
tqp^ in a bed of marl, in Mr Farquharfon^s marl-pit at Ma»* 
ke. From their fuperior fize, ^and palmed form, they ap^ 
pear to be the horns of the elk^dcer, ^ntiently the fiately in* 
habitant of the Caledoniao forefis^ It is remarkable that 
deers horns have been fonod in difiereot marl-^its in this 
country, in ao entire ft^e ; but never found in the mo6 
ahore the m^rl^ nor in the ftratum of fand ^r ctefi betwixt 


tkfi ttppermoft and die loweft beds of oari ; nor in tlie ftr»* 
turn o£ cUij or hnd bdow che undermoft bed of mar] ; boa 
in the bed of maorl itfelf ; irbkh circomftance raiders it (»ro» 
babic^ that iheil-miMrl u wtU adapted for prekrviqg certain 
fubftances from decay. 

Thtre is in a moir in this parifh* a vift number of tumuli^ 
caUcd the Haer (bairns. In this mulrt it is tbought, that tho 
laiDOos battle between Agricola the Roman geocrali sndGai* 
gaciia the general of the Cakdonimst ^as fought. 

A particular detail on this fubjefl, would Aretch this ft»* 
.tiflical account to too great a length* The writer, there* 
fore, begs leave to refer the reader to what is faid on the 
fobjcA in the ftatifiical accounts of the neighbouring psu 
riihes of Clunie and Bendochy ^ and in the meantime ven- 
tures to aflcrt, that the antiquarian wiil^ upon due ezaminaii 
tion, find a ftrong probability that this was the fcene of the 

Fopulatton^ Befiialy bfc, — According to Dr "Webftcr's re- 
port, the number of fouls, in 1755, was 331. The number 
of fouls now is 372. Ot that number 177 are males, and 
195 females. Ihere are 31 1 above 8 years of age^ and 61 
below that age. There are 6 females dngle perionS| who 
are houi'cholders •, 2 widows, who have 2 children each 5 
and 2 males iiogle pcrions^ each above 80 years of age.-«i 
Number of marriages within the laft 7 years, 30. Average 
number annually, 4. — Number of baptilms within the laft 7 
years, 74. Average number annually, 10. — Ihere are in the 
pariih 141 horfes, 522 black cattle, and 250 deep. 

Heritors^ Valued kenti, S'f.— There are 6 heritors in this 
pariih, viz. Colonel John Campbell of Achalader, James Far- 
quharfon of Invercauld, Lieut. Thomas Hog of Thorngreen, 
James Scott^of Nether Balcairuj William Mitchell portioner 


4^0 Statical Accounf 

of Wefter Kinloch^ and Ckdonel William Lindfay of Ard- 
blair. Two of them refide in the parilh during part of tbe 
year ; two are conftant refidenters ; and two non-refidcnu 
The valued rent of the parifh is 1705 1. 10 s. Scots mooey. 

Churchy Manfi^ Stipend^ School^ ffTr.— The heritors built a 
good mahfe and offices about 22 years ago ; built a hand- 
fbme and commodious church about two years ago ; and a 
lieat fchool and fchool-houfe laft year. The glebe is much 
about the legal extent. The ftipend (valuing 59 bolls vie* 
tual at 15 s. per boll)| is at)out 80 1. Sterliog.-rThe fchtioU 
maker's falary is lol. Sterling. 

ManufaBures^ is^c. — ^The principal manufaAure in this pa* 
ri(h is that of flax, which, in raifing, fpinningi bleaching^ 
and weaving it, occupies the labour of a confiderable num- 
ber of the inhabitants. There are in the pari(h 6 weaver^ 
7, mafonsi 4 joiners, 2 blackfrnithsi 2 (hoemakers, 2 taylors;, 
1 flaxdreiTcr, i brewer, i merchant, 26 farmers, and 2 mil- 

The hire of day-labourers, and the fees of fervants, &c. 
are the fame here as in the neigbouring parifhes. 

S^/7jri^x.—- There are in this parilb One family of the 
Church of England, one family and 4 individuals of the Ro- 
man Catholic perfuafion, and on^ family and 5 individuals 

CharaBer of the People. — In delineating the charaflcr of 
the people of this parilh, I can confcientioufly fay, more e^ 
fpecially comparing them with the inhabitants of many other 
diftriAs, that they have rational fentiments of religion \ that 
they are regular Attendants on the. ordinances of divine in- 

ilitution y 


of Kinhcb. 481 

nitotioh; that, on the whole, they are difinterefted, benevo* 
lent, humsine, and charitable ; that they are (1 jw co ipeafc^ 
inodeft in converfation, refpeftful to fuperiors, obedient to 
thofe who have the rule over them, quiet in their behs^viour, 
and, from religious principle, thankful and loyal fubjedts of 
the Briti(ii government. At the fame time, if we keep 
in view the great fiandard of perfe£lion, by which we ought 
to judge of the human charaAer, I mean the laws of our 
holy religion, and the perfeA pattern of perfect excel- 
lence^ which the Divine Author of it hath left for our 
imitation, I muft fay, that, upon a clofe examination, 
there are to be (eeh, on the face of this fair charadler^ 
fome fpecks ; and that there is good ground, and fair oppor- 
tunity^ for improving, purifying, brtiametltidg, and adorning 

May a humble fenfe of fuch imperfe£lions, ever keep oo^ 
kearts open to the nobleit motives for improvements ! 

'^uafOoqw/pii JiU flura negavmt^ a dis piura feret. 

TTtt.XVn. - it NtJftt. 

;^8f . StaifJlicalJcitmt 

N U M5B E R XXXit 

(County and StNOD of Abbrdebn. — Presbttert 
OF Garioch). 

JBy a Friend /^ Stitistical Inqjjiries- 

Origin 0/ the Name^ Situation^ and Boundaria. 

INCH, or, as it is commonly written, Infcb^ fccms to derive 
its name from its local fituation on a low flat, fitnated 
clofe by the fide of a fmall rivulet* This pariih lies in the 
county and fynod of Aberdeen, and in that diftrsA of the 
county which is called the Garioch, and gives name to the 
prefbytery in which Infch is fituatcd. It is diftant about 26 
miles from Aberdeen \ and is bounded on the fouth by the 
parifhes of Oyne and Premnay \ on the weft, by Kinneth- 
mont and Gartly ; on the north, by Drumblate and Forgne; 
and on the eaft by Cuifalmond. \ 

Figure and Extents Soil and Proportion of Arahle Land.^^ 
Iti, figure is that ot an oblong fquare, 5 miles long by 3 iir 
breadth Its area 15 miles, or nearly 7500 Scots acres. 
T le land, in'thc fouthcfn parts of the parifh, is generall/ 
of a mofl exctllcnt foil, and prodi^ces rich and early crops; 
but along the ikirts of the hill of Fondland, and in the glens , 
or n Trow vallics, which run up from the low country 
through that hiii, the loil is not fo jfiertilej and the crops are 

of Infchm 483 

late and pcecarious. About one third of the whole pariih (or 
2500 acres) is cultivated at prefent, and 5000 acres are not 
cultivated. But it deferves to be noticed, that of this unculti- 
vated party feveral hundred acres on the hili of Fondland, and 
in the glens or narrow vallies above mentioned^ not only are 
arable» but were formerly under cultivation. Tbefe are now ne* 
gle£ted,and produce nothing but heath. Th^y were firft defert* 
cd by the farmers in the end of laft century, when that part of 
the country was almoft de^iopulated by 7 years of famine : 
And now they lie negle£ted, along with many thoui'and acres, 
in like fituation, in diflferent parts of the north of Scotland. 

ifi/Z/.-^The largeft of thefe is the hill of Fondland above 
mentioned, which extends into (everal panihesi and is ele- 
vated about 800 feet above the level of the Tea. This ex* 
tenfive hill (belters the pariCh of Infch, and a confiderable 
part of the di(lri£t oi Garioch, upon the north ; and hence 
partly pccafions its great natural fertility. In the moll ele- 
vated part of Fondland, and in that part which is fituated in 
the pariCh of Infchi are extenfive quarries of fine blue (late, 
a confiderable quantity of which is yearly dug up, and ma* 
nufd^tured for fale« This hill feems once to have been a 
very confiderable hunting forcil. Its name, which is from 
the Gaelic, is expreffive of this ; for faotdy in the Gaelic, 
' fignifies hunting. And, in the mofles of this hill, very large 
trees, particularly oaks, are frequently dug up* It now a- 
bounds in mofs, heath, and moor game. About half a mile 
from the town of Infch, ftands the curious and noted hill 
of Dun-o-deer, with the ruins of a very antient cafile on 
the top of it. Dun-o-deer, or fyundore in Gaelic, is faid to 
fignify ihf Hill in the Wood; and very probably all the lower 
grounds, around that infulated hill, have once been covered 
with wood* It is remarkable deep on all fides, is of a coni. 
(al (hape, and covered With a very fine green fward. Hec- 

484. Staiijlkal Account 

tor Boethms calls it Dundore^ the golifen mountain in Gatwt i 
and fiys^ that the teeth of the Qieep that paftured upon k 
were of the colour of gold. It ftill affords moft cxcelknt 
pa(lure for (heep, but has no fuch quality as is afcribcd to it 
by that very crcthilous hif^orian* This hill is atbout 3000 
yards in circumference, and above 300 feet high, and (cems 
to fpring from the level plain of the Garioch. It has bccD, 
probably in fome very early period, a volcano, though diffi> 
rent opinions are formed concerning this curious hilL 

Xivers and projfRed C««^/.— The fmall rivulets in this pa- 
rifh are not worth notice on their own account $ but ihcy 
are very proper for fupplying with water a projected canal 
from Infch to Aberdeen. This canal has been fome time in 
eontomphtion, and at prefent it is thought that it wUl fuc- 
ceed, at leaft as far as Invernry. The fobfcription for the 
undertaking is already fwelled to a great amount. But if 
the proprietors of land were to c:?rry on the canal, and to con- 
triburc funis proportioned to their property ; and if, inftead 
of 2 d. per ton for each mile, only a halfpenny per ton (for 
defraying the ex pence of boats, and keeping the canal in 
repair) were cxafted, a number of heavy articles, fuch as 
ftoncs for London, and potatoes for Denmark and Norway, 
would be carried to Aberdeen, which could not be carried, 
if the canal dues or porterage be high ; and the lands in 
this diftridk would foon increafc in rent, much more'than all 
the intercft of the money expended on the canal. Should 
this canal fucceed, it is difficult to fay, how much the rich 
diftridt of the Garioih, for which nature has done fo much, 
and art fb little, may advance in value in 30 or 40 years. 
From this parifti the (late from the hill of Fondland would 
be exchanged for lime from Aberdeen. 


of Infch 485 

Agricuhure. — A better mode of cultivating the land 1 j now 
adopted than what formerly prevailed* But a regular rota- 
tion of crops is not yet eAabliflbed, though confiderable 
qiiantities Of turnips and potatoes are reared annually. Oats 
and barley are ftill the principal crops in this pariih. Should^i 
however, the canal above mentioned take' place, many hun- 
dreds of acres, befides thofe which were once cultivated, but 
are now defer ted, would be brought into cultivation ; and, 
ipf^ead of a poor (tinted fort of heathj would produce Iuz« 
uriant crops of corn and grafs* 

Manure.-^Tht only manure ufed in this pariih» except 
the dung raifcd on the farms, is lime brought from Aoer- , 
'dcen. There was a fmall quantity of marl on one farm, 
called Nether Boddom, but it was exhiiufled feveral years 
ago* And fo ignorant were the country people of its pro« 
per value, that they ufed it as plader to the wails of their 
houfts. It was, however, of confiderable fcrvice to the farm 
in which it was found* Perhaps this fmall q tanttty is a 
proof that more marl might be difcovered in the diftriA, if 
the proprietors would be at the expence of iearchmg for it. 

Population. — The population of this parifh has dccrcafed 
within thefe 40 years. In Dr Webfler's account it is (lated 
at 995 ; it is now only 900, or 95 lefs. The population of 
the country pariflies in the north of Scotland decreaied 
n)uch in the end of the laii century, as may be feen, by 
comparing the numbers who paid the poll- tax, (a number 
certainly (hort of the whole population), with the number^ 
given in Dr Wtbfter^s account. There was, however, in the 
firil 60 years of this century, a rapid increafe of the popula- 
tion, which was brought pretty near to its foriper (late, 
when the fcarcity of mofs in country pariihes^ and the de« 


^$6 Staiijiical Account 

mand for labour aboiit towns on the fea coaft, drew off a 
Dumber of people to refide in the royal boroughs, or manu- 
fa^uring towns. It is now chiefly in thofe pariflies, in whidi 
' manufafturing villages arc found, that the population is in- 
crcafing. In all probability, however, it will increafe for 
fome time. ' The introduftion of potatoes has added much 
to the quantity of human food \ and with an increafe of 
provifion, there will always be an increafcd population. 

, FsI/age.'^The town of Infch, where the church ftands, s 
fituated^at the fouthern extremity of the pari£h. It is a 
burgh of barony, has a weekly market, and two or three 
yearly fairs j but they are much on the decline. The car- 
ryipg the canal to this village would be attended with im- 
portant advantages, as it would become the market place for 
all the upper parts of the Garioch. The fcuers of this 
town are heritable proprietors of their houfes and fmal! 
gardens. They are either (hopkcepers or mechanics j and 
they rent fmall farms from Colonel Hay of Rannes, who is 
fupcrior of the town, and proprietor of the lands in tic 

Manu/aaures.^rhc knitting of ftockings for the Aber- 
deen manufaftarcrs is the principal employment of the wo. 
men of this diftrift. It is at prefent at a ftand ; and, from 
various caufes, is prefumed to be on the decline. 

MtiquitUs.—Tht old caftle, built on the top of the coni- 
cal hill of Dun-o.deer, is a very great curiofity. Tradition 
fays it was built by King Gregory the Great, more than 960 
years ago; yet a confiderable part of the walls are ftill 
ftanding ; and the materials of whieh the walls arc built arc 
of a Angular kind, and have given rife to various conjcaures^ 


tflnfch. 48/ 

tn a pef lodical paper called the Bee» latelf publiihed at Edii»i 
burghj there was lately given a very particularj and pretty 
accurate: defcription of the hiU and cafile of Dun«a>deer^ 
with a copper-plate engraving. The author of that defcrip- 
tion fuppofes the materials of the caftle to be part of a vitri- 
fied fort. But it appears at leaft as probable, that this mounts 
as well as the Top.o-Noth, another of the fame kind^ a few 
miles diiiant from it^ have been volcanos, and that this old 
caftle has been built with fome of the volcanic matter dug 
out of the hiil. The gentlemen of the diftrift of Gariocbn 
(bme years ago, fubfcribed a few guineas for white«wa(hing j 
the ruins of this caftle, which were worth the expence of a- 
dorning and preferving. 

Pre/Wrter/.— There arc 6 heritors, of whom Mr Gordoa 
of Rothney is the only refident proprietor. The rent of the 
pari(h is about laool. 

EccUftaftical Statf. -^Thc toanfc of Infch was built in 1771 1 
and the church is lately repaired. Mr George Daun wat 
admitted minifier of Infch in 1 790- Tne ftipbnd is about 
70 K ; but a procefs of augmentation is de|)ending. iyir Wil- 
liam Forbes of Craigievar is patron of the pariih. The 
kirk- feflion, befiaes their other lunds, have the property of 
a fmali piece of land, called the Bafs, which was bequeathed 
to them for the ule of the poor, by an heritor of the towa 
ef Inich, in the laft century. 

CharoBer of the Ptople. — The people are decent in their 
behaviour, and induftrious in their occupations *, and, like 
the inhabitants of all country parifhes, more gmple in their 
manners^ and more pure in morals than the inhabitants of 


4iS Statifiical Accifna 

towns. The decay of the weekly markets has not been 
prejudicial to the morals of the inhabitants of the village. 

MifallanemiS Ob/ervations.'^Thcrc are no plantations of 
wood^ nor hardly any thing that deferves the name of an 
inclofure» as there are neither hedges, nor ftone fiances, which 
deferre to be noticed. The diftance from Aberdeen, and 
the (hort leafes, added to the want of capital in the farmeis, 
are great difadvantages to a diftridt naturally fertile. The 
carrying a canal to Infch from Aberdeen, and granting long 
leafes, with periodical rifes of rent, and advancing monej 
to purchafe lime, free of intereft for two years, would loon 
render this parifih, and the diftriA of Garxoch, antiently cal- 
led the granary of Aberdeen, one gf the moft valaable dif^ 
,tnds in North Sritaiu* 


^ ^eensfirrj. , 48^ 

(County of West Lothian.— -Synod of Lothian 


Bj Mr John Henderson^ Minifler. 

Origin of the Narne^ 

QUEENSFERRY (the paflagc of the Queen) derives 
its name firom Margaretj Queen of Malcolm Canmore, 
a Princefs celebrated for her charitable and beneficent virtues. 
She frequented the parage much, and was the great patroneis 
of the -place \. hence the name by whi^h it is now di(linguiih« 
ed certainly originated. 

Sikiation and Extent, ^^Queenskrry is fituated in the county 
of Weft Lothian, in the prcfbytery of Linlithgow, ?ind in the 
iynod of LothiaA and Tweedale. The pariih is of finall ex* 
tent, confiding only of the borough, (the royalty not ex« 
tending to the two ends of the town). It is an eredlioa 
within the parifh of Dalmeny, which took place in the year 
1636*, is furrounded by that pariOi on the foutk-weft an4 
eaft^ and bounded by the Frith of Forth on the north. 

Manu/a^ures.'^Thc principal manq&aure of this place is 
that of foap. It was here that firft in Scotland the making 
of brown foap was brought to its prefent degree of perfe&ion. 

Vol. XVIL 3 Ol This 

49^ StatijHcal Account 

This manu^Aore commenced about the year 1770, and hai 
fioce been carried ou with varying fuccefs. Froai the year 
1783 to 1789, it was a flourishing and cxtcnfive trade. 
There were 4 large w^orks, which employed firoar 20 to 30 
labouring men, and paid an excife-duty from 8000 1. to 
lOiOOoL per annum. In the year 1789^ the foap trade in 
Scotland oaet a confiderable check. It was for fbme time 
aimoft annihihited here. It has fince^ bowerer, happily re- 
▼ivedy and is now carried on with a great deal o€ fpirit. 

CMmnrrr^.— The commerce of this town has been for a 
. long time in a (hite of decline. About the year 1640^ the 
ihipmafterf here were owners of above 20 vefiels, moR of 
them large brigs^ and generally employed in the carrying trade. 
But as this trade has been found often, to fhtft its finiations, 
this place at preient has none of it. About 9 years ago^ 
feveral vefleb were built here^ one of them a fhip aborve 500 
tons burden, and fitted out for the Greenland fi(hery. A. 
trade was carried on by a very ipirited inhabitant. But as 
lately he fold the whole of his Oiippingi at prefont there is 
not a veflH belonging to this port* 

i^^rj^.— Attempts have been made to eftablifh a fifliery 
here, at lead (uch a fiOiery as might fupply the town and 
neighbourhood, but hitherto without fuccefs; although it is 
the general opinion, that 2 or 3 induftrious fifhermen migjit 
fettle here to advantage. The fi(h to be found in this part 
of the Frith are cod, haddocks, whitings, fkate, flounders, 
Iicrrings, crabs, lobfters, and oyfters. There are alfo foae 
very fine mufcle fcalps. The herring fifliery, which has 
lately taken place in this neighbouijiood) forms a moft ple>- 
fant article in a ftatiflical account. 

It began at tl^e end of the year 17921 oppofite to this^ and 

tf ^eensferry. 451 

tn the part of the Frith without the Bay of tnyerkeitliing. 
During that (eafon a plentiful iiipply of good herrings was 
fent to the coaft towns, and to many inland places at a con- 
£derable diftance. Next feafon the herrings were ftill more 
plentifuli and the markets more |>lentifully fupplied. Little 
, was done in curing for foreign markets. The merchants^ 
who were inclined to engage in the trade, regretted that they 
were not provided with the neccflary articles of barrels and 
fair. The laft was a feafon of an cxtenfive and profitaUe 
£(hery. From the middle of Oftober to the ift of March 
Ittt^ from this place, you could count from 80 to 100 boats 
almoft every day buiily and fuccefsfuUy employed. Herrings 
were found in great abundance from Burntifland to above 
Borrowilounnefs. Fishermen reforted to this from all quar- 
ters. A fingle boat often came m with 30 or 40 barrels, 
which were fold for 8 1, or 10 1. A great numbei of herrmg 
bufles came from Glafgow, by the great canal, and had a 
moft fuccefsful fiihery. VafV quantities were cured and lent 
to the foreign markets* About 6000 barrels were cured at 
this port. The inUnd part of the country was plentifully 
fupplied, at the diftance of 30 or 40 miles, by land carriage. 
The retail price here notwithlianding, at an average, was not 
more than 6 d a hundred. 

It is a pretty general opinion, that the herring (hoals have 
formerly frequented this part of the Frith, and might often 
have been found in the places where the fi(herv has been 
laiefy fo fuccefsful. If fo, it is a fubje^t of much regret, 
that the opportunities of fuch a profitable fifhery have been 
loft ; and the public are taught not to neglect to explore the 
feas which furround our iiland, as almoft every part of them 
is found to contain ftores not only fufficieot to diffiife plenty 
among the inhabitants, but alfo amply to reward and enrich' 


494 Statyitcal Accowd 

So loDg then as the paiTage is farniflied with good boats 
and yawis, well nianoed \ fo lon^ asit is kept under its pre- 
feoc regulations; and fo long as the rates of the fcTeral 
freights are fo reafonahle, or rather fo very low, the public 
ought to be well fatisfied that it continue with the prefcnt 
proprietors. There is, however, an objcdb of great ioipor- 
tance, rei*pe£ling the paiTage, to which the attention of the 
public ought to be direded, that is, the ftatc of the landing- 
places, or Jbippings^ as they arc called. Thcfe, efpecialiy at 
Sooth Queensferry, are not in good repair ; nor have a fuffi* 
cient number of theoi been built, fo as to render the paAge 
commodious. One, called the Gray Shipping well of the 
pier, is in total difrepair, though it is a landing place much 
frequented when the water is far back, cipecialiy at iprmg 
tides. It is painful for a fpcAator to witnefs the difficulties 
pafiengers meet, the dangers to which they are expofed in 
getting to or from that place, as they have to fcramble a 
confiderable way among rocks and large ftones, rendered 
flippery by being covered with wet fea-weed. To this laod- 
ing«^place the boatmen are often obliged to carry, with much 
jeopardy to themfelves, the great mail on the north road. 
The only fund for upholding the landing-places, on both 
fides, is an appropriation of the 40th part of the grofs freights, 
called the ferry Jilver^ amounting, at an average, to about 
35 '• P^^ annum; a fum far from being fufficicnt. Occafioo- 
al aid has been given by the Royal Boroughs, and by the 
Commiffioners for the forfeited eftatcs. When, therefore, 
it is confidered that this is one of the moft frequented paf. 
fages in the kingdom, and that it will continue to be much 
frequented from its many conveniencies, which arc well 
known, every thing relating to its regulations, and the ftatc 
of its repairs, is intercfting to the public. The po ice of the 
country has been aftively and ufcfully employed in making 


and repairing roads and bridges ; and, it is humbly apprc* 
heDdedy it would alfo be ufcniUy emplbyed in direAmg its 
attention to the ftate of the la nding< places of this ferry, by 
taking mcafures for the railing and appropriating a iufficient 
fund for build i.o-g and keeping them in proper repair, by 
which the paiTige might be rendered more lafe^ and much 
more commodious *. 

PopuIation.^^Vhe population of this parifh, as ftated to Or 
Webftcr about 44 years ago, was 400. In 1791 an accurate 
lift WR8 taken, when the number of fouls amounted to 505* 
It has (ince varied little. 

Abllra^ of the Births, Marriages, and Burials, as they 
are entered in the pariih regifler for the laft 10 years. 

Xears* Births. Marriages. Burials. 















■ 2 































arly average 




* Perhaps the bed way of e£Feding this would be, by an ad 
•f P.iriiamcnry for levying additional rates, and borrowing, up- 
on the credit of the fund, what might be neceflary for repair* 
iog the landmg places^ and oiher improYcments at the Ferry« 

495 Statiflical Auouni - 

Poor.'^The pariih funds arc ample, confifting of the ajt& 
kftioB at the church-doors, amouating, at an average^ to 
i2 1, and of the intereft of a confidcrablc fum of moQcy. 
The parxQi being fmaU, and the ftatc of the pitx>r perfefifr : 
known to the fcffion, they have adopted it as a role, not 
confiderrag the poor as the bcft cconomifts, to give fmaB 
penfions once a month, and to fupply them according to 
the exigencies, as in perfonai or family diftreis, to give coab, 
pay houfe-rents, &c. The average number of poor oa the 
toll is 164 

Stipend.'^Thc fiipend was lately augmented, and is now 
Worth 105 !• fer annum. There Is neither tnznfc not glebe 
The Magiftrates and Town-Council are patrons. 

SechBaihing Quarters* — ^The water, rendered ftronger by * 
the narrownefs of the Frith at this place } its vicinity to 
Edinburgh I its eafy communication with that city $ the dry- 
nefs and falubrity of the air -, the beauty and variety of the 
furrounding fcenery ; the excellent accommodation for lod- 
ging, all render Queensferry a moft convenient and plcafant 
fituation for fea-bathiog quarters. 

Mifiellaneous Oifervaiwns.-^The weather in tliis neigh* 
bourhood is particularly dry, and the climate healthfiiL 
Several perfons lately died in this parifli upwards of j^ 
For more than 12 years paft, there has been no epidemical 
diieafe except the confluent fmalUpox, as there are ftill {bme 
people among us who, from fcruples, refift the iaiutary ptao- 
tice of inoculation. 

This was originally a fea*faring town ; and a great propor- 
tion of its inhabitants are men who have been employed b this 
line, who, having acquired a decent competency^ and having 


always kept up a connection and attachment^ have returned 
to their fiimilies and their friends, to fettle and fpend their 
days in the place of their nativity. Thus the fociety of a 
little town is continued, enlarged, and made more happy. 

From this circumftance, which muft have influence on 
early education^nd from a fort of fea-buftle, which is every 
day to be feen here, on account of the paflkge, it has hap- 
pened that moft of the young men have been inclined to try 
their fortune at fea. During the late American war, there 
were from 30 to 40 failors from this town in his Majefty's 
fervice. In the preienk war there are 3^ Some of them of« 
ficers in the army, or furgeons, or lieutenants and midfliip- 
men in the navy ; all of th'^m employed in the fervice of 
their country. 


•49* , Statijikal ActotM 



In Shetland. 

Bj a Friend to Statj/HcaJ Inquinei. 

NfeSf ING. like the greater number, if not all the namd 
of places in the Shetland Illands, b evidently of Nor- 
wegian eitraftion. Its meaning is unknown, the Norfc Ian- 
gua ,e being at prcfeht no longer fpoken in Shetland. The 
miniftry of Nefting confifis of fouf" diiferctit pirts. The pariih 
of Nefting, the pariih of Lunnef^ing, and the parifh of WhaU 
fay. To thefe are annexed the detached illands of Skerries, 
which, about ttrenty years ago, formed a part of a very exten- 
five charge, eftabliflied on the royal bounty, for a miffionary 
paid from that fund. For thefe many years the fabrjr has 
been difcontinued i and, of confequence, the poor inhabitants 
of thefe detached illands of Toula. Fair Iflf, and Skerries, 
who labour under many local difadvantages, inieparably an- 
nexed to their fituation by the God of Nature, have now 
to lament, that they are deprived of th^ironly mean of reli- 
gious inftruftion. ' There is however a fair profpeft of getting 
this lifeful miiGon re^edablifhed by the Committee on the 
Royal Bountv. This miniftrv forms a part of the prefbjrterf 
of Shetland^ which has fynodical powers withfn itfdf, as no 


appeal lies from that prdbytery, bot to the General Aflem* 

jF}/i6tfrijr.— Tbe inhabitants adventure in what we call the 
Great pihcrics of ling, cod, and tulk ; but the principal 
part of their fubfifience arifes from the imall filhing qf pitU 
tock and fillocl;, which, except in very extraordinary years^ 
they can purfue at no expence, and with great advantage, all 
the year round* 

Populftthn.'^Tlis miniftry contains a g]:eater ni;imber of 
inhabitants, in proportion to the rental' lane}, than any 
Other in Shetland, owing to the exertions of* the two prin- 
cipal heritors, Mr Bruce Stcuart of Symbifter, and Mr Hun- 
ter of Lunna, in ipaking putfct?, or new fettlements, on 
grounds forjncrly utocuUivatcd. Ibefe imprpvctncnts have 
been attempted witl\ the view of incrcaling the pumbcr of 
£(hermeQ on their ^crpc^jve cftatcs 5 but when the liihing 
iails^ a* ^ often docs, thcfc lettlers on iicw grounds become 
burdens on the proprietor j and, witbout the aiiiftancc of 
their Landfloaitcr, mult ftarye, when the Imall fifhing tails for 
tfecijr f upgort \ for none of them have a pofleffion of land, that, 
with the beft cultivation, and in the moll favourable years, 
^r\ fupply their families in meal^ or any kind of grain, for 
nearly one half of the year. 

So long as the prefent proprietors of Whalfay and Lun- 
oefting ^t able to continuic ia the management of their own 
lands the tenants may continue, and the lands may be culti^ 
vatcd ; but, fhould the fu^cefTors of thcfc gentlemen have a 
lefs adliye, or, a different turn of mind, there is reafon to fear 
a great d§creaf(? of th§ population. 


|oo Statical Accmnt 

Populiition of NeftiDgyLuonefting, Whaffiij, andSkcfm^ 
in the ydir 1781. 

Number of fouls. 
Kefting, 91 families ' - - - 4^5 

LunneitiDgy 80 families - - - 480 

Whalfay Iflaiid 84 families ' - -' 500 

Skerry Ifles, 1 1 families. - - 70 

Total number of fouls in 1 7 8 1 1535 

It is believed that the above ftate is not greatly fxader or 
above the trulh> although it is juft now only flated from me- 
mory. ~ There is no doubt, that the prefent population of thk 
xnlniftry is confiderably ihcreafed ; and I am inclines) ro be- 
lieve, that now (1793) the inhabitants are not unaer 1800. 
The ftjpend of this rnniftry is at prefent one of the h^gheft 
in thefc iflands. An augmentation was granted about \6 
yeurs ago, which raiies the value of the living, comrnumku 
(gnnis, to about 85 1. Sterling. But as both parfonage and vjca. 
rage teinds are payable in tuitrer and oil, the mrnifter's income 
will vary according as the prices oiF thcic two articles rife or 
fall. When the butter and oil are at a high price, then the 
mirsifter's fiipend is high in proportion i but when the prices 
of thefe two articles fall, the value of the living is in propor- 
tion diminiihed. 

Roads and Bridges. '^Tht roads, bridges, &fc. are in the 
fame (late here as in every other part of Shetland ; that b to 
fay, there are none. 

Ecciefiqfiical State.'^There are three churches, all in very 
good repjiir, in this eztenfive miniftry, where the mioifter 
pfficlate; in rotation ; igrft, at Nefting, fecOnd Sabbath^ Lun- 

9a>ilurd Sabbatli) Whalfay^ and» in the rummer^ he^ visits 
the detached iflands of Skcrric3, for a week: in. ilxtt year. 

jigrioi/ture.^^Thc agriculture in this miniAry \% iQ the 
fame wretched ftate tiiat it is in all the Shetland iflinds. 
The people dlredt their fole attention to the fi£hing» and con- 
fider the cultivation of the lands as only a iecondary obje£f« 

Slnfv/recit,'-^a the coafts of this exteniive miniftry. fliip^ 
wrecks often liappen ; and it ought to be mentioned, to the ere* 
die ot the inhabitants, that the poor fuffcrcrs hate^ on all oc« 
cafi.oh9| been treated with the greateft homanity. One in* 
fiance only, ou: of many that might be adduced, fhall here 
be mentioned. In the year 1780, a RuSian frigate. was 
wrecked on the ifland of Whalfay, Mr Bruce Stewart, the 
proprietor of that ifland, ordered immediately his tenants to 
fit out proper boats to fave what lives could be faved. Un'- 
fortunately all their exertions, which were made at the rifk 
of their own lives, could fave only five of the Rujffian failors. 
Thefe five men were entertained by Mr Bruce at his hofpi- 
table manfion for feveral months, and fent home to their na» 
tive country. From the report of thefe five men, the Em- 
prefs of RuiEa gave orders to her ambaflador at the Court 
of London, to write, in her name, a letter of thanks to Mr 
Bruce of Symbifter j which letter I have feen. It does ho- 
nour to her, as a Sovereign who deigns to intered herfelf in 
the kindnefs (hown to her fubjedts in diflrefs* Many more 
inftances might be mentioned of the humanity fliown by the 
inhabitants of this parifh to failors in diftrcft. Unfortunate- 
ly, they have too many calls on their humanity in this way. 

Means of Improvement, — One obfervation applies to this mi- 
• nifiry, as well as to all the other pari(bes in Shetland Iflands, 
^ ' namely, 

j9^ Statifiical Account 

namely, that thej never can be made of fuch importance l» 
the Britilh Empire as they might be^ unlets proper mamv* 
faAures are introduced ' among them. Leafcs granted, of a 
proper dura^cion, and manufaduring yiliages eftablifhed. 


Cwclufton. — It is hoped that the account of the miniftcr 
of the pariih will render it unneccfiary to make any ofc of 
this imperfed iketch, which is only wrote in a hurry firom 
mere memoryi by a perfon who refidcd there, in a public 
character, about the year 1781, but who could not think, 
with patience, that there (hould be any blank in the Statiftjcal 
Account of Scotland^ if it w^s in his power to fupply iu 


Sf tarpi m 


£y a Friend to StatiJUcal Inquiries^ 

/ Situation^ bfc, 

^T'HE parifh of Largs is fituated in the diftrift of Cuii 
X ninghame, odc of the divifions of the coutity of Ayr^ 
at the northern eztremityi about thirty miles due weft from 
Glafgov. It extends aboiir nine miles from Kelly-burn^ 
which fcparates it on the north from the parifli of lonerkip^ 
in the (hire of Renfrew, alonjj the Frith of Clyde, which 
bounds It on the weft» in a line nearly parallel with the iiic of 
Bute, to the parifb of Weft Kilbride, which bounds it on the 
iouth at a little diftaoce from the village of Fairly. From the 
village of Largs, it extends about 7 or 8 mile^ to the hill 
of Stake, the fummit of an extenfive ridge of hills running 
from Greenock to Kilwinning, and fcparating the pariQi of 
Largs from the adjacent country on the eaft. This circum- 
fiance, occafioned the common liAying among the inhabicanti 
of the inland pariQies, *• Out of the world, and into the 

No parifh in the weft of Scotland, and few in the High- 
lands, can afford iiich a variety of beautiful and. romantic 


* The StatiAical Account of Largs, printed in the It volume, 
Being, rather fliort and defedive, the valuable addition to it, 
herewith printed, was fefnt by an intelligent and reijpedtable 
friend to this great undcrtaJung. 

' 504 Siatiflkal Account 

fcencs. The hills, which begin to rife in the ncighboorisg 
pariflies of Greenocki Kilmacolm, Lochwinnoch, Kiibim^, 
and Dairy, meet m a kind of general fummit at the eaftern 
boundary of Largs, frocii which they gradually delceod 
as they approach the (liore, till they terminate at laft in a va- 
riety of abrupt declivities, fome of which Ire almoft perpefl- 
dicuiar, as if paft of their bafe had been torn away by force. 
Notwithdanding the vad height of thefe hills, they srt 
covered, during the greater part of the year, with verdure, 
and afford fuc^h excellent paftufe for flieep, and fome of 
them for larger cattle, as can hardly be found eliewhere in 
fimiiar fituafions. 

The quantity of heath, even on the higlteft hilis, is com* 
paratWely fmall ; and» from indtfputable marks k appears^ thstt 
ibme of them have once been cultivated* 

&f/, Jgriculttirt^ and Produce — The whole extent o£ th^ 
parifli of Largs may, from fevcral fiirveys, none of which are 
entirely accurate, be cftimated at 191743 acres. . Tiie efiate 
of Br.fbane alone, with the foes belonging to it, contains 
9,748 acres, a falls, and 27 perches* The araUe lands in 
the parifh, confift of about 4200 acres, rather more than OTtt 
fifth of the whole. The reft of it is now wholly appropria-^ 
. ted to pafture, though a far greater proportion beafs evident 
marks of the plough, About a thoufand acres df the highcx' 
grounds are of little value ; the reft, howcverj is excellent 
for feeding- (beep and rearing young cattle. In the lower 
grounds a number of cattle are fattened, fo as to find a ready 
market in Greenock and other neighbouring towns. One 
ftock farm, the property ©f the^Earl of Glafgow, yields very 
near 500 1. yearly, neat rent ; and fcveral farmers," whofe 
cattle arc fed upon the pafture grounds only, make €onfide»» 
able (jvaotitics of butter and chcefe. 


iThe foil- of the arable grounds is of two kldds ; that on 
the fodth of Nodefdale water, comprehendiog Lord Gla& 
gow'teftatCi and great part of Mr Brifbane's, is light and 
fimdy, producing tolerable crops with little culture, if the 
ieafon be not immoderately dry, 'whereas, that on the north 
fide is a light red kind of earth lying on rocky foundations 
of the iame colour, and inferior to the former^ both for pa(^ 
tore, and tillage. 

Neither lime nor coals, worth working, have been dlf- 
covered in the pariih, and cannot be obtained from any place 
nearer than Stevenfon, which is about 1 1 miles diftant from 
the fduth end of the parifh. Lime, therefore, as it can onljr 
be procured at great expence, is but little ufed. The moft 
common. manure is a mixture of fea-weed and dung, or dung 
itfelf, where fea-weed cannot t)e obtained. 

The fields thus improved^ and after lying five or fix years 
in pafture, yield tolerable crops ; and though the duaotity of 
oats and barley, produced by theft means, is, in general lefs^ 
than In fome of the neighbouring pariChes, the meal is gene^ 
rally equal ; a quarter of oats yielding generally 20 pecks of 
meal, Ibmetimes more. The great obftacle to any confider* 
able improvements in agriculture is a fpecies of trafiSc in 
horfes peculiar to this* parifh; 

Farmers, mechanics, and even fervants, who can dfiPord td 
buy a horie, are engaged in it. Some individuals have fi^onti 
10 to ii dozen of horfes, fome of them worth 1^ 1. or 20 t. 
for the purpofe of hiring them to the farmers in the neigh^ 
bouring pariOies, from 20 to 30 miles round. They are 
tiiually let out from a guinea to 40 s. according to their 
quality, from the firft of February, fometimes to the 24th of 
March, but moft commonly to the 16th of April, when they 
arc all returned. Previous to this period, there arc few 
horfes in the whole parifli \ but after ic there arc fo many in 

VoL.XVIL 3 S every 

5o5 StatiftUal Account 

ereiy part of it as are fafficient for the purpoie of plowing' 
harrowing, and performing all the operations of huflnndfy 
m two or three weeks. They are afterwards either turned 
h>o{e into the higher grounds^ or let out for hire during 
the fununer feafon. 

Another pra£ticey which operates as an obftacle to agricol- 
titre» is that of importing oats from Ireland and the adjacent 
iflandsi and manufeftoring them at homo. This fuppUes the 
inhabitants with plenty. The ftn'plus finds a ready market 
in Greenock, and the refufe contributes to feed the hories. 

Unlefs the former of thefe practices, which iS| in fbme 
neafurei encouraged by the latter, be abandoned, confider- 
able improvements in agriculture can hardly be expefled, 
and the nature of the foil can ftarcely admit of great im. 

The arable grounds yield, in general, tolerable crops of 
oats and barley ; they rival every other m producing great 
quantities of potatoes, and of the beft quality. The orchards 
are, indeed, inferior ; but their gardens, in general, fuperior 
to moft in the fame latitude. 

An attempt to reclaim fome of the lands in the north end 
of the parifli, which are covered with heatb, might be worth 
the experiment, as they are not fo high as to preclude aU 
hopes of fuccefs. . 

The old Scotch plough is generally ufed. Mr Hill at 
Kclburn ufcs the chain-plough, with Small's improved moul* 

Population — Largs, though an extcnfive parifli, does not 
coi^tain a great proportion of arable ground. It has no com- 
merce, except a fliarc in the coafting trade. It contains but 
few inhabitants. According to an accurate calculation made 


of Largs. s^ 

latdfy there are^ in the village of Largs, Men 243, Women 

259, in all 502. Men. Women. . T^ul. 

Fairly 60 72 132 

Country parts 171 222 39I 


Number of females more than males 


In the year 1756, the inhabitants were faid to have been 
1164. There has fince been a decreafe, owing to feveral 
fmall farms, being comprehended in greater ones, and a num^ 
ber evacuated to enlarge the plantations at Kelburn. 

From accurate information, 5 x perfons have left the parifli 
fince 1791, more than have fettled in it during that period. 

In the village of Largs there are, 

Surgeon • . . - i 

Weavers ... - - 70 

Carpenters . • - <- 13 

Cordwainers • ^ • . 7 

Taylors .... 8 

Smiths - • . » 6 

Coopers «... 6 

Mafons - - » • " S 

Sailors - • - m ' *j 

Butchers . . - • 2 

Inn- keeper . - • - i 

Ale-houfes .... 4 

. Carriers - • «^ • - 2 ♦ 

In the village of Fairly, 
Inn*keeper « « * i 


• There arc two Packets to CUfgow bclopgiog to Largs^ 



Statifticat Account 







r ' - 




















• • 


5 • 


• • 



Mr end ClimaU. — As the parifli lies near the Tea, and is /iir- 
rounded by very high hills, it has generally its full propov- 
tion of raiDi which is very f^rviceable to the light faody foil| 
of which the greatcft part of the parifh confifts. 

The air at Largs is commonly pure* The thick fogs 
which often fiirround Glafgow, Paiflefi and the adjacent 
' country, frequently coyer the l^ills, but feldom vifit the low 
countries. In Hme of froft, this circumftancc . is peculiarly 
remarkable, while in other places the air is thick and Ymj^ 
here the iky is clear and fecene. Many of the fickly inha- 
bitants of Glafgow and Paiflcy have felt fenfible advantages 
from the air of Largs ; fomc of them have been entirely re- 
covered, and yet the pari£h affords, comparatively, fewia- 
fiances of longevity. 

The chief old perfons in it are. Age. 

William Crawford • . • 86 

James Martin, Largs - « * 8c 

Robert Adami Kipping-burn * • 84 

Alexsinder Hair, Outer* wards - - 87 

In 1754, James Hendry died at Tourgill, aged 103 years. 
^Jut if the inbabitapts of Largs do not live longer than thofc 

- of Largs. 509 

-of other parifhcs, they certainly enjoy better health. Medi- 
cal affiftance is fcldom ncccffary, unlcfs for thofc who have 
been infcAed clfcwhcre. 

CuitU. — Owing to a circumftance formerly mentioned, 
there are probably more horfes in this parilh than in moft 
others of the fame extent. As they are continually chang- 
ing their paftures, and frequently their owners, it is impot 
fiblc to calculate their number with prccifion* From the 
moft accurate and authentic information, there are at prefeqb 

in the pariih, 

309 horfes 
2009 black cattle 
3460 (beep. 
The fliecp ye moftly of the Golloway breed. A few of the 
larger kind of Englifli fliccp have been lately tried, and have 
turned to good account. 

The wool is generally fold to the people of Kilmarnock, 
from 6sii to 12 s. per ftonc, and about 570 ftonc is fold an- 

It may be added, that fomc horfes and black cattle are fed 
in Kelburn parks after the firft ftock is removed. 

Roadsy tff^.— The great ^oad from Glafgow to Port-Pa- 
trick runs through the whole extent of the parifli. Formerly, 
}t went over Tome high roads towards the north end of it ; 
but, about five years ago, a new road was made from Skel- 
murly to LargSj^ along the fhore. The expence of this is 
defrayed by a toll at KcUy-bridge, rented at 7a I. 15 s. The 
converfion of ftatute labour is 47 1. 10 s. The roads is kept 
}n good repair } there are bridges upon it, three of which are 
^tely built. 


^ I o Siatijiieal Accoura 

The reft of the pariQi, howcTer, is in grott want of roads» 
There is no private road, of any great extent, kept in crca 
tolerable repair, except the road to Bri(bane, which was 
made, and is ftiU kept in repair at the proprietor's ezpence, 
though it is the only communication with the upper end of 
the parifli where it joins Kilmacolm. 

It is propofed to make two new roads ; one over the? hills| 
fo as to communicate with Kilbirny on the caft, and Dsifay 
on the fouth eaft, and another through to KUmacoloi on 
the north eaft. Thefe improvements, which have been 
often talked of, but never executed, would add confiderably 
to the value of the lands, and convenience of the inhabitants, 
by opening a communication with many parts of the adjacent 
country, at prefent, in a great meafure, innacceffible, except 
by foot pafiengers, or horfes accuftomed to the roads. On 
the fouth and north of the village of Largs are two large ri* 
Tulets or burns* The water of Nodefdale to the north, and 
Gogo to the fouth. 

Nodefdale is a very impetuous ftream. It runs through 
Mr Briibane's picafure grounds, where it has often commit- 
ted great depradations. Mr Briibane has frequently endea^ 
voured to imbank it, and has been at great pains and expence 
in railing mounds of earth to turn its courfe, but in vain. 

As foon as the heavy rains come, it overcomes all ob(buc« 
tionsy and, running with unufual impetuofity through a light 
and gravely foil, has, in the courfe of a few years, deftroyed 
many acres of land to the proprietor* 

Fi/beries.'^Tht falmon caught on this coaft are of the heft 
^ality. Since the fifhermen came from the north country 
great quantities have been caught, which are moftly fold at 
Greenock and Fort*Glafgow. The falmon filhing is at pre- 
ftfit rented at 27 1. Mr Briibane's proportion is 20 1. The 

feft i$ Lord Qiafgow's and Colonel Montgomery's* 


tf Largs: 5U 

It would prodace much more profit Were they not difper- 
fed in fo many places, and at fuch a diftance from each 

Mackerel, haddocks, whitings, and cod, are caught oa 
every bank in large quantities. A fingle boat, with four or 
£jre hands, has been known to take twenty Aone of them in 
a day« In 1793s when a number of boats were employed, it 
IS computed, that, for the fpace of a month, they took, at aa 
average, 1 8 ftone every day. 

They are fold, at the village of Largs, from i s. 6 d. to a s. 
per ftone ; and, when carried to Paifley and the neighbour^ 
ing towns, they bring at the rate of 3 s. 4 d. 

Confiderable quantities of herrings were formerly taken on 
this coaft, and fmaller quantities are ftill taken at a little di& 
tance from it. 

Pr^rr/l0r/.— The proprietors in this pariih are, the Earlof 
Glafgow, Thomas Brifbane of Briibane, Colonel Hugh Mont- 
gomery of Skelmurly, William Blair of Blair, and Thom» 
King of Blackhoufe, befides William Wilfon of Hailley, and 
Daniel Frafcr of Hangenheugh, who hold of the family of 
Briibane, and thirteen feuers upon the eftate of Briibane. 

Of the more confiderable proprietors, Mr Brifbane of Bri& 
bane is the only refiding one. 

There have been few changes of property in this parifli. 
The lands of Kelbum have been in pofieiBon of the £arl of 
Glafgow's anceAors upwards of 500 years. 

Colonel Montgomery's anceftor was a fecond fon of Alex- 
ander Lord Montgomery, wl)io lived in 1440. They conti« 
nued, in a direA male line, till the eldeft daughter, and hcir^ 
cfs of Sir Robert Montgomery of Skelmurly, married AIex« 
ander Montgomery of Colsfield. She was mother to the 
preftat proprietor. 


514 '^ Statiftical ^Account 

. Mr.Briibaoe of Brifbane^ chief of that name. Of an U* 
cient family in Renfrewflnrcj has had /omc of the land fad 
now pofTeflcf, belonging to the efiate, upwards of 200 jfan« 
About two years ago^ the part of the kite James Banoy. 
tan of Kelly} lying in thin parilhi was fold, after having been 
upwards of 300 years in the family. The fmall property, of 
Haill^, the pofleffion of Mr William Wilfoni has belonged 
to his fore&thers fince 1516, as appears by a ieifine of Alex- 
ander Mafter of Semple to James Wilfon. 

Valuation^ isfc: — The valuation of this parifli is 3801 L 
Scotch. The real value is about 3500!, Sterling. 

The value of land has rlfen confiderably of late* 
la 1754} the parks of Kelburn rented • L. 149 6 3 
In the year 1794 • « • -.47^50 

There b a fmall indofurei called Fairley Mill Park} con- 
taining about 9 acreS} 2 of which are very bad pafiurc \ it 
gives 41 1. yearly rent. 

Hangenheugh and RoutdonburU} feu from Briibane eflate^ 
rented in 1762 at - • • L. 9 o o 

In 1794, at L. 52 o o 

Likewife the fmall property of Hailley was, in 1764, rent- 9I. ; yieldS} in 17941 60L per annum to the proprietor, 
in fettlng it out in fmall lots to the inhabitants of the village 
of Largs for potatoes. 

Churcbi isfc. — The church is an old building, ereded be* 1 
fore the Reformation} but at what period is uncertain. In 
the north fide is an aile, containing an elegant monument} 
belonging to Colonel Montgomery of Skelmurly. It forms 
an arch and two compartments} fapported by 18 pillars^ of 
the Corinthian order, furmounted with cherubims. Above 
the arch is a fmall pyramid} finiihed at top with a globe. ^ It 

ofLargt. 513 

Is very rkhlj carved, and with great tafte, confidering the 
time in which it was built, namely, in 1636. 

On the roof of the aile are painted the 12 figns of the; 
zodiac, and feveral views of the hoofe of Skelmurly ; with 
the premature death of ^ lady of the family, who was killed 
by the kick of a horfe. 

It is likewife adorned witJMeyeral tcf cs of Scripmrei and 
various efcutcheons of the different members of that ancient 

Below is a vault, built by Sir Robert Montgomery, who, 
becoming ferious in the afteir part of his life, repaired hither 
at flight for devotional exerciies i by thcfe. means burying' 
himfelf as it were alive. 

There are two niches in the walls for coffins ; and Sir 
Robert himfclf| with his lady, Margaret Douglas, daughter 
to Sir James Douglas of Drumlanng, anceitor to the Uuke 
pf Qucci){bcrry, lie in two leaden coffins. ' 

She died in 1624. On Sir Robert's is the fallowing in- 
fcription : 

Iffe mitri praemortives fui : Faipfunera^ 
fraeripuu Untcuyn^ tdqui Caejarium 
Exemplar tnUr tot mortaUs fecutus. 

This plainly alludes to the Emperor Charles V. who had 
his funeral obfequies performed before his death. 

Colonel Montgomery, the hneal dependent of Srr Robert, 
is patron \ the Reverend Mr Stephen Rowan, mmifter. 

At tl^e Revolution and eftablilhment of the Church of 
Scotland, in 1689, Mr John Wilfon was fettled. He died 
in 16991 aged 44. He was fucceeded, in 1 701, by Mr An- 
drew Cummin, who died* in 1762, aged 88, in the 6ift year 
of his miniftry. Upon his death followed Mr Gilbert Lang,' 
who had been fettled as his affiftant and fuccefibr firom 1756. 

Vol, XVII. 3 T He 

514 Statijiical Accoum 

He died iQ X79I^ in the 66th jev of his age. His faccefioc 
15 the prefent ificocnbent. 

The ftipend is 8 chaMers, befides half a chalder for cooi- 
mimion elementSi commuted tor money according to the 
fiars of ihe College ot GUfgow, 

The glebe is 7 acres and a half, arable; bot no gra6* with 
a good oynfe, fituated at abou^ quarter of a mile north of 
the church. The poors funds Vc 103^ i. befides the week- 
ly coUe&ions, which are, at an average, about 40 L fer 

On the roll there are 20 people, who recehre froin one 
guinea yearly to 4 1. ; three weekly pcnfioners, at a s. 6 d« 
per week \ befides 2 1 poor, who receive fmall fums, as their 
exigencies require* 

John Morrice of Craig, ETq-, who was bom in this parifli^ 
and acquired an opulent fortune in the Weft Indies, left 
50 !• to the poor in 1788. 

The late Countefs^tiowager of Glafgow, with that huma- 
nity and goodnefs which fo eminently didinguiffaed her cha- 
racter, when (he left this parifh in l^i^t upon the death of 
her Lord, ordered lol. per annum to be diftributed althb 
difcretion of the minifter. 

The funds of the parifh fchool are liberal. Mr Hannibal 
Hall, furgeoo at Dublin, a native of this pariib, left to the 
fchool 1 751* The mafter^s falary is about 20 L He has 
from 60 to 70 fcholars, from whom he receives quarterly, 
For reading - • • - 1 s. 6 d. 

For writing - '- - 2s. 

Arithmetic - - - 2 f. 6 d. 

Latin - - - - 3s. 

The prefent fchoolmafter is Mr John Macqueen. There 
are likewife two fmalier fchools at the fouth and north ends 
f)f the pariQij ^^ ^^^ village of Fairley, and at Skelnuirly. 


ffLargi. $i^ 

The ^eater number of the inhabitants are of the Efta« 
bliflied Church. About 50 famtlied are Burghers ; und^ to 
the honour of both parties they IHre together ib mutual 
amity, without exhibiting, in almoft any inftance, the fmatU 
eft alienation of aSe£Uon on account of different religioBr 

Aftiiquitief^^^There are feveral caftles^ and honfes of con« 
liderable antiquity, in the parifli. Skelmuriy caftie was buiU 
in J 502, and had a new addition in 1636. 

The bki taftle of Knock was built above 300 years ago. 
It was the pi^perty of an ancient family, of the name of 
Frafer, defcended from John Frafer, third fon of Hugh Fra« 
fer of Lovat, and his wife Ifabel, daughter to Sir David 
Weems of Weems* They had a grant of thcfe lands from 
King Robert HI. in l4P2t It is now in roms, and belongs 
to Mr Brifbane of Brifbane. 

The caOle of Fairley, formerly poflefled by the ancient 
family of Fairley^ faid to be defcended from a natural fon of 
]£iog Robert II« is now alfo in ruins. It was built in 15211 
and is uqw th^ property of the Earl of Olafgow. The old 
psttt of Kilburn-houfb was built in 158 1. 

In BriAane-hotife is an old chair, made of oak, dated 
i397v The arms of the family are carted on the back, 
which arc. 

Sable, a cheveron, cheque or and gules between three 
cofhions of the fecond, with the initials of J. 6. and E. H. 
This chair, beibg ftill in excellent prefervation, may ferre for 
inany centuries to fhow the name ^nd family of Brifbane to 
fucceeding generations. 

There are two moats, or mounds of earth« at each end d^ 
the Tillage of Larga, of that kind called Lav-hiils, ar the 
diftadce of fetir miles np the water of Nodefaale, at a plada 
caUed Tour^ilI« 

5i6 StariftUdt Acauni 

There is one of a fimilar appearADce» hot much hatfgtt i if 
< IS now generally thought to be natural. 

On the top of the Knock- hill is the ^rcfiige of a fmaU 
camp, with three regular entrenchments^ Abo^ Hadlc;^ 
and direftly oppoiite to the camp juft mentioned, nboot tbs 
diftance of three miles, are the remains of an ancient fortifi- 
cation, which is ftiU called the Caftle-hilL 

There are iikewife feveral tumufi in the pari(b> {(en^ralif 
believed to have been raifed after the battle of Largs, ovar 
the bodies of the flaio. This battk was fought in the reign 
of King Alexander IIL tn 1263, between the Scots and 
Norwegians. The Scotch army was commanded by Alem* 
ander btewart, grandfather to the firft Monarch of that &• 
mily. The Norwegians or Danes, under Haeo their King, 
were routed wijth great ilaughter, and m^ny of them taltcft 
prifoners. Haco himfelf efcaped, with great dificulty, %o 
his (hips, * 

The field of battle is ftill <hown. A large plain, to the 
fouth)vard of the village of Largs, is ftippofed to have been 
. the fcene of adkion. Cairns of (tones were on k, formed^ k 
was faid, over pits, into which the bodies of the Qain were 
thrown. A courfe granite (^one, about 10 feet high, ftood 
in the centre of this 6ddy fnppofcd to be eredbd over the 
body of a chieftain. It has now fallen down. 

The Earl of Glafgow and Mr Bn(bane had, each of them, 
Danilh axes found in the field. Mr firj(bane prefemed one 
.of them to the Society of Antiquarians for Scotland* 

Mr Wilfon of Hailiey, having occafion for ftones to m« 
clofe part of his grounds in the year 1772, opened a fmaU 
hill, called Margaret^s Law, fuppofed to be natural^ bat 
found to be a coUedion of ftones, containing upwards of 
15,000 cart loads; in the centre of which were diicovered 
five ftone coffins, two of them containing five fcttUs each, 


. KrilU : oth|gr. humaa bones* and feyeral eartlien urns*. It is 
generaiiy believed they had beeo there fince the battle of 
Largs. .The name Hailley feems to give countenance to 
this ^cot^eifhire, being derived from the old Sa^on word had 

In |h^ parifh of Daby, on the footh-eaft boundary df 
: Largs> is a fai m, called Camp^hiU^ where the Scotch army is 
iaid to havp been encamped previous to the engagement*. 

Between < hat and the. village of Lar^s is Routdonburn^ 
fi^pf)i€dj to derive its name from a detachment of Haco's 
army being routed there j and Dom is a contraction for 
Dane* What renders this more probable is, that, on the 
bank of ^he Routdonbuin, is a large cairn of fiones ; upon 
removing part of which| lately, a ftone coffin was found* 
Between that and the lea is Burly-gate -, a little lower, in the 
Earl of . Glssfg9«'s plantations, is Killing'^craig ; and farther 
fouchward is Kipptng*burn, where, it is faid, a number of 
the flying Danes jvcre met by Sir Robert Boyd, anceftor to 
4h^.£arl of Kilmarnock, afterwards the friend and confident 
of the famous King Robert Bruce, and put to the fword. 

Thefe names are a kind of confirmation of a battle having 
happened at this place. 

Mifcellaneous Remarks, — The inhabitants of this parifli are^ 
in general, fober, induftrious» and economical. Though 
they eojoy very few conveniencies for making money, many 
of them are pofilfiTed of confiderable iums. 
, Almoft all of them ftudy to provide for futurity; and 
thus they are enabled to make the moft of their fituation. 
Accordingly, they are in general richer than many in the 
adjacent pariihes, whoiis advantages are greater. 

Ihephgue vifited Largs in 1644, and carried ofiT great 
numbers % among others, Mr Aie»nder Smith, then mini- 
.fior of thepariiht 



^ t S SiMifiital jfcmni 

There is a tfadition^ tb»t» before hkiwli, Ike nflefttf 
that he (liotild be the laft who would die bf that difeabi 
%hith ha^ipcned accordingly *. 

At the Outcerwardst a farm in the north^eaft extreioiqf 
of Brifbane edatCi on a fmall holmi lying on the waccr of 
Nodefdale^ were difcovered the foundattona of federal fmiB, 
biiildingS) faid to be the remains of huts» to which tha snfaa* 
bitants of the village of Largs, and adjacent country, retiied 
to avoid the infedllon. There is In Largs a weekly market 
on Thurfdays, and four annual fairs^ the moft remarkahk 
of which is St Colucnba'^ day» vulgarly caHed CsniV sbf, 
which is held on the fecond Tuefday of June. 


* tiis tomb is (lill to be feen, about half a mile ab9Te Brtf- 
bane-boufe, with the following infcription on a plaiu done, in 
which, it is faid, there is an aildfion to the forementioned tta- 
ditioQ, t^und the edge. — Here lyeth the Reverend Alexander 
Smith, minifter of Largs, a faithful minifter of the gofpelf re- 
moved by the peftilence 1644. 


Conditns tn 
Tnmulo hoc jacco 
Senexque; nempo 
Anais juyenis, 
Sed pietate 
Senez, Divins 
Elogoto, caelef* 
tia dogmata 
Vide abaerfi 
Tenebras, meno-i 
tibu6 ore tonans 
Haefil ammo 
tcT vera nialo. 
rum collavies» 
Verbis improba 
Fado meis. 

Tbis fiir is famous over the weft of Scotland, and con- 
tinues from Monday to Tburfday. Great numbers of people^ 
from 40. or 50 miles round, relbrt to it, iome for buiinels^ 
and foihe for plealure. Upwards of 100 boats are often to 
be feen, en. this occafion, nding in the Bay* 

The whole week is a kind of jubilee to the inhabitants, 
and a fcene of diverfion to others* 

Si^ch a vaft multitude cannot be accommodated with 
bejds ; and the Highlanders, m particular, do «ot leem to 
think fuch accommodation neceflary* They fpend the whole 
night in ruftic fports, caroufing and da^ icing on the green 
to the found of the bagpipe, tvery one who cbooles is al* 
lowed to join in this, which forms thetr principal atuulemcnt. 

The candidates for the dance are generally lb numerous^ 
that it is kept up without iutermiffion during the whole timcv 
of the fair. 

This was formerly the general meeting place of UighJanders 
and Lovianders, for the purpole of exchanging the commo- 
dities which each of them could ip^re for others of greater 

Since (hops ha^e been opened, and pedlars bayc vifited 
iht different iflands, this lair has gradually decreafcd ; it is 
fiillf however, better frequented than any in the country. 
Few fcenes can afford pbjcfts more worthy of attention to 
the philofopher, who wiihes to contemplate human nature 
in its fimplelt and moft undifguifed forms, or to the benevo- 
lent man, who rejoices to lee tbat a great part of humaa 
happinefs belongs to the virtuous poor. 

Conclufion, — Fairlcy ruad is one of the moft convenient in 
the Frith of Clyde Vcflcls of any burthen may ride in it at 
all feafo'ns^ and loofe from it with any wind. 

Oppofite ( 

5^0 Smiftteal Accduni 

Oppofite the village of Largs, the water is federal fiit1i<»iji 
deep aliDoft at the very (hore. The inhabitants have genei- 
rally a tafte for the fea ; and many of them have moner, 
which might be employed to good purpofe in trade. 

All circumflances contribute to render Largs proper for a 
fea-port town* The only obftades are, the want of a bar- 
boar, and good roads through the country, to facilitate the 
conveyance of goods by land. Were thefe to be removedi 
fome kind of manufadure to be eftabiilhed^ and an aA of 
Parliament procured for the roads, levying harbour dues, &c» 
the numbers and wealth of the inhabitants would at once be 
increafed j and this would operate as a ftimulus to the im- 
provement of the foil. A place poficffing fo many beauties 
and natural advantages, with the addition of trade and ma- 
nufa£hires, would have indocemente not only to retain the 
number of inhabitants, but to allure others to fettle there. 
If the parifh, however, has not the advantage of more opu- 
lent diftriAs, in trade, mannC^ures, and commerce, it is en- 
tirely free of the vices which luxury introduces \ and. In this 
troublefome and diftraAed period^ the inhabitants, witii the 
exception of a few individuals, may be truly faid both tQ 
fear God and honour their King. 



(t^ouKTT OF Perth. — Stnod o^ Pe&tb and Stir< 

LIMO.— PKBiBTT£kT e? DONK-ftUn.)'. 

* • * » 

\ ^ Situation and EttUni. 

I^T^£ p^llOh .<tf Lethc9d7 if fitnated ill the £buot]r ol 
. X Perth> withia the bounds of the fjned of Perth zn^ 
jStivliogi M»d presbytery of Dunkeld. Its extent, in a dittSt 
line from eaft to weft> i» five miles i ito greateft breadth froift 
/omlvtQ. Qorthi a mile wd an half* jLt i$ bounded on the 
taft by the Swn of Lonaii> Which divides it from the parifh 
ofx .BMstfiW9i^% on the fouth by Caputh, and on the weft 
and north by Giunie^ palriQies. From the eaftern cxtremiry 
the groond riies gently wellward the whole length of the pa- 
rifh, except on the weft pointy where it falls fuddeoly for 
about half a mile. The river Tay formerly wafhed the fbuth 
.Weft fide of this parifh* It has n9w retired fouthward to 
the diftance of nearly two miles,, by cuts, made at different 
periods, leaving behind it, in ieveral places^ yiiible traces of 
its former courfe. 

Sot/ and C/imate. — ^The weft half of the piri(h is a black 
mould inclining to a rcddiih clay, excepting fome fmall cor« 
ners^ exceedingly rich^ and well adapted to all kinds of crops* 

Vol- XVII. 3 U Towards 

^^^ Statj^icat Jkcmii 

T^llf^t t^. caft» -tbc foil b(ecome$ bhckeri more i 
kft in^uAive^ ;, Ff0Oi tb( fouthern expofiire of the psrifiv 
t|ifi cfij^^ate b perbajA a Utile mltder ebaa tbat of the patifliii 
]m«)6diatdy a^jobing. The difference, hornter^ k ooe loat 
teriaU ,.]^am(l: fOmmeneef ofic^y in the hegjcmiflg of Sep* 

tember, and it over by the middle of October. ^ -^^ 


^ . . . . r ' •• ' 

&/i///^rirtift«ffw-rThirtyyeari i«9, the befthftdiiii 
the parifb were .uader flieep pafture, sMid from m bai b»eid» 
and prdbaUf onflulfiil aMoa^eixieal^ yielded but a poor jit^ 
tance to the pi'pprietor^ aod but a ^'ery fcasty fiAfifleflee^o 
the teojiiit. Since that period, Ifaeep have been faaiBBMk 
entirely ; the ufe of marl has been adopfed i the vafteteidr 
have been cultivated % the rental of the parilb itfeUedi the- 
coaditjon of the letiants melimrted j and the Acg tf lUft 
cdtintry entitdy changed. Bot rapid u thil i inp i uteiue up 
h^ been, it wa$ much longer of hamg nachoddWpidtar 
flate, than a jadicioni treatitient of the ieil ?vioaB;^lm»3 
brbtightit. IlbobftroarioaispviociprflftotoatiMU^c^ 
a miftakc rerpeOing the qiiaUtiet of mad s atodiail^emv^tlg 
thcfyftcm of eropphig^i Experience has nev^voaaQ, MB* 
there is no nutritive quality in mari^ tiiat ie a^.oiilfq«-%'2 
fiimulos to the foil, whkh, if not eorkbed wiA^difikiWe" 
mj^nre, it foon exhaufts, and reduces to a fine of aMblute 
fterility. Want of attentionr to due ctrmuiiftaike^ oonHdei^ 
ab^y retarded the improvements hi agiicidtaiebi t&ts, a^^tlT 
as in many other partiofthecottntry. lite hiilcb, wfeen firft 
marled, proditised abwdaiftfy for Jeverat yeuv wfthoat any 
other manure; J apd, while they contiBned to do fo, were kpt 
ill a fiate of conftfrni (iUege, and oafs frequently fown in petpo- 
tual fttcceinon. Ffiom ihis improper man^ement, the nmrf* 
ttoos part of the feii was exbanftcd^ and required a reft <^ 


tf Lethindfi "" 523 

flBwy TtUti in Older to recmk itk pr6Iiflc powers. Zvtn 
lliii M^oft irom tilbge was not fcllowed with any outerial 
i<wnttg0* Artificial grafis w«re fet unknowns and the 
firottodii tfciia ledMod, derived bot little nouriAment ftom 
tlio«itii^aodfcaatf prodoAiont of the foil. Thefe mif- 
taketi howereri have been difirovered, and their effeds have 
now^ in a goikl meafure, ceafed. The neceffity of following 
aiarl wiib'dttng b admitted on all hands, and the introduc- 
tioa af aftificial graflei into the fyftem of cropping univcr- 
fidly adopted. 

But tboi^h this prafifce has been fellowed with very be« 
Btfickl conieqoences, there is yet much room for further im- 
provement. Perhaps tht rotation of crpps b not the bcft 
that might be ^vi(ed» and the proportion of green crop to 
that of grain b ftill too fmall. No uniform rotation b adop- 
ted ui the parilh, nor is it always invariable on the fame 
Hemm Whhns any thing like a fyftem b pnrfued, the fol. 
lowing b cbe moft general t Oats, barley, oats^ green crop^ ^ 
or. faUow^.oats, barley with grafs fcfeds. Probably oats, 
girew cropi. bhrtey with grafs feeds, would be a better rota* 
tioiik The green crop in thb parifh confifts ofpotatoes» 
twmips> peafe, Unt, nearly in equal proportions. There has 
beefi no Wheat fown in thb parifli till within thefe few years, 
nor b it yet cultivated to any extent, though the foil is by' 
no means unfavourable to it. Thb is panly owing to the 
influence of eoftom, and the fize of the farms. A great part 
of the parifh is divided into fmall forms of about fix, eight,' 
or ten acres. Thefe are generaDy occopied by tradefmen, 
wbofe ideas are not fufficientiy enlarged kit following the moft 
approved modes of huibandry, and who confider their farms 
rather as a matter of convenience, than of profit. But if thb 
cb'Cjsmftance b left fiivourable to agricultural im^ovements } 



j>4 Siaii/iical Actomt 

the lofs is perhaps^more than faaljuoced bf itt teiefitbl inAii 
eact upon popqUtioo and morale* • By dWiding tkeir ticMr 
betwixt the labours bf the field, ^d their occupations within 
' 4oors, they are vigorous and healthy, their otfspriog i 
dingly arc numerous and robdft \ they grow up in the ; 
of temperance and induftryi and are firangers tothole coorflf - 
of diiupation and vipCi to which the youth in great towns are 
ever expofed, and often fail a facrifice. 

Produce. — ^ThU parifh produces, annually, 1&14 bolbDf 
oats, I iOQ bolls of barley, 100 bolls of wheait, 100 bolb of 
peafe, Linlithgow meafurcj 250 ftone of lint, AmAetdam^ 
^nd there are, bcfides, from 40 to 50 s^rres under poratoe and 
turnip crops. The returns from the feed to oats and barley^ 
^ from 5 to 8, in wheat from to to 12. The produce, ia 
lint is fro m 20 to 25 ftone per acre, and in potatoes from 4a 
to 69 boils* 

Woodhfub* — There are io this parifli from 50. to do acrea 
of natural wood, confifting chiefly of oak, birchj and hazle, 
which, from Its fituation on the higheft ground of the dsf- 
tri^Vf ^nd being furrounded with rich corn fields, Ixith fanes 
and beautifies the fcene. It is cut generally once in 20 ycsn> 
and is valua^ble, chiefly on account of the bark. There is^ 
befidea this, a confidcrablf quantity of afh around the 
farm houfes, Tufiicient, perhaps^ for fupplying the parifh wkh 
the implements of hufbandry. 

Livi Stocl.-^Horfes.^Thcrt are in this pariih 104 horfesf 
Sincq the introdu£tion of two horfe ploughs, th« breed has 
been confiderably improved. They are now of a middle fize^ 
aad Icll at from 12 1. to liV each. A few more are reared 

• M 

in- tlic parift than are necdi&ry for the {torporci of agf h:u1« 

JMiKi C^^.~The number of black c^ttk is 308. They 
«re ralbcr of a OnajU) fi^^ a^od arc generally fold irhen be- 
tween two and three years old, at firoiD 3 1. to 5 1. cachk Th^ 
fanners depend^ in fome nneafurei on the fale of their fuper- 
Bumerary horfes and cattle for the paynaent of their rents. 

Rifital. — The lands are valued in the cefs books of th^ 
county at 1260 U 12s. Scotch. Ihe real rent is 950 L 

P^pulai^n. — The number of inhabitants In this pariOi, io«^ 
cliKiing all ages, is 367. The average number of births an* 
Dumlly u 12* No regiller of deaths has been kept. The 
population in 1755 was 346 fouls ^ fo that there is a fioalt 

CharaBtr rfibi P/i^/.— They are fimple in their manners^ 
l^ragaly induftrioufi and contented with their fituation. Their 
religious ideas are lomewhat confined^ but their morals axtt 
snimpeachabb^ According to my inforoiationi nothing has 
Mcurred^ in the memory of man^ which has been the fubjef); 
of a criraifial profecution. ' And, if tbeic religious koowIedgQ 
is not very extenfive, they are flill lefs verfant in political 
creeds. The fpeculations of this nat^re^ which have lately 
fo much engaged the attention of mankindi and which bavo 
been dilcufled by all parties with fo great warmth and un*» 
charitaUenefSy are here treated with much indifference^ 
They indeed hear, and talk of reforms, and revolutions, and 
]doi% and Gonfpifacies, and. armed aifociations, but without 
heing the lealt alarmed, and without feeling thcmfdve» dll^ 


^t6 Staii/Kcal AcrnfU 

poted to take ip afiiv^ port in fappoi« fS&im it th^:§mt m 
of the other. Toihewari however, ia which wem.Mi 
glige^f though their limited information doet .401 MiMe 
iHtm to pronounce dectfively upon its jufticaAi^iifMfliitl^ 
yet, animated with the love of their coantrj«, th^ lifiQA^ 
^iih a favourable iflue. . . _ : o.-^ r 

Jlf«r&rmr/.— There are in this parifli <3 Wj^ie^of^., j:. jo^i. 
ers,' 4 marons, 2 ihoemakcrs^ 2 kajior% 2 black(ia:ii%b,^ 
ffsiopers, and 2 flaxMlrcflcrs. ' . , „. 

Churchs. — ^Notiii;ithftanding the fmall fize of this pBnfli» 
it is provided with three churches | one beloogiflg to ttie. 
£(bblifiiment, one to the Antiburgher Sccedersi and 004 to 
the EngliOi Epifcopals. Of thefe, the fifibbli&ed. Chjvc^. i& 
\rf ht the worft in point of ftrufture .and . a i CfO gj yn p^a ti Qi| ^ 
Hone of the heritors refide in the pari(b| .^. wf^ g SHftfc i 
lels attention is paid to keep It in a ftate of any decent r^ 
pair. The other two are more in the ftile of ouxljBnL bcijl^« 
ings, and much better fitted up for the accommodalioi^.^fi 4tfr 
hearers. The whole pari{h» howeveri a«6 of thf JBftiWifllBA: 1 
Religioui excepting 24SecedetS| of whoni..iifiiJh4,gfcatii;i>* 
part are women. The Englilh Chapel was etdfte^ 19 ^W* 
pariflii merely from its being the moft c«ti«l fitoatiiD fm 
accommodating a few families in thff ne^g^dKmrbuMb^ 

^ Man/e^ GUbit and Living. -^Th^ mtnfe was l»lilt «fcapi 
ago, and is a fmall* but fubftantid bouict* It is reimrlable * 
for its being the fubfed of a long kw»6iit» in whtdk the 
principal heritor infifted that the Court of Seffion^ ia amaai^ 
ing a fum for the building of a new manfe, could not exceed. 
1000 1. Scotchj by the aft 166 j* This queftion was tried 
^cfore the Houff of Peers i and tbe judgment of the Coivrt 


of SdEoD? w&ereby they had exceeded that fiuoi was af- 
firmed. ■" '■• 

f he gli^ confifts of about 6 acres of rich arable land*^ 
The Bvffig of the cftabliihed clergyman b 61 bdls and p 
JMto i^ ViAual I 17!. Sterlhig; 3 1- capons^ 43 poultry: 
and the tenth of Iint» lamb, and wool. 

M&AMbii2^/r«---The provifion for a fchoolmafter in thii, 
pirifli Is 40 1. Scotch, wkh the fchool feet, add 81. Scotch 
for a^ng as fefiloOKlerk. Even this paltry fum, it would 
feem, is rcloaantly bcftowed. The laft fchoolmafter died 
10 years ago; the fchooUhonfe had been in ruins long be«- 
fb^; and the heritors have never yet found it convenient (o< 
provide ns either with one, "or with the other ; an irrepa^ 
table fob to the riling generation. Some fteps, however^ 
wSl Ibon bii taken, for having this opprobrious grievaqc^. 
eflittil^iB]^ itmcrred. 

^tht.'^^i^^ftiittt are no pooi^s rates el^ablifhed in thb parlih. 
TIfe' ^^y iHiAfaffions in the church, with the intereft of a 
fiMii-fUfli %f mtaey, have hitherto been fulBcient for the. 
fappon of the poor* There are, at prefcnt, 3 only upon the 
roQ, agedy^ifififtt people) and even thefe require but a fmalt 
trM^ in addition to the fruits of their own induftry. The 
average weddy colbCUon is from a s. to 2 s. 6d» Sterling. 

JMeetofL0kurandPravt/!ws.^-''t)it wages of a man^fer- 
▼ast^ are from lol. to J2 1. Sterling a year ^ of a woman-fero 
vaaCt 6om 4L to 5 1. with viduals. Day-labourers receive 
from 15 d. to 18 d. a day in fummer, and about 1 s. in win- 
ter, wlthdttt viQuals. Oat*meaI is here the principal food 
of vtbe people, and generally fells at i s. the peck. Butter 


fells at 9d. per lib. ; cheefe at from 4 s. to 5 s. p^ AoBe^ 

Aoillerdam } beef aad mutton at from 3 d, to 4 d« per VSu 

J{Mi£i!r.— There ar6 two roads which divide the parlOi nea^ 
ly into four equal parts> one of which runs from eaft to vnA^ 
and the other from fouth to ^north. Both 6f theia havt 
been long negledted^ and are at prefeot in a ftate of wretched 
repair. In winter, they are often totally impaflable for car« 
aiages of any kind. There is atfo a branch of road, pre(entl)r 
fomilngy leading along the fouth-weft fide of this psnfli to . 
the new bridge of Ifls, and to the turnpike road from theace 
to Perth, Which i^iU prove a confiderable benefit to the 

Genend O^nwAw.— This parifh is but ill provided ill 
fuel. They carry their coal front Perth, at the diftance 
neaaly of la miles, and pay for them at the rate of 5 s. M 
every 40 ftone weight. Peat-mofs, however, is more gene* 
rally nfcd, which they alfo bring from a confidcrable dif* 
tance ; and, taking into account the time and labour wafted 
in digging, drying, and carrying it home, is ftill more expea- 
£re than coaL There is indeed a fmall quantity of mofs ill 
the parifh, but the liberty of making it into ftiei; is confined 
entirely to the tenants of the proprietor. 

Want of inclofiires, is another difadvantage t^ parifli B^ 
hours under. A fmall part of the parifh only is yet inclofed ) 
and, from the fmall iize of the farms, and the want df fptrit, 
and even ability in the tenants, it is not Tikely that this otjeft 
will be fbon accomplifhed. It is hoped the proprietors wS 
fee their own inteFeft in lending them Tome affiftance. 

To make u;>, however, for thefc difadvantages, we haTC 
an eafy acceis to the means of improving the foil. There is 
great (tore of fhell marl in the neighbouring parifh of Kin* 


rf Letbendy. ^2§ 

lochf at the diftance only of about two miles. This has 
contributed, in a great meafure, to the prefent improved ftate 
of the country. There is alfo marl in the parifh ; but, as it 
lies at fome depth under mofs and water, and would be at« 
.tended with fome difficulty in draining, it has* never beea 
confidered as of much utility. Equally near, in the parifh of 
Caputh, there is an inexhauAibie (lore of lime-ftone, of a 
good quality. There are, at prefent, extenfive preparations 
making for burning it ; and, notwithftanding the djAance 
from coal, it is expelled it can be fold fo low as will enable 
the farmer tp ufe it with advantage. ' 

Long leafes, and moderate rents, are likewife favourable 
drcumfiances in this parifh. The leafes, in general, are (m. 
19 years, and during the life of the holder after the expira- 
tion of that period. Some of them extend the length even 
vf two lives. The rent of the beft land in the parilh does 
not exceed 20 s.- and the greater part is below 15 s. per acre« 
Thus the tenants are in a good meafure independent, and 
enjoy all the necefiarles, and many of the comforts and con* 
veniencies of life. 

Vql.XVII, 3X NUM* 

f^^ Statical AcemUft 


(County of Stirling. — Synod of Glasgow ANit 
Ayb.. — Presbytery of Dumbarton.) 

By Mr Jaiaes Jeffvley, Mitijfier^ 

Name^ Extenif life. 

BALFRON is a word of Gaelic derivation, and is faid 
to fignify *• the Town of Sorrow.** On what account 
the place obtained this name is not certainly known. Th^ 
form of the parilh is nearly an oblong fquare. Its lengthi 
fr&m eaft to wcft» is fomewhat more than 8 miles; and hs 
breadth, from north to fouth, from i to 2 miles. It Is* 
bounded by the pariOies of Drymen, Killearn, Fintry, Gar- 
gunnock, and Kippen. The greater part of the grounds in 
this parifli have the advantage of a fine fouthern expofure^ 
rifing gradually from the water of Endrick. 

Climate^ Soil^ £sV. — The climate is wet, but not unhealthy, 
ieveral of the inhabitants living to a great age ; and there 
are few inftances of epidemical difeafes. An epidemical 
fever, indeed, prevailed in the winter and fpring of 17911 
and carried off, in the village, upwards of 40 grown op 
people. But this mortality may be afcribed, not fo much to 
the unhealthinefs of the climate, as to the intemperance of 
the people at the timci and the damp fiate of many new 


tfBalfrom 53 1 

koaies^ li^iich were occupied as ibon as tliey were covered 
uip and pJaftered, 

The foil is variousi In fomc places it is light and fand^^ 
buty for the moft^parti wet and tiily. 

Agriculture is here in a fiate of infancy. The principal 
corn crop is oats. Barley is raifed but in few places ^ and 
green crops are feldom attempted. Among the difadvan- 
tages that have hitherto retarded agricultural improvements^ 
snay be reckoned the badnefs of the roads» the dillance from 
foreign manure, and efpecially the poverty of the greater 
part of the farmers to whom the land is at prefent let, in 
very fmall portions^ Their reou are from 5 1. to 35 h \ two 
or three of them about ^o\\ and one only up to 100 K 
Sterling. But the difadvantages under which the pari(h has 
hitherto laboured, are now in the way of being removed, or 
fafficiently compenfated, by the extraordinary advantages 
a^flng from fome new manttfa£iuring eftabliihments} and. 
In as far as^their inflnence has hitherto extended, to improve- 
ments in agriculture,, as foil has appeared very fufceptible 
6f melioration. There is abundant reafon, indeed, for fup« 
I pofing, that a fpirit for fuch improvements will not be difficult 
to excite \ for, of late, many fubftantial inclofures have been 
made in different parts of the parifh, and particularly on the 
eftate of Ballindalloch, where, in addition to thefe, there 
have been feveral plantations of wood formed, with an equal 
regard to beauty and utility. 

ManufaBureSf fa'f.— About the beginning of the year 
1789, Robert Dunmore, Efq; of Ballindalloch, introduced 
a colony of cotton weavers into the parifli. For thefe, he, 
at 6rft, built a few houfes, at his own expence, in the neigh« 
bourhood of the church, and let them out at a fmall yearly 
rpit. This branch of manufafture was immediately carri^ 


53* Statijlkal Aec9uru 

on to fuch an extent, that the value of goods iiianiifa£hirci^' 
during the currency of the year 1 792, amounted to the fom 
oi y6f6 i. Sterling. 

In the fpring of the year 1790, the puUic fpirited exer^ 
tions of Mr Dunmore having been already directed to this 
corner, he applied himfelf, with fuccefs, to-procure the erec- 
tion of a cotton mill in the neighbourhood of his new vil- 
lage ; and a happy fituation having been chofen on the banks 
of the water of Endrick, ^he work was carried on, through 
his means, with fuch aftonifliing difpatch, that, in the month 
of June of the fame ytgr, yarn was fpun in it. This branch 
of manufii£hire, in December 1792, gave employment to 
390 people. Of thefe, 120 were men; 90 women 1 i8a 
children, from 6 to 16 years of age. 

The cotton mill, thus ere£ted, fully anfwered At porpo/e 
of extending and improving the village. Mr Dohmore readi* 
ly feued out ground, to the new fettlers, for the fite of a 
houfe and garden, moft commonly to the extent of a <iaarter 
of an acre, and, at firft, upon fuch eafy terms as to ttSbrd 
them ample encouragement ; but here, as in many other 
cafes, well dire Aed liberality proved good policy, tor the 
confequerit profperity of his village, and its manafe£faires» 
foon enabled him to raife the rate of his feu«duty from 2 1, 
to 4). per acre, without retarding the progrefs of building, 
or at all diftrefSng the people. The houfes, in general, are 
fubf^antial. MoA of them are covered with flat^ ^ and fome 
of them, are three (lories high. The village now confifts of 
105 new houfes, in which there are upwards of 430 rooms 
with fire places. 

. For the rapid rife, and increafe of the population of this 
new village, we are partly indebted to a prtntfield and bleach- 
field, which Mr Dunmore, with the fame patriotic views, 
procured to be eftablifhed ujpon the oppofite .banks of th^ 


tfSialfr^ 534 

water of Endrick, and in the adjoining parifh of Killeani ^ 
for, although the neccflary works con^ncftcd with thcfc cfta^ 
blifhments^ be feparated from this parifli by the river^ yet al* 
moft all the people belonging to them have their dwelling'- 
houfes in the village of Balfron, and a coniiderable part of 
the grounds originally intended for carrying on the bleach- 
ing and printing operations^ are on the Balfrx>n fide of the 

Roads. ^-^TiW withm thefe few years, the roads of this pariffa, ' 
during the winter months, were almoft impailible ; but in tlua 
refpeA alfo, we have derived much advantage from the in« 
trodu£tion of our manufaAures, and the fpirited e^^ertions of 
the gentlemen who has fo laudably patronized them. In 
this particular line of improvement, indeed, the other land- 
ed proprietors, not immediately conneAed with the mercan. 
tile or manufaAuring interefts, readily afforded him the moft 
liberal and manly fupport, and thereby materially promoted 
tx)th the particular interefts of the manufaAuring eftablifh- 
ments, and the general good of the country ; in which view 
Peter Spiers, Efq; of Culcreuch, aconfiderable heritor in this 
parifh, ought to be particularly mentioned with honour. In 
confequence of thefe ^eiLertions, a bridge of two arches, at 
Ballindallocb, has been thrown over the Endrick, which^ 
when fiveUedf is a rapid and dangerous river. A turnpike 
road has been made from Glafgow to the villiige of Balfron^ 
and leading from it into the military road between Stirling 
and Dumbarton. Another turnpike road has alfo been made, 
which, paffing through the eaft end of this parilh, leads from 
Kippen to Glafgow. Good crofs roads are begun to be 
formed, and conCderable progrefi has been made in them. 
Arcl]^es have been thrown over all the dreams of water, and 
hollow places ; fo that there is now the certain profpeA of 
having good road^ through every part of the parlfli. 

jP34 Statijfkal Jccouni 

Population f toV. — ^Thc return to Dr Webftcr in 175J1 
amounted to 755 fouls. The population of the pariih has 
been in a flu£tuattng ftate^ in fo far as regards the tillage, 
fince the year 1 790, feldom remaining ftationary for a fiogk 
^eck. In December 1792, there were in the parifh 1381 
fouls. Of t^is number the village contained 98I9 and of 
thefe 930 were new fettters. 

Of the above number, 805 were of the Eftablilhed Churchy 
459 Antiburgher Seceders^ who have had a place of wordup 
in the pariQi about 60 years, 64 Papifts, 18 of the Relief Per* 
fuafion, 17 Cameronians, 9 Burgher Seceders, and 9 t^tbe 
Church ot England. 

There were beiides about 200 people^ including all aget, 
imported to the village at Whitfunday 1 793, when the print-* 
ing and bleaching commenced ; fo that, at that period, there 
were in the village about 1181, and in the parifh 1581 foul?. 

The people employed at the printfield and bleachfield, 
are almoft wholly of the Relief and Burgher Perfuafion ; and^ 
beiides thefe already mentioned as redding in the village m 
December 1 792, there were feveral families of the fame per- 
fuafions who had given a temporary adherence to the EStib* 
lifhed Church i bpt at Whitfunday 1793 being joined, all at 
once, by fo many of their fed, each party immediately fet ap 
a tent for themfelves, and have ever fince been contending^ 
with much animofity, for the honour of making pro(elytes. 
It is notf therefore, eafy to afcertain the prefent ftate of the 
parifli, with refpefl to fe<5laries ; and it is ftiti cnore difficult 
to fay what it will be a few years hence. 

Till very lately, there was no regular record kept of birthsy 
deaths, and marriages. From Whitfunday 1792 to Whitfun^ 
day 1793, there were 6^ birthf^ 46 deaths, and 30 mar- 


of Baljron. 535 

Church and Stipend, Poor. School.^^The manfe and offices 
were bnilt new from the Foundation In 1789, and the church, 
which is neat, and even elegant, in 1 793. The value of the 
ftipend is from 70 L to 80 K Sterling, according to the rife 
or fall of grain, part of i^t btring paid in and barley. The 
glebe confiAs of about 18 acres. The £«irl of Kinnoui is pa- 

The poor have hitherto been well provided for, out of the 
colleAions made at the church, dues of mortcloths, and the 
intered of about 100 1. Sterling of poor's money; but that 
they will continue to be much longer To, out of thefe funds^ 
coniidering the great influx of inhabitants, is very doubtfoL 
There are no vagrant poor in the parifb. 

The fchoolmaftcr's falary is 1 00 K Scotch, out of which he 
pays, annually, 2 L Sterling for a perfon to teach a fchool in 
a diftant part of the p^ridi. BeHdes the parilh dues, whick 
are now pretty coniiderable, the fchoolmafter has fomewhat 
more than an acre of land, originally fued by the feffion for 
his behoof. This piece of ground was lately exchanged for 
an equal quantity, with much advantage to the fchoolmafter, 
by Mr Dun^ore, as it ftood in the way of fome of his im* 
provements. Upon the ground Mr Dunmore gave in cx« 
change, he built, at his own expence, a neat and commodi- 
ous fchool room, with a lodging for the mafier^ of 4 rooms, 
all under one roof, 

Mifceilaneous Ohfervat'tGns. — Peat and turf, of which there 
are great abundance in the parifli^ were, previous to 1790, 
almoft the only fuel ufed \ but, Hnce roads were made, coal 
is chiefly burnt, at leaft by the people in the village. It is 
brought from Campfle or fialdernock, the carriage being up- 
wards of ten miles. Red and white freeftone are found ia 
great plenty. There is ^Ifo lime-ftone. Repeated attempts 


^36 SiaHflical Account 

liave been made to fiad coal/ of which, in the opiDioBof 
gooi judges, there are the moft flattering appearancesj tYut 
liitherto without fuccefs. The price of labotir, of all kiod^ 
is of late advanced more than a third. In manf inftance^ 
it is doubled. In the year 1787 the wages of an ordinacy 
man fervant were from 4 1. to 6 L a*year. In 1794 thej are 
from 8 L to xol. A day labourer, in 1787, could have.bcet 
hired for 7 d. or 8 d. per day ( but in 1794 they require i s. 
or I s. 6 d. or I 8. 8 d. From the vicinity of Glafgow, and 
the eafy accefs to it, the price of provifions is now, in a great 
meafure, regulated by the Glafgow market. There 1% no 
public houfe in the parifli, excepting in the village, where 
there are a tolerably good inn, and two refpeAable public 
houfes. There are, befides, a great many low pubUc hoiiifci, 
which deal only in whHky, and which are prodofHve of the 
worft effcAs^ both to the health and morals of the people^ 


Dumber xxxvitL 


(CotJNtT And St^od op Fife. — ^Prbsbttert of St. 
. Andrews.) 

^y Mr \^ILLIAM P^iRMANf Mini/hr, 

Name, Ssiuution^ isfc. 

ELY, the mddern n^mc, El is or Ehhtt, the old name^ 
is fo called from A Lkie, in Gaelic, <' Out of the fea, 
« Or oat of the wetter/' the town being built fo near the 
feay that it wafhes the walls in feme places. The houfea 
are preftrved with great difficulty by fea dykesj notwfth- 
fiahding which, the fea is yearly makitig great incroach- 
ments. If this derivation is a juft one, and if it was built out 
of the fea, the fea is faft refuming what it gave; 

Ely has a ifiOft pleafant, dry, and healthy fituation. The 
{hare is fandy, and (helving gradually ; is remarkably well 
adapted for fea^bathing j and is, of late, much reforted to for 
that purpofe. It is a mile and a half long, and about a mile 
broad. It is bounded by the parifh of Newborn, on the weft ^ 
bf the parilh of Kilconquhar,- on the north ; the pariih of St 
Monance, On the eaft ; and the fea, on the fouth* It wa^ 
disjoined from the eztenfive pariih of Eiiconquhar about the 
yis2ff 1640* 

* ^ Voii^XVIL 3 Y Population. 


Stdiiftkal JkcBunt 

Pofulatwn.^^Tht number of families in this puriih is 1519 
of fouls 620, which is nearly 4 to each family. The inciiiD* 
bent took an accurate lift of the inhabitants aboot the year' 
1790^ which may be relied on. The pc^nlatton in 1755 
amounted to 642, coniequeatly- there is a decreafe of 22. 

The following is an aSftra£t of Btrthsi BurialSf and Ma»* 
riagesj for 7 years^ from O^ober i. 17839 being the 
time when the zA commenced, granting to his Majefty a 
duty of 3 d. on each of thefe articles^ which has fince been 



r Surutr. iMar. 






































20 4| 



4 • 




























From.Oa. i. 1783 

to Ditto 1784 
From 1784 to 1785 

— 1785 to 1786 
— — 1786 to 1787 

1787 to 1788 

— 1788 to 1789 

1789 to 1790 

Total for 7 years 
Average for each year 

From 1589 the total number of births^ 
Take tiSt the total burials^ 

Rem« 43i the total iocreafe in 7 ]rears ;, w]ud^ 
on an: average> is only one more than 6 to a year. 

Proprietors^ {SJ'r.i—Str John Anftmrher is patron of the 
dittrth, and fole proprietor of the parifh^ one fingle /arm 


twfxfttif lately piirchafed by Captain Chriffie of BaU 
cliriftie. ^ 

/«l^mr/»-^There are 8 fifhermen belonging to this pariih* 
Tbey have houfes, rent free, from Sir John Anftruther, fu* 
perior of this place, on condition of their fupplying the town 
of Jly with fiOi, at leaft three tiroes a week. They are well 
litaated for carrying on the fifheries, and, on the whole, are 
p'Ctty fucceisful. 

Lah^^-n^htre is a beautiful lake, called Kilconquhar Loch, 

bounded by that parifh and Ely^ In it there are plenty of 

pikes and eels. The fifhing, however^ is of qo great value, 

^Sind wili naturally be more fully defcribed in the Statifticat 

Account joLKllconquhar* 

Pi^r.— ^The feffion here maintains all its poor. No beg# { 
gara belong to the parifib. There are about 20 regular pen» 
• fiopers, who receive a fmaii fum monthly, befides otha>8^ 
who get charity occafionaily, as their wants require. The 
funds for their fupport amount to about 50 1. per annum. 

Jacl^ures.^^The whole parilh was inclofod with ditch and 
bedge by Sir John Anitruther. The inclofures are kept in 
great order, and are very flourifbing. The burgh acreS| 
near the towq, anno 1790, let at about 40 s. and the large^ 
iarms at 30 s. per acre, but have fihce rifen. Burgh acres 
now (anno 1795) let at between 50 s. and 60s. the acre; and 
large farms between 40 s. and 50 s. Sir John Anftruther 
lately let a farm, of near 100 acres, at j 1.. per acr6. 

FueL-^Cozl is the only fuel ufcd here. There is an ex- 
celle^it coalwork, belonging to Sir John Anftruther, 3 miles 


^40 Stati/lical Aecotmi 

from this parilh. The price of coab, independent of €Mria|B^ 
in 1790, was 3 s. for 75 ftones, and 4 s. 4 d. for 75 flcmescf 
a better quality, but is bonr 4 s. for 75 ftones of the &ftibftt 
and 5 s. for the other. 

Wages. — ^Men fervants wages, befides maintenance, were 
from 5 1. to 6\.per annum^ and women from i L to 2l/ti)e 
half year. Day labourers got 10 d. and t s. per day, and 
carpenters 2 s. and a s. 6d. Now, (anno 1795,) men fenrants 
are 7 U and 8 1. yearly. Women 30 s. and 2 U and no Li- 
bourers are to be found under i s. 

Harhour, is^c. — ^There is an excellent harbour at Ely. It 
is the deepeft in the Frith of Forth, Bruntiflaod excepted. It 
has remarkably eafy accels, and is perfeftiyfafe. It is the 
refort of more wind-bdund veflels, than any other harbour, 
perhaps, in Scotland. It has alfo been the means of ftviag 
many a fliip, cargo, and feaman, that would otherwiie have 
been driven out of the Frith } many of them being fa poorij 
manned and proviGoned, that they never would have been 
able to regain the coaft. This ufeful harbour, however, is 
going fad to ruin. It were much to be wiflied, that fome 
public fpirited perfon would recommend it to the attention 
of the Chamber of Commerce, or the Convention of Royal 
Burgbs, to obtain fome aid to put it in a better fiate. An 
inconliderable expence, in proportion to the importance and 
utility of the objed, would completely repair it. It may be 
remarked, alfo, that the value of the (hipping brooght in, 
bears but a fmall proportion to that of their cargoes, which 
are often grain and other perifhable commodities, that might 
fuSer by being expofed to a ftorm, even though the fhip were 
to weather it. There are, belonging to this place, ierea 
fquare rigged veiTelsi carrying ioqo or i ioq tonSj all emploj^ 


«d la fcrdgn trad«» and one iloop nfed as a coafter* VdTcb, of 
axcAfidcrable fiae, are built here. There b a manufafiure of 
c£«ck aad bed tikes^ apd alfo of ropes^ by the Meflb Wood. 

^ Eeclefiaftic StaU.'-^ir John Anftruther is fole patron of 
the church of Sly* There are a few Seceders, Independents^ 
and Bereans ; but the great body of the people belong to the 
jSftablilhed Church, The ftipend of Ely is 80 h old ftipend, 
and 30 1. lately given voluntarily by Sir John Anftruther, ii^ 
all 100 L The fchoolmafter's falary is iil. Part of" the 
pari(h lies in the very heart of Kilconquhar parifli| owing 
to this, that at the disjun£tion, the proprietor of Ely wiihed 
fill belonging to that barony to be in the parifh. 

Mifcellantous Oyirvatiom.^^UcBr the town of Ely, is the 
(cave of M'Duff, Thane of Fife, a ftupendous arch» in the 
f^cc oCKincraig rocks, fronting the fea. In this place, Mac* 
^duffbid and defended himfelf, by a for,tification, againft his 
. purtors, when he was flying from M^Beath, to the King^s 
loQt Malcolm, in England. The inhabitants of Earlsferry^ 
(16 called, from Earl M'Duff,) ferried him over to North 
Berwick ; and out of gratitude, when the King's fon was re- 
fiored, he got the town made a Royal Borougl^, which it 
^U is, gnd retains all its privileges, but that of fending a 
member to Parliament, which privilege it loft, owing to its 
being unable to maint^n its member, and its having petition- 
ed to be relieved from the burden. It is in the fame fitua- 
tion with Falkland, Newburgb, and fome other towns ia 
Scotland. Tradition fays, that, among other things, Mac- 
duff obtained this privilege from the King, that, on the ap^ 
plication of a criminal, the town is obliged to ferry him over 
immediately, and dare not ferry over his purfuers, till he is 
|ulf way over the Frith. This^ it is faid^ was claimed and 


54A StaiifticMl AtcmU 

granted m tl&e cife of Cani^ and Doq^ of RiiluTCa, 
A foamlos was opeoed hctt Tome ytttta ago. In it wetc 
found federal bones of a remarkably large fize. Thtj were 
fent to the Mufaeam of the Society of Scottiih Aotiqaarics. 
Real rubies have been got on the fliore, which were grado* 
ally wafhed from the rocks. Some of them were fent to Dr 
Black, Profefibr of Chemifiry in the TJniverfity of Edinborgh. 
To the eail end of the harbour of Ely, and at a fmall 
diftance from it, Wadehaven is fituated ; fo named, it is faid. 
from General Wade, who recommended it to government 
as proper for a harbofir. Others call it Wadd's Haven. 
How it got that name, if the right one, is not known. It is 
very large, and has deep water, in fo much that it would 
contain the largeft Men of Warj drawing from 20 to 2 a; 
feet water* 



(County of Inverness.— Presbytery of Abek« 


J> Mr Thomas Rqss, Minj/ler. 


THE leogtl^ of this pariflii from (buth to nofth| is abomt 
60 miles, and its gr^ateft breadth ^o. It is bounded 
bytheparifhofKilmalie to the weft^ by Fortingal to the 
foath eafti bf Laggan to the eaft, by Glenelg and Eintail to 
the north, and by Bpleikioe to the north eaft. Its appear- 
^cfc is very moch divcrfiiied by ranges of lofty mountaioji 
towards the €Xtreinities» ioteriefled by extenfive glens in dji^ 
fcrcnt dire^ionsy apd rapid rivers^ which all difcharge them^ 
felves into the river Lpchyi the cocainon reiervoir, which 
runs into a branch of the Atlantic at Fort- William. 

Climate. — ^From the vicinity of this pariih to the we(ter« 
ocean, and its bein^ furrounded by very high mpuntainv 
which attraA the clouds, the climate is extremely rainy i^ 
confeqvently, the inhabitants, though in other refp^As 
bes^thy^ are frequently troubled with the rheumatifm. 


;^ Smtiflkal AtcaM 

Ssr/.— Owing to the irregular fbrface, and vaft extent ^ 
this parilhy the foil is extremely variousj but chiefly pTt?iVfff 
of a light fandy naturej and fometimet of a Idack loam. 

Agrkuhure-^AiM made little progrefs in this ctfoitfayt as 
the whole pafiih' is more fuited to grazing^ particulariy (heep- 
^ming ; another caufe that may be affigned for thiS| is, that 
the wetoefs of the climate is an invincible bar to the raifing 
of corn, fu&dent for the fubfiftence of the inhabitants. The 
only crops are barley, oats, and potatoes ^ the laft of which 
is the ftaple ccAdimodity. The number of flieep in this partfh 
amounts to about 60,000, that of black cattle to 1500, and 
the number of horfes may be computed at 500. 

Popuhtion.'^Tht number of inhabitants amoonU to about 
3400, of whom about laoo are Proteftants, and 1200 Homan 
Catholicsr The return to Dr Webfier in 1755, was i^od 
Papifts, and 15^5 Frotefiants, total 25^5. The decMdEe 
confequently is, at leaft, 495 fouls. 

JTages and PrJc^.— -Mafiers of families in this country la- 
bohr under difficulties in regard to fenrants, being obligod t4 
g^e a (hilling per day to the men, and a fixpence to the 
women. The prices of moft of the commodities of life are 
exceedingly extravagant, oat meal in partlcnhr, whicb^ iom^ 
tnunibus annis^ may be rated at 18 s. only 8 ftones to the boti, 
and feed com at the fame price. Owing to the want of a 
public market, the price of beef and mutton cannot be a£> 
ccrtained ) none being nearer than that of Invernefi. 

Manners.~Tlht fame hofpitality which charaAerifed the 
ancient Caledonians, of whom they may bt coni2dered the 
genuine defcendants, continues to be praftifcd. Another 


tf'Kilmanlviai^. '54^ 

qtlallfication which they have derived from tlxcif anccftors, 
and which they poflefs, in a confiderable degree, is cooragci 
Givilizatlon and indu(Vry are making daily progrcfs ; and were 
they fet upon a proper plan, and had due encouragement^ 
they would become as flourifhing as their local (ituation 
itonld permit. Froih the well known charaftcrs of the pro- 
prietors) little doubt can be entertained that this will be the 
cafe. * 

Lafiguage.^^Tht Gsltlic is the language of the natives, 
wiio fpcak it in as great purity as in any part of the High- 
laoods^ Many of them underftand the EngnOi language, 
and fpeak it with accuracy. 

Cii#rr^.«u^Thti pariffa was formerly conneAed With the 
faifiioprick, and afterwards with the fynod of Argyle, and 
prcftytery of L6m, tit! the year 1724, when it was difmem* 
bisfi'ed from faid preibytery, and united to thofe p^iflies 
which now conopofc the prefbytcry of Abertarph, and form 
a part of the (ynod of Glenelg. The minifter's ftipend is a 
tkoAfand pottnds Scotch^ though there is ftill a great deal of 
onexbatifted tiends. There is neither manfe nor glebe ; in 
place of which the heritors allow the prefent incumbent 20 L 
Sterling yearly. There are two miffionaries who are partly 
conneAed' with this parifh^ and two Roman Catholic clergy- 

iStfiotf/fi— There is one parochial fchool here, with a fiilary 
of 15 1. Sterling per annum, and other pcrquifitcs ariiing froni 
baptifms and marriages^ together with fchool-fees. There 
are generally from 20 to 50 fcholars thooghout the year. In 
this parMh are likewife two Society fchools ; but, owing to 

Vol. XVIL 3 Z the 

54^ Statiflical Account 

the difcantiguUy of its feveral diftri£>s, two other Ichoots il 
Iea(^9 of the iiaxit ddcription^ are neceiTary. 

There are no funds for the poor, but the weekly colkc* 

Ataiquities — One of the greateft antiquities of this pariffl 
b the old ruin of the Caitlc of inverlochy. There wais, at 
one time, a thriving borough, of the fame namei adjacent to 
this building, which fome of the old bcotch hidorians call 
^e Emporium of the weft of Scotland \ but of this borough, 
there are now no other veftigcs, than fomc paved works in 
diflPercnt places, which were probaWy the ftrcets of it. The 
caftle has furvivcd the burgh, and now ftands alooe in an- 
cient magnificence, after having feen the river Lochy, that 
formerly filled its ditches, run in another courre, and outlived 
all hi ft cry, and all tradition, of its own builder an3 age. It 
is a quadrangular building, with round towers at the angles, 
meafuring 30 yards every way within the walls. The towtts 
and ramparts are foltdiy built of ftone and lime, 9 fwt thick 
at the bottom, and drawing in to the thicknefs of S feet 
above. As to the height of the towers, they are not fo en- 
tire as to fhow what it was, nor arc they all equally high, 
as it IB probable they were all on a level at top and ftanding 
upon uneven ground ; the wcftcrn tower, which ftood on the 
loweft foundation, is the higheft of them all, and the largcft 
every way. It does not fcem to have been lefs than 50 feet 
when it was all entire ; and the reft of the towers may pro- 
bably have been about 40 feet in height. The rampart be- 
tween them feems, in general, to be about 25^, and from that 
to 30. The inner area feems to have been uncovered ; but 
all the towers were, probably, roofed, by placing fome cover 
above a joifting of beams of wood, for which there arc ftill 
xemaining fome fquarc openings in the walls at the top; as 


^ Kilmanivaig. ^47 

veil as bdow that, for the floors of the firft and fecond 
ftories. Ten or 1 2 yards without the walls, the ditch begins^ 
which furrouBded the caflle from 30 to 40 feet broad^ and 
was filled with water from the river. The whole building, 
iDcluding the towers, covers about 1600 yards; and, within 
the ouiiide of the ditqh, are 7000 fquare yardsj which is 
nearly an acre and a half of Eogiilh cneafure. 

At the hand gate, between the fourh and eaft towers, 
there are fome remains c^f a building for the draw- bridge. 
The gate is 9 feet wide, and arched to the fame height, 
with abutments of 14 feet at each fide, to ftrengthen it 
within. There was alfo another gate, directly oppofite to 
this one, of nearly the iame fize, which probably mtght an- 
fwer as a water gate,' and lead into the river. Befides thefe 
two principal entries, three oi the towers were provided wirh 
{ally ports, one from each tower, well contrived, and clofe 
to the arrow-holes, which alio fianked' and defended them. 
To the loweft ftory of each tower, there is a door, ieadmg 
10 firom the inner area of the cattle, and a winding ftair up 
to the fecond ftory through the heart of the wall. From 
the fecond ftory there is ailb a door on each fide of every 
tower, leading up to the top of the rampart, a curt.iin wail 
between the towers. This wall had a parapet of ftone, 2 
feet thick, outfide and infide, between which the troops 
might ftand in fccurity, and defend thcmfeivcs with miflile 
weapons from the top of it. The whole was evidently de- 
fended by arrows. Every tower is built with loop holes on 
each fide of it, fo contrived as to flank the whole curtain of 
the rampart as far as the next tower. Thefe arrow-holes, 
or perpendicular flits in the walls, are well contrived to al- 
low the archers a free aim, and defend them at the fame 
time from any weapons without. The weftern tower, which 
is ^Iway? called the Cummin^s ioiver, is 4? feet diameter over 


548 Statljiical Account 

walls, and 24 feet withifi them. In the lowcft ftory of t 
wc find 3 arrow holes ; in the fccond ftory 4 » ^i**^ *° ^ 
third ftory 8 or 9, ajl of them fapcd with frcc-ftonc, a^. 
inches wide on the outfidc, and extending to the breadth of 
7 feet within, and 6 feet high. There is a chimnef in the 
middle ftory of each tower, large, and running throi^h the 
wall obliquely, and jlfo a window opening to the inocr court 
of the Duiiding, and a door on each fide, leading to the top 
of the adjoining walls, by means of which all the towers aad 
ramparts could eafily commuDicate with one another. 

The middle ftory of each tower Teems to hare been afloT* 
ted for the principal people to occupy, as it was fumilhed 
with a fpacious window and a chimney ; but the lower fto- 
ries had no light, except what came in by the arrow-holes, 
unlefs the door was open which led into the inner court. 
The whole building, ramparts, and towers, wonhi require 
from 500 to 600 men to defend it, befldcs refervcs ; but the 
number of troops that might occupy it cannot be exa£lly 
known, as the curtains of the ramparts, ouffide and infide, 
arc perforated in many places, probably for beams of wood- 
to form a (bade, under which men or cattle might lodge in 

From the name of the wefiern tower, it is probable that 
this cafile was occupied by the Cummings in the time of 
Edward 1. of England, when they were moft powerful ; and, 
previous to that period, by the Thanes of Lochaber, among 
others by the noted Bancho, predefeffbr of the race af 
Stewart. There is a tradition, that this cafile was once a royftl 
refidence, qnd that the famous league betwixt Charles the 
Great of France, and Achaius King of Scots, had been ftgn* 
ed there, on the part of the Scotch Monarch, about the laft 
years of the 8th century. But this point can be beft deter* 
fnined by t|iofe who have accefs to our ancient records. 


of Kilmanivaig. .549 

"What credit can ve give to the conflant diminution of 
the iize of the human body, which authors are foipeciaaes 
fondly telling us qf, when the arrow embralures in this old 
ruini are not an inch higbcf, than what would render them 
convenient for us, even at this day ? 

Another antiquity, which this pariQi can boaft, is the fa- 
mous parallel roads, one of the mod ftupendous monuments 
of human induftry, and which well dcferve the attention of 
the antiquary. They are to be fccn in the eadern part of 
this parifl)^ on ihe declivities cf deep and lofty mountains^ 
which extend for 7 or 8 miles on each fide of the water of 
Roy» in the dircftion of fouth-weft and florth-ea(l> and the 
opening betwixt which forms the valley that goes under the 
name of GUnroy, There were originally 3. lines of 4heie 
roads on each fide of the glen, e.ich correfponding in height 
to the one oppoiire to it ; the iowermod, however, is ia 
fbme parts effaced » particularly on the fouth fide. They all 
run parallel to each other, and in an horizontal direction, 
humouring the windings of the mountains. Their dimen- 
lions are various ; in general, they are from 60 to 70 feet in 
breadth ; and the diilance betwixt two of them has been 
found to be about 180. Similar roads are likewife to be 
feen in two of the adjacent glens, but not in fuch perfedion. 

As there is nothing left upon record refpcfllng the time 
when, the pcrfons by whom, or the purpofes for which thefc 
ro^ds were conftru<5ted, we c^n only mention the common 
traditions concerning them. One is, that they were made 
by the Kings of Scotland, when the royal r.cfidcnce was in 
the caftle of Inverlochy, which is not above 1 1 miles from 
the neareft of them ; and, what gives an appearance of truth 
to4his tradition, in the opinioir of thofe who maintain it, is, 
that the conftruAion of theCe roads was fo vaft an underta- 
)dng^ as could not be effcAcd by any vaiTal or noblemaoj 


550 Staliftical Aaount 

however powerful. Another tradition, which is that of tbe 
natives, is, that they wrre made by the FiDgaliao^ ; and, uo. 
der the name of Fingalian toads ^» they are dill known 
in this country. Of this the caatives are convinced, brum 
this circumftance, that ieveral of the hilis of this glen 
have retained, from time immemorial, the names of ibme 
of the heroes of Fingal ; fuch as, the hill of Gaul, the 
fon of Morni -, that of Oiarmid, and of Tillan \ and like- 
wife of Bran^ the famous dog of Fingal, &c. Now, the po- 
pular belief cannot be confidered as a direfl proof of any 
opinion, yet we cannot help remarking, that the original 
tradition (which, in this cafe, has been always invariable) 
gives a flrong degree of credibility to the exiflence of fuch 
heroes, and renders it by no means improbable that thefe 
extraordinary roads have been the refult of thctr labours. 
The purpofe which they were defigned to ferve, feema to 
have been (agreeably to the common opinion) to facilitate 
the exerciie of hunting ; for, in ancient times, and indeed 
till within this century, the valley was covered with wood, 
which made it very difficult to purfue the deer, &c. and ren- 
dered certain avenues necefiary for effefting this purpofe ; 
in corrdboration of which opinion, it may be obferved, that 
upon the fides of the roads, there have been found feme 
ftakes fixed in the ground, probably the remains of the pa- 
lings or fences, which in thofe days were made ufe of to con- 
fine the game, till they were driven in upon a field, called 
DoL-na'/ealgy or hunting dale, where, the prefumption is, 
they wa^ kiUed* 

• They are llkewife called the Cafan^ i. e. the roads^ by way 
of eminence. They prove that Sir Alexander Murray of Stan- 
hope's celebrated plan for parallel canals, even in mountainom 
cotmtries, is not impradicable. 


cj Jugbfirgdi>eHi 551 


(County of Perth. — Synod of Pekth and Stir- 
ling. — Presbytery of Dunkeld.) 

JSy Mr WiLLiAU Chalmers^ Mintfter* 

Natne^ Extent ^ (sfc. 

THE parlfli of Aughtcrgaven is iituated in the fhire of ^ 
Perth, within the bounds of the fynod of Perth smd 
Stirling, and the prefbytery of Dunkeld. It is nine miles in ^ 
length from caft to weft, and about five miles in breadth 
from north to fouth. Its general furface meafures above 
1 2,000 acres Scotch j but a great proportion of this con- 
fifts of hills and muirs, or wafte uncultivated ground. A 
fmall neighbouring parifh, called Logiebride, had formerly 
been annexed to Aughtergaven. No accounts can be had of 
the particular time when this annexation took place, from 
tradition, or from the records of prefbytery, in which the 
parifh is always named Oughter, or Aughtergaven *. The 
people refiding in the diftri^ls that belonged to Logiebride 
parifh continue to bury in the churchyard at Logiebride. 
A part of the church is yet Aanding, and is ufed as a bury** 
ing- ground by the family of TuUybelton. It is diftant two 
£ngli(h miles from Aughtergaven church. Above 50 years 


* Aughtergaven is a word of Celtic original. In Gaelic it 
is vrritten Uachdarghamh.thir ; and is faid to fignify the upper 
^art of the winter land. 

$5^ Siaiijlical' AccoUfU 

ago, tbe mhiifters of Aughtcrgaven occaGonally preached at 
Logiebridci bat none of the parifhioners remember of asj 
minifter rcfiding there. Xhe barony of TuUy beagles u in- 
claded in this Staciftical Account. It is within the boonds 
of the parlfh of Methven ; but, from its proximity to A^gh« 
tergaven, the people refiding in it have> for a long time, been 
accuftomed to attend public wor(hip at Aughtergaven choichi 
and to receive church benefita fron^ the minifters of that 

Ecclefiqftical State. — ^The church of Aughtergaven is £ta- 
ated upon the flope of a rifing ground, half an Engliih mtte 
cad ward from the manfe, and adjoining to the public road 
from Perth to Dunkeld. It is; dtftant from Perth 8 miles 
and an half) and 6 miles and an half from Dunkeld. Like 
many old churches, it is of the form of a crofs, and its length 
difproportioned to its breadth. At prcfenc, it is in very bad 

The maiife was built in the year 1745, and has fioce been 
frequently repaired. 

The fiipend, lately augmented, is now, in money, 72 1. 
19 s. 8 d. Sterling, with 5]. for commynion elements, and 
viAual 41 Jx)lls 3 pecks, 2 pecks meal, and 10 bolls bear. 

The glebe coniids of 41 acres of ground. There is another 
glebe at Logiebride of much the fame extent. The King is 

School.'^lht fchoolmafier's falary is 8 1. 6 s. 8 d. Sterling. 
His falary as feffion-clerk is 2 1. Sterling ; and he receives, of 
kirk-dues, about 2 L Sterling yearly. The fchoolfees are, 
per quarter, i s. 6. d. for reading, 2 s. for writing and aritli- 
metic^ and for Latin, 2 s. 6 d. Sterling. 



jf Augbtergathu 555 

JiMf of tit P§or^ and tidr A1M&.— The {loor are not nu^ 
tnerous here, and are remarkably well provided for. The 
foods for their fopport arife froin coUe^oos in the chorcb, 
money for mortclotbsi dues on marriages and baptifmsi the 
reot of two lofts in the chorchf and the rent of a few acres 
of land belonging to the poor* The whole amoonts to about 
26 1. Stetlingper^anttum. Out of this income, there is a diC* 
tribiition made, of fupply to the poor, by the kirk-feffion^ 
every month. There are generally 6 or 8 paupers upon the 
lift, who receive from 5 s. to 10 s* per month, according to 
their neceffities. At an annual meeting of the kirk^feffion^ 
held in Noiember, a few pounds are diftributed in fmall 
portions, for buying clothes, jcoals, or other neceflaries, to 
any poor people of the parifh who chufe to apply for this af^ 
fiftance, and who are known to fland in need of it* 

Pofttlatian.'^Thc pcffent number of perfons in this parifh 
is • - - • • ^ 1784 

The vefom to Dr Webfter, in the year 1755, was 1677 

Increafe fipom the year 1755 to the year 1795 107 

The fdlowiog table (hews the number of births, deaths, 
and marriages, entered in the parifh- rcgifler for 10 years 
preceeding the year 1795* 

years. Birtbs. Ttial. Deaths. Marriages. 



1784. 18 





1785 24 





1786 24 





1787 it 





1788 20 





Vot. XVII. 





lic'al AccoiHd 









1789 14 




. 9 

1790 24 





I79I 30 





1792 16 





J793 18 





1794 ao 






Farmers - - • - 40 

Maiom ' • . • • 10 

Wrights ' - - ' - - 20 

Tin'ncrs , • •• * m /^ 

Coopers n m m m 2 

Millars - - - *" - ' 4 

Weavers - , - • . . 182 

Shoemafccfs - - - 14 

Taylors - - - 10 

Cotton*rpinner8 • • 30 or 40 

Hat-drcflcrs ' - . . 5 

Slaters - - . - • j 

Day-labourers • • ^o 

PiftUlers - - " - 8 

Vintners - • '3 

Baker - • « I 

Butcher -, - - 1 

There are^in this parifh» 914 males^ 87ofemalesj 370 families, 
or houfeholders, including cottar*s widows^ &c. Of thefc 
fiunilies 28a are members of the Eftabltihed Church, 80 are 
Seceders^ 10 are of the Relief Congregation, 


jf Attghtergawn. 555 

J£prf^0r/.--His Grace the Duke of AthoII| the Earl of 
Mansfieldi George Stewart, Efq; of GrandtUlIy, and Robert 
RobercfoD^ Efq; of TuUybeltoo, arc the heritors of this 

The barony of Tullybeagles included, as before mention*. 
ed in this Statiftical Account, belongs to the family of Aldie. 
The valued rent of the parifli is about 5,000 1. Scotch money. 
None of the heritors refide at prefent in the paiifli. 

Improvements in Agricuhure^ C^^.— The progrefs of im- 
provements in agriculturei in the manufaQures, roads, and 
buildings here, has been fo rapid within thefe ten years paft, 
that the country has aflumed qjuite a different afpeft from 
what it had before that time. Though good crqps of oats, 
barley, and flax, were long ago raifed upon particular^ fpots of 
ground) yet, till the year 1784, or 1785, there were not 
above three or four farms upon a regular plan, and very few 
neat farm fteadings in the parifli. The public road from 
Perth to Dunkeld pafied through a large plantation of Scotcb 
firs, and then along a track of bleak, i^et, muir ground, which 
tended to imprefs travellers with a very unfavourable opinion 
cf the adjacent country* 

At prefent,'there are from 20 to 30 regular farms, fron% 
80 to 200 acres each \ and, upon all of them, neat elegant 
houfes and offices covered with (late. The farmers find it 
their intereft to adopt, in the management of their ground^ 
the method recommended by the proprietors, of fummcr fal- 
lowing, and mixing, alternately, white and green crops. Till 
lately, a field of wheat was feldom to be feen here, now^ fe« 
veral of the farmers fow from i^ to 20 bolls of wheat yearly, 
and have excellent crops* To encourage them, in raifing 
this ufeful grain, the Duke of AthoU has erc£led a flour 
mill upon his eftate in this parifli. 


556 Statiflkal Account 

A turnpike roid from Perth to Diinkeld is mom compbl* 
ed. In entering the pari(h| it takes a dtffereat direG^ 
firom the old roads, aind is conduced through the ccdtsTated 
ground. Mo ft of the new built houfcs and farm fteads vcn 
defignedly fituated near it, or within view of it, wUeh :ts not 
only Extremely convenient for the farmers but alfo tends to 
decorate and enliven the appearance of the coontrf. 

In the year 1 7 84, Mr Dempfter of Dunnichcn, Mr Graham 
of FintraVy along with feveral gentlemen in the m^cantile 
line in Perth, feued fome ground at Stanley from the Dako 
of ' Atholl, built a mill for fpinning cotton^ and fooo after be* 
gan to ere£ta village in its neighbourhood,upon a regular pltn^ 
for accommodating the people to be employed in this mano* 
factory. At that time, only a few families dwelt near Stan- 
ley ; and, except the land within the ioclofares around Stan^ 
ley Houfe *, mod part of It, thereabout, was almoft in a ftate 
of nature. His Grace the Duke of Athbll took utider his 
own management 250 acres of this land, inclofed ff^ boilt 
upon it an elegant farm ftead ; and, within the coorfi: of a 
few years, improved it fo highly, that not long ago, thb farna 
was let at the rate of 1 1. 5 s. per acre. 

Near an hundred families now refide in the village at 
Stanley. Above 350 perfons are employed about the cotton 
mill, — of this number ^00 are women or children under 
16 years of age. T^t boyis and girls, though confined at 
• work In the mill for many hours of the day, and, at times^ 
during thp night, are, in general, very healthy. 


* Stanley Houfe is beautifully fitBated upon the bashs of 
the river Tay, in the eaftem part of this pariih. It was built 
()y the late Lord Nairn* The family of Nairn had another 
elegant houfe near Loak, the ruins of which are yet to be feen. 
Their place of ifiterment is in the fouthiik of AughteigaTea 

. MifiufttmuMU O^^rviatfim/*— -There Is fiill ample too-xi for 
farther improvements in this parifli* Large traAs of ground^ 
where the foil is tolerably good, remain unimproved* The 
toads leading acrofs the couotrfj from the public roads, art 
ezceffively bad, and| in winter, almoft impaifible. Ditches 
for draining the low wet hmds, hedges, hedge-rows of trees^ 
and clumps of planting, for afibrding flielttr, are much want« 

Many of the tenants, who have only foiall poflcffions, ttt 
yet poorly accommodated as to lodging. This is partly their 
own fault J for, they certvoly might, with a good deal of 
trouble, but without much expence^ render their little habii* 
tations much more comfortable than they generally are; 
Numbers of them live together in fmall villages, in f moaky 
damp houfes, built of turf and ftone,and thatched with draw 
or heath* The difeafes moft prevalent among them are 
rheumatifm, deaffaeis, and epidemic fevers* 

There are feveral mofles in the parifh. From thefe the 
people are plentifully fupplied with fuel. Of late, moft of 
the farmers, inftead of peat and turf, ufe coals, which they 
b^ing from Perth, and fometimes from the coal pits near 
Kioro& They find it more profitable to employ their fer. 
vants and horfes in £UIowing and improving their land, than 
in. digging and driving peats during the fummer* 

Lime was firft applied to the ground as a manure here 
about 30 years ago % but it was long after that time before it 
came to be generally ufed by the tenants. 

Marl has been found in dififerent places of the parifh. A 
confiderable quantity of it was lately, dug out of a fmall 
meadow upon the Duke of Atholt's eftate, and fold at a very 
moderate price. One of Lord Mansfield's tenants, who, by 
his activity and induftry, has greatly forwarded fome of the 
improvemepu here^ ea(tra£tedy at different timcs^ fome hun- 



]fS$ StatyHcal Aecmtt 


dred boUs of excellent marl from an estenfive meadow ^ 
on his bxm. 

A firatum of marl was alfo difcovered, not long ago, in a 
hollow piece ofgroundi upon Mr Stewart of Grandtull/s 
eftatt, but it is baried under a great depth of mofs, 

Mr Robertfon of Tullybelton had the merit of introducing 
into thb parifh the new method of farming by fuounlKr &l- 
lowing, by a regular rotation t>f white and green crops, and , 
Towing grafs feeds. 

Except one or two Dmidical circles of large fioncs ftand« 
ing on end, fimilar to thofe that are to be feen in maay 
other parts of Scotland| there are no antiquities here worth, 



if Mocbrunu 'fi% 



(County and Peesbytbrt of Wigton. — ^Stnod of 

By the Rev. John Steyen. . 

Name^ Extent ^ isfe. 

CONCERNING the derivation of the name of this pa« 
r](h| no certain information has been obtained. It is 
fitoated in the county and prefhytery of Wigton, and fynod 
of Galloway. Its greateft length, from eaft to weft, being 
about ID miles, and its greateft breadth between 4 and ^ 
miles. It is bounded on the fouth by the Bay of Luce, oa 
the weft by the pariih of Old Luce, on the north by thofc 
of Kirkowan and Kirkinner, and the eaft by Glaflerton. 

Surface^ Soil^ and Climate.^^The general appearance of the 
furface cannot be denominated either level or mountainous ; 
it is partly both. The flats, however, are not extenfive, nor 
are the hills of great elevation ; but, being intermixed with 
each other, at moderate diftances, they exhibit a variety of 
proljpeA not unpleafing to the traveller, nor unprofitable to 
^he owner. From the eaftern boundary, along the Bay of 
Luce, for feveral miles, the foil, with a few exceptions, is ex- 
cellent, being moftly of a fine light, and in fome places, a 
firoog deep loam. Approaching towards the centre of the 


^66 Sw^iiol Atmnt 

psrifiii it becomes gradnalty more tUn and itony^ while f 
large extent, on the eaft and weft fides, moftly confiiliag ^ 
rocky eminences, or mofly fwampsand lakes, exhibiu a bleafc 
and barren profpeA, and is chiefly uf^d for pafture. Then 
are, however, fcatttred up and down in this bleak region, 
fome fmall pieces of good dry arable land. Owing, perhaps, 
to the general drynefs of the foil, the opennefs of the cooa- 
try, and its fine expofure to the fea air, the climate is re* 
markably healthful. Fevers, or other violent (Ufeafes, are 
not frequent, and are feldooi mortal. The fad ravage oc- 
cafioned by the fmall pox is now much abated, by the pr&. 
vailing praAice of innpculation. The prejudices entertained 
by vulgar minds againft this ialntary expedieot, chough not 
totally extirpated, are gradually yielding to the advice and 
example of the better informed. 

Many of the inhabitants attain to old age, in the «DJ<^« 
ment of good health and vigour. A woman died lately, who 
had completed her 105th year 1 and, excepting a little dol* 
nefs of hearing, retained the ufe of her (ei^es aad £u3ildes 
unimpaired to the laft. 

Sea Caqfi.'-^A. flat fmooth gravel beach, moftly about 50 
yards wide, runs along from the eaftern, till within a mile of 
the weftern extremity of the pari(h, where it is intercepted 
by a flcep rocky hill projecting into the fea, and formbg a 
bold inacceflible fliore. On this beach, the road which opens 
the communication between what are called the Makers and 
Reins of Galloway, which formerly wualmoft tmpaffible far 
carriages, has^ of late, been completely repaired, and carried 
along the brink of the forefaid hill, dofe by the fea, in a dW 
region now wonderfully level indeed ; for, to effeftoatethia, 
fuch deep caves were to fill up, and fuch immenfc rocks to 


of Mochrum* 561 

remove, asy not many, years ago, would have been thought 
utterly impoflible. 

Parallel to the beach, the land, rifing fuddenly, forms a 
fteep bank oir precipice, which renders the accefs from the 

ihore into the country^ in many places, rather difficult. 

Though there are various little bays, or creeks, where ftnall 
boau can land, there is only one place called PortwiUiam 
' that deferves the name of a harbour. 

This port, though but fmall, is commodious and fafe, be« 
ing well iheltered by the land on the eaft, north, and wefl: 
fides ; and if a ftrong wall or rampart, which has ibme time 
fince been begun to defend the fbuth, was completed, it 
would afford afecure harbour to a number of veflels, of a( 
leaft 200 tons burden. 

Few things, it is believed^ would be more advantageous to 
Mochrum, than the reparation of this pprt, becaufe, being 
the only one convenient for, or belonging to the pariOi, at ic 
all exports and imports muft be made. A little to the ea(l<« 
ward of this, indeed, there is a fmall natural -bafon, called 
the Rue of Doury ; but here the accefs is difficult, the water 
iUallow, and the anchorage iofecure, except in particular 
winds. At Portwiiliam flands a neat fmall village of the 
fame name, which was founded by Sir William Maxwell of 
Moorieth, about 20 years agp, in honour of whom it \% 
named. It conGfts .moftly of one row of low hpufes, well 
built, covered with date, and fronting to the fea. 

The inhabitants of every defcription are about 2 10. In 
1788 a fmall barrack-houfe was eredled here for the accom- 
modation of ^he military, and cuilom-hopie officers occa- 
fionally fent to prevent the landing of fmuggled goods. 
This meafure feems to have been* attended with complete 
fucceis, as neither box, anker, nor bale, though not unfre- 
i^uent before, are now to be feen. The Bay of Luce every 

Vol. XVII. 4 B where. 

562 Siaiijlical Account 

whcre^ bat cfpecially near PortwiUlami abounds with variet| 
of excellent &{h^ as falmon» herring, mackerel, cod^ cyth, 
whiting, and others. Very few of the two firft, but con- 

« , fiderable quantities of all the reft are fomctimes caught ; and 
there is every reafon to believe, that if this fifliing was pnr- 
fued with more induftry and ikill, it would abundantly re- 
ward the undertaking. To this, however, it muft be allow- 
ed, that the general fcarcity and high price of fait, is a very 
great difcouragement. At prefent, the fiOiermen never at- 
tempt (what their circumftances indeed cannot aSbrd) to cure, 

. or fall the fifli, excepting a few ibr the ufe of their own fa- 
milies. The reft are fold as they are caught, at a ihiUmg the 
ilone« The price of fait is commonly i s. 6 d. a ftone, and 
often not to be had at alU In the courfe of every 4 or 5 
years, the kelp ihore here, as it is called, is let by Sir William 
Maxwell the proprietor of it, for about 100 pounds ; when 
a proportionable quantity of that article is'manufadured, car* 
rled to the Eoglilh market, and ufually fold at 5 L a ton. 

Population.'-^ThtTC is, perhaps, no country parifh in the 
coonty that has increafed fo much id population as Mochrum 
for thefe laft 20 years. The inhabitants, who now ainoaot 
to 1400, it is certain, did not exceed half the number 
previous to that period. This increafe has been almoft en- 
tirely efTefted on Sir William Maxwell's eftate, who, carry- 
ing on extcnAve plans of improvement upon the lands which 
he held in his own natural poflelBon, had occaCon to^an- 
ploy a number of additional labourers, and theie happening 
to confift moflly of young, ftout, newly married Irilhmen, this 
prolific race foon contributed largely to the human ftock. 

Of the lands which he had occafion to let^ the worthy pro* 
prietor, too, very judicioufly divided feveral large farms into 
a number of fmall ones^ and thereby put it in the power of 


gf Mochrum. 5^3 

• » 
mtny induftrious peribns to become bnnersi by obtaining 
pofleffions adapted to their circumftances. 

Nor can it be denied, that the illicit trade, for which this 
place was, till of late, fo noted, however reprehenfible in it- 
felf, and generally^hurtful, has contributed confiderablj, both 
to the increafe of population^ and the improvement of agri- 
culture here. 

The ^principal conduAors of that bufinefs being chiefly 
men who had been bred to farming, in fome of the beft 
cultivated parts of Ayrihire, were not ill qualified to give 
vfefol lefibns on that fubjeft to the natives of. Mochrum. 
On their fcttlement here, • having great command of men^ 
houfes, and money, the lands which they took in leafe they 
improved with a degree of rapidity, and of fuccefs, unknown 
before in this part of the country. 

To fee, in the courfe of two or three years, a number of 
excellent farm houfes and offices ' ereAed, where only a. few 
Qiiferable huu ftood before, thefe fields, which refembled a 
healthy common neatly indofed, fubdivided, and covered 
with luxuriant crops of grown clover and rye-grafs^ was a 
fight not only new and ftrange to the fiumers of Mochrum^ 
but alfo to thofe of Galloway in general Every perfon 
talked of, and admired the great and fudden improvements of 
the Clone Company % for fo were the fmugglers denomi- 

The good eficAs of fuch an example in the parifh were • 
foon apparent. Raifed, by a fenfe of fliame, for paft igno« 
ranee and negled, and encouraged by the profpe^l of future 
gain, almoft every farmer, who had either money, or length 
of leafe, began to do fomething towards meliorating his poC- 

Here, it may not be deemed impertinent to remark, that 
in this, as in moft other, di(lri£U of Galloway, the great bars 


^6^4 Stdtijlical Accdunt 

to further improvement would fccm to be, the (hcrt leafei 
and large farms. 

Very few proprietors let their lands for more tbao 19 
years, and thefc frequently in quantities of from 500 to looo 
Scotch acres, without fence or culture. 

With fuch a leafc, it is pretty evident, that a poor farmer 
can do little to purpofc, and that a rich one will not. The 
' farmer, in vain, attempts to accomplifti, perhaps with a hun- 
. drcd pounds or two, what would require as many thoufands, 
and the latter foon becomes tired of laying out his mone^, 
where both principal and intereft fliall fo loon be lo/l, aud 
prudently contents himfelf with fuch flight and temporary 
meliorations as may bed correfpond to the {hoi:t'''(ne which 
he is to enjoy them. Were the lands, and particularljr thofe 
that are unimproved, divided into 80 or 100 acres, mpre or 
Icfs, according to the circumQances and fpirit of the farmer, 
and let for 25 or 30 years, there is reafoo to believe, that a 
great and happy change would foon be wrought on the face of 
this country. . 

Sir William Maxwell, indeed, as already obfervcd, has let 
a part of his large cftate in fmall pieces, and the Earl of 
Gallowajr, who is alfo a proprietor here„is, of late, in ufe of 
granting Icafes for 21 years, and the tenant's lifetime. It 
would, therefore, only be ncceflary to unite the plans of the 
knight and the peer : Like two equal fcftions of the fame 
fubjeA, they would form an efficient and harmonious 
whole. . ^ 

• That leafes, during life, will be produftivc of better efiefh 


than any ordinary determined fpace of time, is highly pro- 
bable, when it is coniidered how naturally, and how fond- 
ly, almoft every pcrfon indulges the hope of attaining to old 
* age. • . ' 


rfMochrumi s^$ ' 

Tbe fimple undefigning peafant put thus in poflefCotiy fitr 
not <3own to Audy tables of calculation, on the probabilities 
of life, the fecurity or thd danger that arc fuppofcd to attach 
to its fucceffive periods, but felicitates himfelf with his own 
adage, which he underftands far better ; that while a " fct 
day foon comes," he fhall remain iinaflTeAed by any fuch 
events, and continue to enjoy, yndifturbcd, the fruits of his 
labours to the end of a long life. 

Manures and Tillage. — ^The arable and pafture lands of the 
parifh, it is ptefumed, may be nearly of equal extent j and 
there is not much natural meadow ground. The lands are 
let from lo s. to 30 s^ an acre, and no balliework or fervices 
are demanded. For many years paft, confiderable quantities 
of fine day-marl have been dug in Sir William Maxwell's 
lands, 50 iingle horfe cart-loads of which being laid on the 
acre, produced abundant crops o£ grain and grafs. This va* 
luable treafure appears now to be nearly exhaufled, or is be* 
come fo deep and difficult to work as to exceed the expencei 
of lime. 

All the lime ufed here, which may be about 12,000' 
Carlifle buihels annually, is imported burnt from Whithaven, 
at IS. 2d* or I s* 3 d. a bufhel, of which 45, 50, 6o» or 
more are put on the acre, according to the ability of the far- 
mer, or th^ quality of the foil. Shell fand x$ alfo brought 
hither, in fniall vefiels, from the ferry town of Cree, at 2 s. 
6 d. a ton, and of thefe 20 are ufually given t6 an acre, but 
this is only ufed upoA lands fituated near the fhore, its great 
weight rendering it too expenfivc to be carried fir into the 
country. After the land has received oiic or other of thefe 
manures, or rather the ftimulahts, it is commonly plowed 
and fown with oats for 2 years fucceilively, at the rate of 7 
•r 8 Winchcftcr bnlhels to the acre, and 5 or 6 feeds arc the 


]g66 Statijical Acct^nt 

ttfusd increafe. The 3d year, every good £mner allows to 
each acre about 50 cart loads of dung, or fea* weedy fows on 
it 4 or 5 bufliek of bear, with 2 of rye-gra&» and 1 2 or 14 
lbs. of red and white clover. 

The ordinary produce of bear, upon land fo treated, is firom 
10 to 14 feeds. The 4th year concludes the procels with a 
hay crop, the acre comoionly yielding between aoo and 300 
Hones. The land is then turned into paftnre, for 6 years at 
leaft ; and, when opened again, is generally dunged on the 
firft plowing, and the fame order of cropping obfervcd as be- 
fore. The oats, when properly cleaned, weigh about 38 lbs. 
and the bear 48 lbs. a bufheU 

Of the former, Mochrum annually exports about 6,000, 
and of the latter 10,800 buihels-^The oats at i s. lod. and 
the bear at a s. 9 d. 

This grain is chiefly carried to the markets of Liverpool 
add Whithaven, and fometlmes a little of it b taken to 
Greeneck^ Some two-rowed barley and wheat are raifed ; 
but of thefe the c^uantities are fo fmall, as fcarcely to deferve 
notice. It is a common obfervation here, that Galloway is 
not a wheat country^ which is certainly true ; but owing, 
perhaps, more to this than any other cauf^, that it is very 
little attended to, or ibwn. 

The harveft ufually begins about the middle of Ai^uft, 
and is finifhed about the end of September. 

Fallowing the foil is too feldom pra£kifed,. an3 turnips aie 
fo rare a fight, that no fooner do they make their appearance 
in a field, than the neighbouring boys fetupoft them, like 
apples in an orchard,' and eat or carry them away. 

Servanti^wages.'-^Tht ordinary wages given to a man fer- 
vant are ^om 4 1. to 5 L in the half year, the term for which • 
they are all engaged, and to a woman fervant from 3* s. to 

tf Mochrum* ^ 5^7 

a 1. for the fame period. Every confiderablc fcrmcr keepi 
alfo at leaft one cottar or yearly mv »«* his family, to 
whom he gives a houfe and yard, meal and potatoes, or other 
emoluments, to the amount of isUor 20 1. Of thu laft 
defcription, the greater part are Irilhmen, efcaped from their 
country and their loom, and are commonly good hands with 
a Tpadc or flail, but not dexterous in the management of 
' horfes at the cart, or the plough! 

The horfes, of which there are about 280 in the parilh, 
are moftly all of the dhmght kind, or are ufed for that pnr- 
pofe, and are partly bred here, and partly imported from 
Ireland. About 15 and 16 hands b their iifual height, and 
as many pounds their price. Unlcfs in very ftiflf, or uncul- 
tivated lands, fcldom more than two are put to a plough, 
and never more than one to a cart. The ufe of tnuert, as 
they are called, flill fo prevalent in many parts of Galloway, 
is totally exploded in Mochrum, becaufe,it is believed, that 
two horfes, put each to a cart, will do at leaft one third more 
work, and with greater eafe, than when yoked together in 
one. It is worthy of notice, that ao years ago, there was 
only one cart m the pariDi belonging to a tenant, whereas 
there arc now 170 of that defcription. 

The Scotch plough, improved, or the chain one, arc 
chiefly ufed. The latter is preferred where the land U not 
ftony, being eafier drawn. The ploughman always drives 
the horfes for himfelf, when not more than two, and fome- 
times even three, when yoked abreaft. The farmers begin 
to plow in November, and finifh by. the end of February, 
when the feeds are fown, which are commonly aU in the 
ground in the courfc of five weeks after, if the fcafon has 

been favourable. <• j r 

The horfes are generally fed with ftraw, and two feeds of 

oats a-day, when they plow; and with rye-grafs, and three 

feeds, when they harrow the ground. 

' Black 

^68 Statifiical Aumnt 

Bldck Cj///f.— The black cattle arc not large, but vety 
handfome, as thofe bred in Galloway in general arc. The 
whole number in the parx(h may be about 1500. Every 
farmer rears as many as' he can, and no more thinks of fat- 
ting and killing a calf, than would an ancient inhabitant of 
Egypt. ' 

The cattle are ufually fold, at two years of age, for 5 U 
a-head, to graziers or jobbers, and are modly all, fooner or 
later, driven to the Englifli markets. 

As the chief quality regarded in a cow b to be a good 
breeder, fo no great attention is paid to milk, or manofiic* 
turing of it into butter and cheefe \ yet of thefe articles 
enough are made for the ufe of thie inhabitants. 

Some of the farmers, however, from a laudable deHre of 
improving in this refpeft, have more than once inlroducecjL 
here the famous cows of Kyle. But, whether it was owing 
to a difference of pafture, of hard feeding, or of both, thefe 
were foon found to milk no better than the native breed ^ 
and, being left efteemed in other refpeAs, efpecialiy on ac« 
cr.ant of their being horned, very few of them are now to 
be fcen. When the cows get old, they arc fold lean for be- 
tween 3 I. and 4 1, except what are retained for the ufe of 
the parifhioners \ and thefe, when fatted, commonly weigh 
from 25 to 30 ftones. 

SA///.— This parirti has long been famous for excellent 
wool, on account of its ftill retaining fome of the ancient 
breed 6f the Galloway (heep. Of thefe fliccp, the moft dif- 
traguifliing marks are, orange coloured face and legs, fliort 
thick wool, and very fniall fize. When at full growth, and 
tolerably fat, the wedder would not exceed 30, nor the ewe 
27 lib.; and it would require 18 or 20 of their fleeces to 
make a done of 26^ lib. 


gT Mochrum. 5^5 

Very feir, hoi^cver, of this truly primitive breed, it is fup- 
jpofed, now remain ; they have been either picked onr,- aftd 
ibid' off in quantities to thofe whb were purfntng impfoire- 
ments in wool, or contaminated with the various other Infids 
of fheep in the neighbourhood. 

But, though thus evidentfy degenerating, the Mocln*nih 
wool (quantity and quality) is ftill efieemed the befl: in the 
cottnty, and is generally fold from i2s,